Ed Psych Final - Quiz Questions

Three-year-old Abby calls every animal she sees a "doggie." One day she pets a cat and calls it a "doggie." Her mom says, "No, Abby, that is a kitty." After that Abby is able to correctly identify and differentiate between dogs and cats. In Piaget's theory, Abby is demonstrating—
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Pam Pedagogy helps her students understand complex cognitive tasks by breaking them down into smaller subtasks. She will also ask guided questions to help them think about the task in certain ways and (at times) demonstrate parts of the task so students can imitate her. Pam's actions are consistent with Vygotsky's concept of—
The process of incorporating the external or socially-based ideas / mental structures as one's own is known (in Vygotsky's theory) as—InternalizationWhen expert teachers use techniques that specifically enhance learning in a particular subject area they are demonstrating—Pedagogical content knowledgeThe type of professional knowledge where expert teachers understand basic principles of learning, the nature of development, or how to enhance student motivation (and is specifically addressed in EDUC2500 Educational Psychology) is called—Knowledge of learners and learningIn Piaget's theory, the desired state of cognitive order, balance, or predictability which, when disrupted, motivates a person to learn is known as—EquilibriumAll of the following are true regarding the Common Core State Standards Initiative (CCSSI) EXCEPT—Is a federally mandated programType of research methodology used when a teacher applies research findings to answer specific classroom or school related questions is called—ActionAll of the following are implications of Piaget's theory for classroom teachers EXCEPT—Provide scaffolding activities within the learner's zone of proximal developmentAll of the following are educational principles which are implications of Vygotsky's theory EXCEPT—Design learning activities that advance the student to a higher stage of reasoningThe collective set of concepts and symbols (e.g. language, numbers) which allow a person to think, solve problems, and function with a culture is identified by Vygotsky as—Cognitive toolsIn contemporary neuroscience, the phrase "what gets fired, gets wired" tends to mean—Experiences create neurological connections in the brainAll of the following factors influence teaching and professional standards in today's classrooms (and teacher preparation programs) EXCEPT—Federal, state, and local school fundingWhen comparing Piaget and Vygotsky's theories of cognitive development, all of the following ideas are similar to both EXCEPT—View societal interactions as disruptive equilibriumIn Bronfenbrenner's theory, the interaction of variables such as the family, school, and community, which influence individual development occurs in the ____.MesosystemIn Piaget's theory, the ability to hold the amount of a substance as constant, regardless of its shape, pieces, etc., and is critical to the development of logical thinking is called—ConservationNow that I have completed the first quiz in Educational Psychology I can say that—Pick whatever one summarizes your feelings after taking the quiz :)Sidney Seebee, retired Navy Seal, runs his home like his commanding officer ran his unit. "When I give an order I expect my kids to obey—no questions asked!" Sidney's parenting style can be characterized as—AuthoritarianHigh school senior Terrance Timid discusses his future with some friends. "All the guesswork has been taken out of my life. My parents are Cedarville grads, bought a prepaid tuition card, and insist I study pharmacy to take over the family business. So much for my dream of being a rapper / emo-youth pastor." In terms of Marcia's identity theory Terrance is experiencing—Foreclosure"I love college", declares 27-year-old undergraduate Donna Deference. "I can postpone adulthood by changing majors and have broken the hearts of six guys to avoid marriage. I know it can't go on forever but, for now, it's a great life." From Marcia's perspective Donna is in what state of identity development?Identity moratoriumCarrie Camaro drives 95 MPH on US 42 from Cedarville on her way to the Xenia Wal-Mart (not a good idea). Her petrified boyfriend screams, "You're breaking the law." "Only if I get caught," is Carrie's comeback. To Kohlberg, Carrie is displaying the stage of moral developmentPre-conventionalPhoebe Pharisee strictly adheres to the speed limit (she despises Carrie Camaro), defers to authority figures, and believes that following the rules makes her a good American. "Without rules we would regress into anarchy", she explains, From Kohlberg's perspective, Phoebe displays the stage of moral reasoningConventionalCameron Capricious is usually quiet and passive yet, when provoked by bullies, will retaliate with uncharacteristic anger. "They make me SO mad", he