ACC Biology A&P Assessment Exam

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Terms in this set (291)
Kilo10^3KiloOne thousandDeci0.1Deci10^-1Deci1/10Centi0.01Centi10^-2Centi1/100Milli0.001Milli10^-3Milli1/1000Micro0.000001Micro10^-6Micro1/1000000Nano0.000000001Nano10^-9Nano1/1000000000KilokDecidCenticMillimMicroµNanonKilometerkmDecimeterdmCentimetercmMillimetermmMicrometerµmNanometernmKiloliterklDeciliterdlCentiliterclMillilitermLMicroliterµLElementA substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions; is made up of atoms all with identical number of proteinsOxygenOCarbonCHydrogenHNitrogenNCalciumCaPotassiumKSodiumNaChlorineClIronFePhosphorusPCarbon DioxideCO2Carbon MonoxideCOWaterH2OHydrochloric AcidHClSodium ChlorideNaClGlucoseC6H12O6Sodium BicarbonateNaCHO3AtomBasic unit of matter and defining structure of elementsAtomNeutronLocated inside; has a neutral chargeProtonLocated inside; has a positive chargeElectronLocated outside; has a negative chargeIsotopeAtoms of the same element having the same numbers of protons, but different numbers of neutronsIsotopeUsed on diagnosis and treatment in medicineMoleculeAn electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bondsIonAn atom or molecule with an electric charge due to the number of electrons being unequal to the number of protonsElectrons in Chemical BondingAtoms want to have a full valence shell with eight electrons so they will be stable; to do this, atoms will share or exchange electronsIonic BondWhen one or more atoms lose electrons and other atoms gain them in order to produce a Nobel gasCovalent BondInvolving the sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atomsIonic BondIs easier to break because they don't share electrons; one atom simply donates an electron to another (generally soluble in water)Covalent BondDifficult to break because an electron is shared between two atomsPolar Covalent BondA bond between two atoms where the electrons forming the bond are unequally distributed; this causes the molecule to have a slightly positive charge on one end and a slightly negative charge on the otherNonpolar Covalent BondA bond formed when electrons are equally shared between two atomsNonpolarCarbon DioxidePolarWaterPolarHydrochloric AcidIonicSodium ChlorideNonpolarOxygen GasPolarSodium BicarbonateHydrogen BondAn electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen atom in one polar molecule and a small electronegative atom in usually another molecule of the same or a different polar substanceHydrogen BondMatterAnything that has mass and takes up spaceMassMeasures the quantity of matterSolidHas closely packed moleculesLiquidHas loosely packed moleculesGasHas free floating moleculesHeatCauses solids, liquids and gases to expandColdCauses solids, liquids and gases to contractVolume DecreasesPressure increases and temperature decreasesPolarity of WaterWater is polar because of the bent shape of the molecule - most of the negative charge from oxygen is on one side of the molecule and the positive charge of the hydrogen atoms is on the other sideProperties of WaterHas a high heat capacity, is an essential reactant, excellent solvent, cohesion (sticking together)Hydrogen BondingWithout it, we wouldn't exist. Water makes up 60-70% of the human body as well as most other thingsHydrophilicWater lovingHydrophobicWater repellingAcidChemical species that donates protons or hydrogen ions and/or accepts electronsBaseChemical species that donates electrons or hydroxide ions or that accepts protonsHydrogen Ion (Proton)The nucleus of a hydrogen atom separated from the accompanying electronpHThe measurement of hydrogen ion concentration; a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solutionpH scale0-6: Acidic 7: Neutral 8-14: AlkalineAcidProduces ions, pH level <7, destroys chemical properties of basesBaseProduces OH ions, pH level >7, destroys chemical properties of acidsSaltWhen dissolved in water, yields solution with pH >7, ionic compounds that result from neutralization reaction of an acid and a baseBufferResists pH changes; can maintain a nearly constant pH if it is dilutedBuffer FunctionWhen acid is added to a ___ solution, the ____ binds to the H+ preventing these ions from causing a decrease in pH of the solutionDissociationWhen molecules separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions, or radicals, usually in a reversible mannerEffect of DissociationCauses an increase in anions and cations in a solutionEffect of DissociationStrong acids yield weak conjugate bases and weak acids yield relatively strong conjugate basesNeutralization ReactionAn acid and a base reacting to form a salt and a water Acid + Base = Salt + WaterKinetic EnergyEnergy that a body possesses by virtue of being in motion (airplane in flight)Potential EnergyStored energy (stretched rubber band)Release of Chemical EnergyWe digest carbs, lipids, and proteins in food. Chemical energy is released when covalent bonds in these molecules are brokenStored Chemical EnergyCells are building molecules like fats, nucleic acids, and proteins. The covalent bonds that