neuro test 2

1 / 179
Click the card to flip 👆
Terms in this set (179)
motorneurons that innervate glands, smooth & cardiac muscle, ensure optimal body activities, and operate *subconsciously*effectors efferent pathways effectswhat three ways do ANS and SNS differSNSthe effectors in ___ are skeletal musclesANSthe effectors in ___ are glands, smooth & cardiac muscleSNSthe efferent pathway in ___ is *single* long, heavily myelinated axon; no gangliaANSthe efferent pathway in ___ has *two-neuron* chains; synapse at gangliapreganglionicin the ANS efferent pathway, what neuron is lightly myelinatedpost ganglionicin the ANS efferent pathway, what neuron is unmyelinatedadrenal medullawhat ANS efferent pathway differs from the rest meaning instead of two neuron chains it has a single neuronexcitatoryin the somatic nervous system, AcH is released by all somatic motor neurons and the effect is *always* ____stimulatoryin ANS, preganglionic fibers release AcH but the effect is *always* ____truetrue or false in the ANS, postganglionic fibers release NE or AcH and the effect may be inhibitory or stimulatoryneurotransmitter receptor type on effectoreffect on target organ depends on ???sympatheticwhat division accomodates stressful situtionsparasympatheticwhat division conserves body energydual innervationsympathetic and parasympathetic division are counterbalanced via __ __sympathetic-fight or flight -e activities (exercise, emergency, excitement, embarrassment) -heart rate and breathing *increases* -blood flow to visceral organs reduced and shifted to skeletal muscles -skin is cold and sweaty -liver mobilizes glycogen stores -pupils *dialated*parasympatheticin control at rest -d activites (digestion, defecation, diuresis) -bp, hr, and respiration are low -skin is warm -pupils *constricted* -gastrointestinal tract activity *high*origin, length, locationsympathetic and parasympathetic chains differ by fiber __, ___, and ganglia ___sympatheticin chain along the spinal cordparasympathetictwo types of terminal ganglia 1) collateral: *near* effector organ 2)intramural: *within* effector organ>50more than ___ NT have been identified by the ANS primarily uses Ach & NE -other NT used by ANS: nitric oxide, fatty acids, peptides, monaminescholinergicwhat fibers release AChadrenergicwhat fibers release NEtruetrue or false all parasympathetic target tissues have muscarinic receptorsnicotinic muscariniccholinergic receptors -what are the two types of AcH receptorsnicotinicwhat receptors are found on all motor end plates, all post-ganglionic neurons, and cells of adrenal medullastimulatorythe effect of ach on nicotinic receptors is always ___muscarinicreceptors found on all effectors innervated by postganglionic cholinergic fiberstruetrue or false the effect of Ach binding to muscarinic receptor depends on the target organadrenergicreceptors that bind EPI and NE found only on sympathetic effectorsalpha betawhat are the two types of adrenergic receptorsalpha*effect of NE* what adrenergic receptor is generally stimulatory ex: blood vessels costrictbeta*effect on NE* what adrenergic receptors are generally inhibitory ex:bronchioles and blood vessels dialateheartwhat is an exception of NE binding to beta receptor making it stimulatoryatropineblocks parasympathetic effects by blocking muscarinic Ach receptor ex:prevent salivations prior to dental surgery Ex: increases heart rateantagonistinhibiting, blocking somethingagonistenhance or mimic the effectbeta blockersblocks beta 1 receptors, thus serves as sympathetic antagonistbeta blockershelps w stage fright, helps calm HR, can help w social anxiety *reduces HR and BP*truetrue or false too much beta blocker can make you seem like you're drunk and can interfere with other medicationsTCAantidepressant -prolong activity of NTSSRIantidepressant -increase NT concentration in synapseMAOiantidepressant -inhibit deactivation of NTenteric nervous systemcontrols activities of digestive system -can work independently or with CNS -stimulated by stretching of digestive tract and chemical composition of tract contentsplasticityability of the brain to change ability of the neuronal system to alter function in response to changes in input both physiologically and pathophysiologicallyneuroplasticitythe lifelong ability of the brain to reorganize as a result of experiencetruetrue or false neural plasticity and behavior modeling or reshaping is unclearchangesneural plasticity may result in behavioral ___nodoes *all* behavioral change involve neuroplasticity?cerebral injuryneural plasticity play a substantial role in centrally remodeling human function after what type of injuryuse it or lose itif a neural substrate is not biologically active, its function can degrade warm up timeuse it and improve itincreased biological activity, future functioning is enhanced -skilled training/target practice -not merely use function -use with increased competency, efficiency/accuracyuse it or lose itfailure to drive certain functions can lead to lossuse it and improve ittraining of certain brain functions can