explains. Cameron's behavior is an example of ____ aggression.ReactiveThe emerging ability of pre-school and school-age children to attribute various mental states and emotions to oneself and others is known to psychologist as—Theory of mindArnie Affinity seems to be able to emotionally connect with others. When he says, "I feel ya bro," he almost certainly does. Arnie's sensitivity is an example of—EmpathyThe personal, self-constructed, explanations that we give ourselves (not necessarily what we tell others) to explain success or failure is known as—AttributionThomas is the little tank engine that could. "I think I can, I think I can—if I just work hard and improve my skill" is his developmental mantra. Thomas clearly expresses—Growth (incremental) mindsetGreta Gradegrubber wants to be the best student in the class. She is quick to compare her performance with others, seeks every academic award, and defines herself by the evaluations she gets from her teachers. Greta exhibits ____ goal motivationperformanceAndy Eligible simply needs to make a 2.0 GPA to be able to participate in sports. "Why get A's", he asks? "My scholarship to UK and future NBA career only requires a C- average (and a good agent)." Andy's attitude seems to reflect a ___ goal orientation toward school.work-avoidanceI always place my car keys in the same spot in my house. I generally do this because knowing where my keys are reduces stress since I don't have to search for them when it is time to leave. The motivation behind my behavior can is be described as—IntrinsicIn Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, factors such as safety, belonging, or esteem that motivate people to meet them are called—Deficiency needsPolly Proficient, prestigious high school physics professor, doesn't accept that her students cannot comprehend quantum mechanics. She believes in her skills as a teacher to get all her students to comprehend concepts. Polly displays what psychologists call—Self-efficacyNeddy Novel is generally receptive to new ideas, curious to learn and seek new experiences, and he has a wide range of interests. These are personality traits that serve to promote his achievement in school. In general, Neddy displays what is often referred to as—OpennessAll of the following factors are things that teachers can do to influence or enhance a student's intrinsic motivation for a task EXCEPT—Reduce the level of challengeThe type or group of motivational theories that generally focus on changes in a person's actions which result from experiences or consequences with the environment are called —BehavioralThe type or group of motivational theories which focus on the "whole person" and how people are driven to fulfill their potential as human beings are called—humanisticGoals are an important aspect of motivation. In general, all of the following are characteristics of effective goals EXCEPT—tangible/extrinsic rewardsThe theory of motivation that states a person's desire is regulated by the importance, usefulness, and costs of engaging in activity is called—Expectancy x ValuePerformance goals, in the long run, tend to reduce intrinsic motivation, All of the following are things teachers can do to avoid an unhealthy emphasis on performance goals EXCEPT—Stress the importance of learning for its own sakeTeachers are important models in influencing a student's motivation. All of the following are principles teachers can do to change a student's beliefs and increase motivation to learn EXCEPT—Provide tangible/extrinsic rewardsIn Erikson's theory, the stage where school and home provide opportunities for children to develop a sense of competence through success and challenging tasks (characteristic of ages 6-12) is called—Industry v. inferiorityIn Erikson's theory, the state of psychosocial development characterized by experimenting with various types of freedom and challenging the limits of authority (typically ages 12-18) is calledIdentity v. confusionWhile all people can serve as models, some people are more influential than others. All of the following are variables that generally serve to make someone and effective model EXCEPT-age and wisdomWhen I start my car, if i do not fasten my seatbelt, the car will make an irritating buzzing sound. This buzzing will continue until I buckle up (which is why the sound is there). The buzzing serves as -negative reinforcementBobbi Binge loves chocolate. "It gives me such a rush, a glow, a warm comforting feeling", she explains. One night, trapped in Willie Wonka's Chocolate Factory, she binges all-night on toffees, caramels, and associated cocoa confections. Now she cannot stand the sight or smell of chocolate. Bobbie's new-fund aversion is an example of what behaviorists call -SatiationSheldon Cooper loves the Flash. He has Flash t-shirts, bedding, socks and every Halloween insists on dressing as his hero. It is obvious that, for Sheldon, the Flash serves as a _____ model.symbolicFanny Friendly is famous - a frequent flirt with all the guys. "What is your secret?" inquires Wendy Wallflower. "It's simple really - when guys look ar me I smile, wink, and even blow them a kiss. Guys are so predictable and it works every time." According to behaviorists, Fanny is using what type of reinforcement on her unsuspecting male victims?socialMike Minutia prides himself on his trivia prowess. He is a veritable storehouse of names, dates, places, and events (as well as a few concepts and theories). Mikey's knowledge can BEST be described as -declarative*Norma Novella is a voracious reader of fictional literature. "I love to read by hate seeing the movies", she explains. "The characters and places are never as I imagine - it's so frustrating!" Norma's dissonance can BEST be explained by what type of knowledge?episodicThe area of the memory system where all active and conscious processing is said to occur and where construction (or reconstruction) of information take place is said to be _____ memory.workingin cognitive information processing, the strategy designed to promote meaningful learning by actively expanding existing schemes is called -elaborationAndre Amnesia has a great head for facts but often fails to remember information when needed. "I know I know it", complains Andre. "I just can't seem to get it out of my memory." Andre's forgetfulness is BEST explained as -retrieval failurein behavioral learning theory, the type of consequence that promote learning because it is associated with other reinforcements (e.g. money or grades) is called -secondaryin behavioral learning theory, when an instance of a desired behavior is rewarded on some occasions, but not all, is called a _____ reinforcementintermittentIn cognitive information processing, the term used to designate the amount of mental activity imposed on one's working memory is called -cognitive loadIn cognitive information processing, the process used to mentally combine separate items of knowledge into larger and more meaningful units is called -chunkingAs a general strategy, DR. Baumann will often start class by asking you to share one or wo things from the previous class. This allows you to recall relevant prior knowledge so that new information can be connected to is. As an instructional technique it is an example of -schema activationall of the following are true of operant conditioning theory EXCEPT -focuses on emotional or physiological responses"Don't do the crime if you can do the time", or the idea that being caught misbehaving will lead to the removal of reinforcements (e.g. money, time, freedom), is an example of which type of punishment?response costall of the following processes or skills are characteristic of self-regulated thinking EXCEPT -applied behavioral analysisin social cognitive theory, all of the following are possible outcomes of modeled behavior for learners EXCEPT -its altering of metacognitive processesDry Ice, budding middle-school age rapper, uses his considerable mad skillz to master his science notes. "Stuff makes no sense", he says, "Yet, when I turn science to song it helps overcome my weaknesses in rote memory." Lil' Dry Ice is using a technique form cognitive theory called -elaborative rehearsalThe systematic application of the principles of operant conditioning to improve student behavior is called -applied behavioral analysisin cognitive information processing, the theoretical component of human memory responsible for monitoring and regulating memory is called -metacognitionAll of the following are principles that form the basis for cognitive theories of learning EXCEPT -learning always involves a change in behaviorIN cognitive thoery, the memory store which is virtually unlimited in size and is responsible for process raw or new experience is called -sensory memoryThe theory that describes learning in terms of observable responses that change in frequency or intensity as a result of consequences which follow a behavior is called -operant conditioningEdna Illuminate likes to present real world problems to her 6th grade social studies students. "By working on solutions, my students must acquire content and develop skills. It even promotes self-regulation." Edna's teaching strategy can be best described as -Problem-based learningAcross the hall, Andy Artistry works with students and will often use high school students to assist his 6th graders. "I like pairing the less skilled novices with more expert-like students to enhance their knowledge and skills." Andy's teaching technique is an example of -Cognitive apprenticeshipNorma Novel astounds her sophomore literature peers with some of the most unique interpretations to assigned readings. "She is the most 'out-of-the-box' thinker I know," marvels Brenda Bland. Norma exhibits what is often called -Divergent thinkingSammy Cynical is notoriously suspicious. "I have to bring my 'A-game' to