form to build these molecules store chemical energyChemical Reaction ExampleA+B=C+DChemical Reaction Notation2H2+O2=2H2O 2 hydrogen + 1 oxygen = 2 water moleculesReactantsA+B=c+dProductsa+b=C+DOccur at Same RateIn reactions at equilibrium, forward and reverse reactions..CatalystSubstance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without undergoing a permanent changeEnzymeSubstance that acts as a catalystSubstrateUnderlying surface or layerProductSubstance formed as a result of a chemical reactionActivation EnergyMinimum quantity of energy reacting species must possess in order to undergo a reactionActive SiteWhere chemical reaction occursEnzymesSpeed up reactions by lowering activation energyFactors that Affect Enzyme ActivityTemperature, pH, Enzyme Concentration, Substrate Concentration, Presence of Inhibitors or ActivatorsCarbonHas the ability to form large, complex and diverse molecules (4 outer electrons to form 4 covalent bonds)Hydroxyl GroupHydrogen atom forms a polar covalent bond with an oxygen atom, which forms a polar covalent bond to the carbon skeletonCarbonyl GroupConsists of an oxygen atom joined to the carbon skeleton by a double bondCarboxyl GroupConsists of a carbon atom with a double bond to an oxygen atom and a single bond to the oxygen of a hydroxyl groupAmine GroupConsists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and the carbon skeletonPhosphate GroupConsists of a phosphorus atom bound to four oxygen atomsSulfhydryl GroupConsists of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom and to the backboneMonomerA molecule that can be bonded to other identical molecules to form a polymerPolymerLarge molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunitsFormation of PolymersMonomers are connected by covalent bonds that form through the loss of a water molecule. This is called a condensation/dehydration reactionBreak Down of PolymersCovalent bonds connecting monomers in a polymer are disassembled by hydrolysis, a reaction that is effectively the reverse of dehydration. In hydrolysis, bonds are broken by addiction of water moleculesMonosaccharideClass of sugars that cannot be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar. The subunits are joined to make disaccharides or polysaccharidesDisaccharideClass of sugars whose molecules contain two monosaccharide residuesPolysaccharideA carbohydrate whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded togetherMonosaccharideGlucoseMonosaccharideFructoseMonosaccharideGalactoseMonosaccharideRiboseMonosaccharideDeoxyriboseDisaccharideSucroseMonosaccharideLactosePolysaccharideGlycogenPolysaccharideStarchPolysaccharideCelluloseSource of energyGlucose FunctionSource of EnergyFructose functionGalactoseSource of energy when converted to glucoseRiboseTransfers energy from place to place, makes RNADeoxyriboseMakes DNASucroseBroken down and used for cellular respiration (ATP)LactoseBroken down, its subunits are used for energyGlycogenHow we store glucoseStarchBroken down for cellular respirationCelluloseStrengthen cell wallAmino AcidsMonomers or subunits to make proteins/polypeptidesAmino Acid StructureNot labeled: Central carbon and H atomR GroupsContain different structural features in side chains which causes difference in the properties of the individual amino acids and the proteins containing different combinations of themPrimary StructureThe sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chainSecondary StructureLocal folded structures that form within a polypeptide due to interactions between atoms of the backbone (hydrogen bond)Tertiary StructureInteractions between the R groups of the amino acids that make up the protein (covalent bonds)Quaternary StructureProteins made up of multiple polypeptide chains that come togetherImportance of Protein ShapeThe shapes of proteins are determined by the sequence of amino acids that make them up to determine their shapeDenaturationThe alteration of a protein shape through some form of external stress in such a way that it will no longer be able to carry out its cellular functionEffect of DenaturationCauses a protein to lose its functionEffect of Temperature and pHIf faced with extremes of either, the protein is unable to function properly (denature)Function of Proteins in CellsCatalyse reactions in out bodies, transport molecules, keep us healthy (immune system), transmit messages from cell to cellDeoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acidTwo major acids found in cellsNucleotidesThe monomers/subunits joined to make nucleic acidsThree main parts of a nucleotideNitrogenous base, pentose sugar, phosphate groupNucleotides to make RNACGTUNucleotides to make DNACGTAGenesPieces of DNA with the instructions for making a specific proteinAdenineThymineGuanineCytosineATPRNA "a" : nucleotide with 2 extra phosphate groupsLipidsMolecules that are or are partially hydrophobicThree Types of LipidsTriglycerides, Phospholipids, SteroidsTriglycerideFormed by combining glycerol with 3 fatty acid moleculesPhospholipid2 hydrophobic fatty acid tails and a hydrophilic head consisting of a