lead to improvementspecificchanges may occur only in the neural substrate involved in the particular behavior being treated activities need to be specificspecificthe nature of the training experience dictates the nature of plasticityrepetition mattersto make change in neural substrates -extensive practice -prolonged practice -consistent practice to maintain function -variable practicerepetition mattersinduction of plasticity requires sufficient repetitionintensity matterstraining must be continuous over long periods to induce neural change in animals more intense treatment in short period of time is keyintensity mattersinduction of plasticity requires sufficient training intensitytime mattersdifferent forms of plasticity occur at different times of trainingtime matterslonger and continuous training may maximize neural changessalience mattersthe training experience must be important to induce plasticitysalience mattersneural plasticity is best induces when: purposeful/meaningful simply repetitive movement and strength training likely do not enhance skilled movementage mattersyounger nervous systems are more responsive and older brains may need more repetitionsage matterstraining induced plasticity occurs more readily in younger peopletransferenceplasticity in response to one training experience can enhance the acquisition of similar behaviors (driving, therapy room to home)interferenceplasticity in response to one experience can interfere with acquisition of other behaviorsinterferencethe ability of plasticity within a given neural circuitry to impede the induction of new, or expression of existing plasticity within the same circuitry eg. use of unimpaired limb may impede recovery of impaired limbdrugs, exercise, nutrition, screen time, suicide smoking, world events, alcohol, sexlist the top health concerns and health risk behaviors0-10 monthsstage of brain development -neurons and connections growingbirth to 6 yrsstage of brain development -development of voluntary movement, reasoning, perception, frontal lobes active in development of emotions, attachments, planning, working memory, and perception -a sense of self is developing and life experiences shape the emotional well being -by age 6, the brain is 95% its adult weight and peak energy consumption7-22 yrsstage of development -the neural connections or grey matter is still pruning, wiring or brain still in progress -the fatty tissues surrounding neuron or white matter increase and assist with speeding up electrical impulses and stabilize connections -the prefrontal cortex is the *last* to mature and it involves the control of impulses and decision making23-65 yrsstage of brain development -finall the brain reaches its peak power around age 22 and lasts 5 mores years -afterwards, its a downhill patter. Last to mature and the first to go are the brain functionality of executive control occurring in the prefrontal and temporal cortices -memory for recalling episodes start to decline, processing speed slows and working memory is storing less informationolder than 65stage of brain development -brain cells are lost in the critical areas such as the hippocampus responsible for processing memories11onset of puberty is at what age25-35what is the fully functional age2 decades of adolsenceonset of puberty age 11 + fully functional age 25-35= 2 decades of adolescenceexpend the least amount of effort possible seek pleasure avoid painwhat are the primitive brain's function (this drives our actions)modern brainthe primitive brain identifies the rule and trains the _____ (prefrontal cortex) to respondexercise, nutrition, naturewhat are 3 areas in which we can improve mental healthexercisethe brain is a survival organ and ___ boosts brain powerbraindesigned to solve problems related to surviving an unstable outdoor environment and to do so in nearly constant motiontruetrue or false there is no greater anti-brain environment than the classroom and cubicleexerciseincreases neurons creation, survival, and resistance to damage and stressexercisewhat positively affects executive function, spatial tasks, reaction times, and quantitative skillsbiophilia effectcoined by social psychologist erich fromm -the passionate love of life and of all that is alive; it is the wish to further growth, whether in a person, a plan, and idea or social groupwilsonwho distilled the idea of biophilia effect more precisely as residing in the natural world, identifying "the innately emotional affiliation of human beings to other living organisms" as an evolutionary adaption aiding not only survival but broader human fulfilmentcortisolleisurely forest walk (in japanase studies) lowered what hormone levels by 12% and lowered BPjapanwhat country has the 3rd highest suicide ratesshinrin yokuforest bathing or going out and exposing yourself to nature and taking in all that it provides is translated as what in Japan48japan has how many official forest therapy trailstruetrue or false -food for thought: nutrition impacts cognition and emotionsurvival skillswhat is learned by connecting neurons