class every day," explains Arnie Antiquity, his history teacher. "If I don't give good reasons for things he simply dismisses my conclusions." Sammy seemingly shows the seminal trait of -Critical thinkingAll of the following are characteristics of creativity EXCEPT -Self-expressiveConnie Clairvoyance is preparing to take her educational final exam. When asked about her study strategy she admits, "When in doubt I always choose 'B' since 'Baumann' begins with a 'B'". Connie's (really poor) problem solving strategy is an example of -Heuristic*Johnny Muir, noted naturalist, is teaching his 1st graders a lesson on leaves. To help them grasp the concept he first shows them a maple leaf, an oak leaf, and finally a pine needle. Johnny is using a method of concept learning known as -?Rapper B.o.B. only reads "scientific" research published by his beloved Flat-Earth Society. "They speak truth while government science is just a conspiracy," he explains. Rapper B.o.B.'s reading habits reflect what is known as -Confirmation biasAll of the following factors affect a student's ability to transfer knowledge from one context to another EXCEPT -ConsistencyThe view of learning, advocated by theorists like Vygotsky, that claims people make sense of the world from the framework of their culture and then internalize it individually is called -Social constructivismAll of the following are conditions that are required to facilitate conceptual change in students EXCEPT -Social interactions must be developed/fosteredCreativity, while difficult to teach, can be developed in the classroom. All of the following are things teachers can do to foster creativity EXCEPT -Enhance situated cognitionBilly-Bob Bullpen is trying to teach his baseball-savvy 7th graders about the English game of cricket in his boy's PE class. "Let's compare it to baseball," he tells his class and tries to make connections between the two sports. As a problem-solving strategy, Billy-Bob is employing -Drawing analogyA situation lacking a clearly-defined goal, some pertinent information, or having several possible solutions or solution strategies is called -Ill-defined problemSage Saxon explains her strategy for enhancing math achievement. "Each day we do 2-3 problems from previous lessons to keep students practicing their skills over time." This research prove approach to learning is called -Interspersed practiceRoger Ramjet, famed fighter pilot, is being trained to fly the new F-22. "It's no problem," says Roger. "The layout and controls are very similar to my F-14." Roger's ease in learning the F-22 is an educational psychology example of -Specific transferSusan Syllogism swears that it is her scheme (or at least, desire) to make her students better strategic thinkers. To assist Susan we should suggest all of the following EXCEPT -Use rule-based concept attainmentOzzie Observant is constantly gathering information about his students' learning and checking for understanding. He will watch during classroom interactions, ask problem questions, and monitor how students use information to solve problems. Ozzie's practices are characteristic of -Informal assessmentAll of the following are ways that teachers can incorporate and promote cognitive apprenticeship in the classroom EXCEPT -Promote general transfer from other subjectsIn order to promote knowledge construction, teachers are encouraged to use all of the following techniques EXCEPT -Use discovery-based strategiesLet's face it - teachers want students to transfer course content to situations outside the classroom. All of the following are strategies teachers can use to promote transfer EXCEPT -Provide practice in means-end problem solvingConstructivist theories have made a vital contribution to how we understand student learning and, subsequently, teaching. All of the following are contributions to constructivist theories EXCEPT -Clarifies the relationship between outside stimuli and subsequent reinforcementWhile a valuable learning theory, constructivism is not without its critics. All of the following are identified in the text as problems with constructivism EXCEPT -Places too great an emphasis on emotions as part of learningEdna Ego is particularly sensitive and keenly self-aware. In school she is constantly checking her understanding of what she reads, asking if she is getting a concept, and revising her strategies for effective learning. Edna exhibits what experts call -MetacognitionAll of the following are conclusions about learning and teaching that have come from the emerging field of learning science EXCEPT -Schools must continue to focus and enhance teachingGerald Germane strives to ensure that his students leave the 5th grade with a wealth of well-defined knowledge and skills. "I present them what they need through short segments of content and assess to ensure they have it," he explains. Gerald's teacher-centered approach can best be described as -direct instructionThe process of breaking curricular content into component parts and then sequencing the parts to facilitate effective learning and instruction is called -task analysisGina Gyrate likes to "shake things up" in 8th grade literature. "I have my students do the reading and watch online videos about he books and class times is used to discuss various interpretations." Gina's instructional strategy is an example of -flipped instructionSandy Sundry is a master of making sure all her students are sufficiently challenged. "With so many kids and their varied abilities it's important to adapt my teaching and content to their varied knowledge, skills, needs, and motivation," she maintains, Sandy seems to be a master of what educational theorist call -differentiated instructionThose aspects of instruction which refer to the things we, as teachers, want students to know about a topic are called -learning objectivesNancy Nurture believes that all students can learn and intelligence or other abilities can improve. "Intelligence and skills can always get better through hard work and effort," she confidently claims. Nancy espouses what is known as -growth mindsetall of the following are characteristics of the learning-teaching process which expert teachers model for their students EXCEPT -informal / diverse goalsaccording to theorist Benjamin Bloom, the domain of learning objectives which focuses on a person's attitudes, values, and emotions is called -affectivein Bloom's cognitive taxonomy, the ability to break down information into component parts or provide evidence for one's conclusions is called -analysisOnce more, in Bloom's cognitive taxonomy, the learning objectives which promote a person's ability to make judgements about the validity of knowledge or truth claims is called -evaluationin planning cooperative learning activities, teachers need to plan for each of these essential elements in their activity EXCEPT -standards by which to evaluate group performanceEdna Efficient knows that being organized is a critical component of effective teaching. "I never used to be," she notes, "but all the research told me I need to get that way." The research also notes that all of the following are organization skills of effective teachers EXCEPT -Use of standardized assessment materialsDespite its many critics, lecture remains an often used instructional strategy (particularly at the secondary level). All of the following are considered positive reasons teachers continue to use the lecture method EXCEPT -Can address multiple objectives / skillsAll of the following are characteristics of effective homework (i.e. enhances students achievement) EXCEPT -promotes additional academic rigor / challengeSally Spirited noted, 9th grade teacher cheerleading coach, seeks to keep students motivated in her mastery-focused classroom, Sally is exceptional because she demonstrates all the following EXCEPT -identifies and enhances each student's natural talents / abilitiesfeedback is considered an essential quality for enhancing student learning. All of the following are characteristics of effective feedback EXCEPT -sufficiently vague to promote reasoningThe type of instructional strategy / class environment which seeks to emphasize effort, continuous improvement, and greater understanding is called -mastery-focusedthe type of instructional strategy /classroom model where teachers seek to scaffold a student's construction of concept and conceptual relationships is called -guided instructioncognitive-based direct instruction is often used as a means of enhancing student content knowledge. All of the following are phases of a well-designed direct instruction lesson EXCEPT -open-ended questioningAsking questions and soliciting student answers is a major component of almost all instructional models. All of the following are components teachers can use to promote effective questions EXCEPT -care to not make answers too easy by providing additional contentthe trait of effective teachers whereby they believe themselves capable of getting all students to learn , regardless of a student's prior knowledge, ability, or personal background is known as -teacher efficacyScotty Scattered frustrates his students because his lessons are unorganized and his units random. "You need to match your learning objectives with your activities and assessments to promote effective learning," advises Paula Pedagogy. Paula is telling Scotty to engage in what is called -instructional alignmentAll of the following are characteristics of teachers with high teacher efficacy EXCEPT -avoid direct instruction or lecture modelsRegardless of instructional model, all of the following are phases of effective instruction EXCEPT -curriculum designThe instructional model that is designed to help students acquire an organized body of knowledge which connects facts, concepts, and generalization is known as -lecture-discussion