phosphate groupSteroidComposed of 17 carbon atoms bonded in 4 fused ringsTriglyceridesUsed for storage of energy and insulations around the body and neurons so that they can fire fasterPhospholipidsForm the phospobilayer in cellsCholesterolStiffens the cell membraneDNA ReplicationThe process by which DNA makes a copy of itself during cell division occurring in the nucleus of the cellComplementary Base PairingDNA's double helix is unzipped by breaking hydrogen bonds between the helix's. New complementary strands are produced by the hydrogen bonding of free DNA nucleotides. As the new nucleotides line up opposite each parent strand by hydrogen bonding enzymes join the nucleotidesRelationship between cells DNA and chromosomesCells have a nucleus which contain DNA, chromosomes are in the DNA, DNA carries the geneMutationChanges in chromosomes or genesEffect of MutationMutation to a gene can change the structure and function of the protein that the gene codes forTranscriptionProcess by which the information in a strand of DNA is copied into a new molecule of messenger RNA. Occurs in the nucleusTranslationThe process of creating proteins from an mRNA template. Occurs in the cytoplasmFormation of ProteinsA sequence of RNA corresponds to a sequence of DNA from which the RNA is synthesized (transcription). In translation, 3 bases in RNA code for 1 amino acid of a proteinTranslation of the RNA'srRNA associates with a set of proteins to form ribosomes. These structures, which move along an mRNA molecule, catalyze the assembly of amino acids into protein chains. They also bind tRNA's for protein synthesisCell Theory1. All organisms are made of cells 2. Cell is the simplest collection of matter that can live 3. All cells are related by their descent from earlier cellsPlasma MembraneDouble layer of lipids that separate the cell interior from outside environmentNucleusContains chromosomes of the cellCytoplasmMaterial in-between the nucleus and membrane that contain organellesIntracellular FluidFluid within the cellExtracellular FluidFluid outside of the cellCytoskeletonGives cell its shape, offers support, and facilitates movementRibosomeMakes proteinsRough ERConcerned with the synthesis, folding and modification of proteins, especially those that need to be delivered to other organelles or secretedGolgi ApparatusMoves molecules from the ER to their destination and also modifies products of the ER to their final formRough ERSecretes proteins/ribosomes that the Golgi apparatus will modify, identify, package and transportSmooth ERMain function is to make cellular products like hormones and lipidsLysosomeContain digestive enzymes that digest excess or worn out organelles, food particles, and engulfed viruses or bacteriaMitochondrionFolding structure is used to increase the surface area inside the cell. Act as a digestive system which take in nutrients, breaks them down, and creates energy rich molecules for the cellNucleusStores the cells hereditary material, or DNA, and it coordinates the cells activityCiliaWork to keep airways clear of mucus and dirt, also help propel spermFlagellaHair like structure that allows a cell to movePlasma MembraneMade of 2 phospholipids with different types of embedded proteins that are attached to carbs, cholesterol helps to firm the membranePhospholipid BilayerBase of the cellCholesterolStiffens the membraneProteinsWindows and doors of the cell membraneCarbsAllows cells to recognize other cells/food cellsProtein ReceptorsReceives messages from hormones and neurotransmitters to allow cells to communicate with each other in the plasma membraneEffect of Size On Movement Across Plasma MembraneSmaller = Easier to travel, Larger = Harder to travelEffect of Electric Charge on Movement Across Plasma MembraneStrong Charge = Difficult to move, Weak Charge = Easier to moveEffect of Lipid Solubility on Movement Across Plasma MembraneLipid Soluble molecules travel easierSimple DiffusionProcess where substances pass through a membrane by the force of diffusionOsmosisProcess by which molecules of a solvent pass through a membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one so both are equalFacilitated DiffusionProcess of transport of molecules via specific transmembrane integral proteinsActive TransportMovement of ions/molecules across a membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energyEndocytosisThe taking in of matter by a living cell by invagination of its membrane to form a vacuoleExocytosisProcess by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell membraneNo energySimple DiffusionEnergy efficientOsmosisNo energyFacilitated diffusionEnergy requiredActive TransportEnergy RequiredEndocytosisEnergy RequiredExocytosisIsotonic Solution2 solutions having the same osmotic pressure across a semipermeable membraneHypotonic SolutionA solution that has a lower osmotic pressure than another solutionHypertonic SolutionThe concentration of solutes is greater outside the cell than inside itIsotonicCell volume will increase when exposed to this solutionHypertonicCell volume will decrease when exposed to this