through life experiencesdopaminethe *reward* chemical -a rewarding NT/seeking NT -the great feeling you get when you succeed at meeting your needs -can also be negativestrivingmore anticipation than actual happiness = ___ emotiondigital dopaminea type of dopamine -technology is not a drug, but it can lead to: anxiety, dependence, shortened attention spans, decreased productivity, social disconnect, distracted drivingdopaminemotivation, working memory, mental clarity & focus, energy & appetiteoxytocin-the love hormone -a powerful hormone and NT -often called the "love hormone" or cuddle chemicaloxytocinit plays a key role in the emotional bond between a mother and child and men and women are in love -reduces stress & anxiety, improves mood, reduces the release of cortisol, elevates pain threshold, reduces withdrawal symptoms, increases empathyoxytocinsocial bond , interaction, emotional connection, stress and anxiety, empathy, cortisolseratoninthe mood stabilizer -flows when you feel important -without the mainitenance of ___, its difficult to pay attention, form new memories, and learnseratonin____ levels are linked to the quality of your sleep, diet, and fitness healthy ____ levels = better learning and memoryseratoninimpulse control, pleasure learning & memory, relaxation, satiety & digestionendorphinsthe painkiller -brief euphoria that masks physical pain -enhance immune system -postpone aging -lower blood pressure -modulate appetitetruetrue or false if you lack endorphins, you are prone to suffer from certain mental illnessesendorphinssometimes called your private narcoticendorphintasty food, sex, exercise, mediation, childbirth, chili pepers and UV light are common ____ triggersendorphinsproduced as a response to certain stimuli for example pain, fear or stresstruetrue or false laughing and crying stimulate small bursts of endorphinendorphinsanalgesia, bliss, euphoria, attention, disposition, well-being, physical boostcircumstance, thought, feeling, action, resultwhat are the parts of a self coaching modelself coaching modelthis is an example of ??? Circumstance: a pandemic is taking place Thought: this is never going to end Feeling: anxious Action: keep looking at social media for information Results: you become even more anxious bc of what you readdopaminefood sources for ____ increasing tyrosine: almonds, avacado, banana, dairy products, lima beans, pumpkin seeds, and sesame seedsserotoninfood sources of ____ are those that contain tryptophan such as eggs, cheese, nuts and seeds, pineapples, turkey and probioticsoxytocinsources of food contain vitamins and mineralsendorphinscan be induced best with exercise but dark chocolate will also boost itdopaminea lack of ____ is associated with fatigue, apathy, lack of focus, forgetfulness, moodiness, difficulty concentrating, insomnia, sugar cravings, lower motivationtruetrue or false -dopamine dominant people are usually focused go-getters and a little intensedecreasethings that provide a quick dopamine boost end up disrupting the natural dopamine production process resulting in ____ dopamine production in the long termjean cruveilhierwho is credited with one of the earliest, if not the first, illustrations of MS-related central nervous system pathologyjean martin charcotthe first to describe the clinical and pathological features of MS in such a way that others could recognize the diseases. the first to become aware of the diseaseMSis thought to be a disease of the immune system perhaps autoimmunemsthe immune system attacks the myelin coating around the nerves in the central nervous system (brain, spinal cord, optic nerves) and the nerve fibers themselvesMSits name comes from the scarring caused by inflammatory attacks at multiple sites in the central nervous systemtruetrue or false the expert consensus is that MS is an immune-mediated disease. it may be autoimmune, but that has not yet been determineis notMS *is* OR is *not* -contagious -directly inherited -always severely disabling -fatal--except in fairly rare instancestruetrue or false -being diagnosed with MS is *not* a reason to -stop working -stop doing things that one enjoys -not have children20-50what age is MS usually diagnosed betweenwomenis MS more common in women or mentruetrue or false MS is most common in those of Northern European ancestry (caucasians)truetrue or false -MS is more common in temperate areasCNSwhen a person who is genetically susceptible to MS encounters the environmental trigger, the autoimmune response is initiated, causing damage in the ????1/750 (0.1%)the risk of getting MS is approximately ___ for the general population1/40 (3%)the risk of getting MS is approximately ___ for a person with a close relative w MS1/4 (25%)the risk of getting MS is approximately ___ for an identical twinmultiplex familiesthe risk is higher in any family in which there are several family members with the disease...this is called???1/3one hallmark of MS is its unpredictability -approximately ___ will have a very mild course...the amount is the same for moderate course and