solutionHypotonicCell volume will increase when exposed to this solutionHypertonicCell shrinks due to water loss and may eventually die due to dehydrationHypotonicWater moves inward and the cell will expandIsotonicWater stays in place and cell size does not change because both the environment and cell are balancedEnergy TransferADP has 2 phosphate groups and ATP has 3 phosphate groups. When ATP is broken down, you have phosphate groups that release energy and it converts it to ADP. The electron transport chain is where ATP is produced, ATP carries chemical energy that cells can useCellular RespirationThe process through which cells convert fuel into energy and nutrientsGlycolysisThe breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acidCitric Acid CycleA sequence of reactions in the living organism in which oxidation of acetic acid or acetyl equivalent provides energy for storage in phosphate bonds (ATP)Oxidative PhosphorylationThe metabolic pathway in which cells use enzymes to oxidize nutrients, thereby releasing energy which is used to produce ATPElectron Transport ChainA cluster of proteins that transfer electrons through a membrane to create a gradient of protons that creates ATPATPBreaking the bonds in glucose and other food molecules releases the energy used to make...CytoplasmLocation where glycolysis occursPurpose of GlycolysisProduces 2 pyruvate molecules, a net gain of 2 ATP molecules and 2 NADH molecules. Is present in all living organisms. Glucose is the source of almost all energy used by cellsReactants of GlycolysisGlucose, ADP, phosphate and NADH+Products of GlycolysisPyruvate, ATP, and NADHMitochondrionLocation in the cell where the citric acid cycle occursProducts of the citric acid cycleATP, NADH, FADH2, CO2MitochondriaLocation where oxidative phosphorylation occursProducts of oxidative phosphorylationATP, H2O, NAD, FADOxygen in Oxidative PhosphorylationOxygen sits at the end of the electron transport chain, where it accepts electrons and picks up protons to form water. If oxygen isn't there to accept electrons, the electron transport chain will stop running and ATP will no longer be producedGlycolysis and Citric Acid CycleProduces 2 ATP per glucoseOxidative PhosphorylationProduces 30-36 ATP per glucoseLactic Acid FermentationOccurs after glycolysis whenever oxygen is not present in the cells environmentMitosisThe step in the cell cycle that the newly duplicated DNA is separated, and 2 new cells are formedOutcome of MitosisEach parent cell produces 2 daughter cells that each contain 46 chromosomesMitosis vs MeiosisMitosis creates 2 identical daughter cells and meiosis creates 4 nonidentical daughter cells genetically distinct from each others parent cellsCell DivisionEach daughter cell contains the same genetic material as the original cell and roughly half the cytoplasmMitosisProcess of nuclear division that occurs when a parent cell divides to produce 2 identical daughter cellsMeiosisA type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cellCrossing overThe process in which 2 chromosomes of a homologous pair exchange genetic information from one to the other during meiosisIndependent AssortmentFormation of random combinations of chromosomes in meiosis and of genes on different pairs of homologous chromosomesGenetic variationCrossing over and independent assortment as two processes that contribute to..Outcome of MeiosisMeiosis starts with 1 diploid cell and ends with 4 haploid cells. The diploid has 46 chromosomes and the haploid has 23 chromosomesGameteA mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygoteMeiosisA special type of nuclear division which segregates one copy of each homologous chromosome into each new gameteCirculatory SystemThe system that circulates blood and lymph through the body, consisting of the heart, blood vessels, blood, lymph, and the lymphatic vessels and glandsDigestive SystemOrgans in the body that process food and turn it into energyNervous SystemNetwork of nerve cells and fibers that transmits nerve impulses between parts of the bodyEndocrine SystemCollection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other thingsReproductive SystemSystem of sex organs whiten an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproductionIntegumentary SystemIncludes the skin and the related structures that cover and protect the bodySkeletal SystemThe framework of the body, consisting of bones and other connective tissues, which protects and supports the body tissues and internal organsRespiratory SystemSet of organs that allows person to breathe and exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the bodyMuscular SystemOrgan system consisting of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles and permits movement of the bodyUrinary SystemPurpose is to eliminate waste from the body, regulate blood volume and blood pressure, control levels of electrolytes and metabolites, and regulate blood pHImmune SystemComplex system responsible for distinguishing a person from everything foreign to them and for protecting their body against infection or foreign substances