those who will become disabled as welloutcomethese characteristics predict a better ____ for MS -female -onset before age 35 -sensory symptoms -monofocal rather than multifocal episodes -complete recovery following a relapse1) "activated" t cells cross the blood brain barrier into CNS 2) the t cells release chemicals that rally other immune system forces that attack the myelin coating around the nerve cells 3) the attack causes inflammation and then destruction. the nerve fibers also come under attack 4) once myelin and nerve fibers are damaged, nerve signals are slowed or stopped 5) MS lesions form, with hardened scars or plaques that may impair normal myelin repair processeswhat are the basic steps involved in an immune attack in MSMSthese are symptoms of ____ •Fatigue (most common) •Decreased visual acuity, diplopia •Bladder and/or bowel dysfunction •Sexual dysfunction •Paresthesias (tingling, (numbness, burning) •Emotional disturbances (depression, mood swings) •Cognitive difficulties (memory, attention, processing) •Pain (neurogenic) •Heat sensitivity •Spasticity •Gait, balance, and coordination problems •Speech/swallowing problems •TremorclinicalMS is what type of diagnosis -signs and symptom -medical history -laboratory teststime spaceMS requires dissemination in 1) ___:evidence of scarring (plaques) in at least two separate areas of the CNS 2) ___: evidence that the plaques occurred at different points in timeMRI VEP Lumbar puncturewhat tests may be used to help confirm the diagnosis for MSchronicMS symptoms are ____ or ongoing indicators of MS lesion damage in the brain, spinal cord, and/or optic nerverelapsesMS ____ are sudden flare-ups of disease activity (including new or worsening symptoms) that typically last several days to several weeks or monthsMSthese are commonly affected areas in ____ -optic nerve: visual field acuity -corticospinal tracts: muscle strength -corticobulbar tract: speech and swallowing functions -cerebellar tract: gait and coordination -spinocerebellar tracts: balance -medial longitudinal fasciculus: conjugate gaze of the extraocular eye muscles -dorsal columns: discriminative touch, pressure, vibration, proprioception, kinesthesialook at cycle of MS symptoms slide on PPTlook at cycle of MS symptoms slide on PPTMyasthenia gravisa neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness and fatiguability of skeletal musclesMyasthenia gravisthe underlying defect is a decrease in the number of available ACH receptors at neuromuscular junctions due to an anti body mediated autoimmune attackmyasthenia gravisthe hallmark of ___ is muscle weakness that worsen after period of activity and improves after a period of restSamuel Wilksas a clinical entity, Myasthenia Gravis was not recognized until who described bulbar and peripheral muscular weakness.mary walkerthe discovery of physostigmine treatment by Dr. ___ was published, which was to become the mainstay of symptomatic treatmentmyasthenia graviscertain muscles such as those that control eye and eyelid movement, facial expression, chewing, talking, and swallowing are often involved in what disorder??? sometimes neck and limb movements may also be affectedeye problem (drooping in one or both eyelids (ptosis), double vision (diplopia), blurred vision)in more than half the people who development MG, their first signs and symptoms involve ____ problems15what percent of people with MG, the first symptoms involve face and throat muscles which can cause difficulty with speak and swallowingtruetrue or false people with MG may have speech that is very soft or sound nasal, depending upon which muscles have been affectedtruetrue or false people with MG may choke very easily, which makes it difficult to eat, drink or take pillsloss of smilefamily members of those w MG may note "___" if the muscles that control facial expressions are affectedchewingIn MG, the muscles used for ____ may wear out halfway through a meal, particularly if eatingMGcan cause weakness in arms and legs, but this usually happens in conjunction w muscle weakness in other parts of body like eyes, face, or throat disorder affects arms more than legs (if it affects leg they may waddle when walking)MGreceptors at the muscle surface are destroyed or deformed by antibodies that prevent a normal muscular reaction from occurringtruetrue or false MG may have a genetic link and inherited as a rare disease aquired by babies born to mothers with MGthymusthose affected with MG have a large ___ glandACHin MG, immune system produces antibodies that block or destroy many of the muscles receptor sites for what NTweaknesswith fewer receptor sites, muscles recieve fewer nerve signals resulting in ___ in MGMGthese factors worsen ___ fatigue illness stress extreme heat some meds like beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, quinine and antibioticsMGsymptoms of ?? -difficulty breathing -difficulty chewing/swallowing -difficulty climbing stairs, life objects -difficulty talking -drooping of head -change in voice -facial paralysis -fatigue -weakness of eye muscles