Upgrade to remove ads
Social Psychology exam 4
Terms in this set (63)
Gender differences in aggression
•Direct aggression (physical assault, murder)
•Men are much more aggressive than women
•Indirect aggression (gossip, rumors, social rejection)
•Women are more aggressive than men
•Exception: Physical aggression with romantic partners
Theory that any unpleasant situation triggers a complex chain of internal events, including negative emotions and negative thoughts. Depending on other cues in the situation (such as weapons), these negative feelings will be expressed as either aggression or flight.
The theory that anger is physiologically similar to other emotional states and that any form of emotional arousal can enhance aggressive responses.
The theory that aggression is an automatic response to any blocking of goal-directed behavio
Reformulated frustration-aggression hypothesis
The theory that any unpleasant stimulation will lead to emotional aggression to the extent that it generates unpleasant feelings.
Indirect expression of an aggressive impulse away from the person or animal that elicited it.
Behavior intended to injure another.
Behavior intended to hurt someone to his or her face.
Behavior intended to hurt someone without face-to-face confrontation.
Hurtful behavior that stems from angry feelings.
Hurting another to accomplish some other (nonaggressive) goal.
Discharge of aggressive impulses.
Freud's view of aggression
aggressive urges are caused by frustrations in your daily life
Aggression in relationships
Women, compared with men, are at least as likely to hit, kick, or otherwise physically attack their romantic partners. Why, then, is it that overwhelmingly more women than men show up at shelters for abused spouses? That is because a 120-pound woman striking a 180-pound man is simply not as physically damaging as when the reverse occurs, and hence a woman striking a man is less likely to be legally defined as violence. As we describe later in more detail, women's violence toward intimate partners is more likely to be self-defensive, in response to a partner who is himself physically abusive
Behavior intended to express dominance or confidence.
Factors that predict aggression
Hormone which is higher in males than females.
•In boys aged 9 to 10, high T is associated with more aggressive behaviors
•Prison inmates with high T have more confrontations with prison authorities and their crimes were more violent
•Among 4,462 military veterans those with high T were more likely to have trouble with the law, to have been violent, and to have more sex partners.
Male college students in one study were insulted and pushed by another student. When subjects' testosterone levels were measured after this face-off, they had risen significantly.
Occurs when group discussion leads members to make decisions that are more extremely on the side of the issue that the group initially favored.
A style of group decision making characterized by a greater desire among members to get along and agree with one another than to generate and critically evaluate alternative viewpoints and positions.
Reducing one's personal efforts when in a group.
A group memory system made up of (1) the knowledge held by individual group members and (2) a communication network for sharing this knowledge among the members.
The process through which the presence of others increases the likelihood of dominant responses, leading to better performance on well-mastered tasks and worse performance on unmastered tasks.
Factors that affect social loafing
People socially loaf less when:
•Each group member's contribution is identifiable
•The task is personally meaningful
•The group is cohesive (e.g. friends socially loaf less than strangers)
•Group members are collectivistic
the network of roles, communication pathways, and power in a group
A ranking of group members by their power and influence over other members.
The strength of the bonds among group members.
The pattern of information flow through a group.
Expectation held by the group for how members in particular positions ought to behave
The process of losing one's sense of personal identity, which makes it easier to behave in ways inconsistent with one's normal values.
A norm that describes what is commonly approved or disapproved in a situation. Inoculation procedure
A norm that defines what behaviors people typically perform in a given situation.
You are a group depending on on whether you all perceive yourselves to be a group
An offer of rewards to those who reduce their socially harmful behaviors.
A prescriptive legal regulation that uses police power to punish violators.
An appeal to people's intrinsic sense of social responsibility.
Social dominance orientation
The extent to which a person desires that his or her own group dominate other groups and be socially and materially superior to them.
The tendency to submit to those having greater authority and to denigrate those having less authority.
The extent to which a person demonstrates simplified "black-and-white" categorical thinking, as opposed to acknowledgment of all sides of an issue.
A complete unawareness of other cultures, which leads negotiators to attribute ignorance and bad intentions to the other side.
Awareness of, and appreciation of, differences but still accompanied by a feeling that one's own culture is more effective and realistic; leads negotiators to try to "educate" or "develop" those who differ.
Awareness of cultural differences but with a focus on the many similarities across human cultures, which could lead to ignoring important differences at critical points in negotiation.
An awareness of ethnic, religious, racial, or national differences, accompanied by a conviction that one's own way is the "right" one.
reflects the extent to which a person focuses on either task and technical concerns or people and social concerns when making decisions
prosocial value orientation
Altruists and Cooperators
Motivated to help others, even at a cost to themselves
Motivated to maximize joint profits for themselves and group members
A situation in which an individual profits from selfishness unless everyone chooses the selfish alternative, in which case the whole group loses.
Motivated to maximize their own outcomes, with no regard for the costs or benefits to others
Motivated to do relatively better than others, even if it increases their costs
Examples of Social Dilemmas
•Time spent on beauty
Egoistic value orientation
Individualists and Competitors
A situation in which individuals or groups are drawn toward immediate rewards that later prove to have unpleasant or lethal consequences.
Public goods dilemma
A situation in which (1) the whole group can benefit if some of the individuals give something for the common good but (2) individuals profit from "free riding" if enough others contribute.
A stimulus that brings rewards when used in small doses, but punishments when used in large doses.
Tragedy of the commons
When it comes to protecting the environment, individual selfishness can lead to ruinous consequences for the group. To illustrate this, ecologist Garrett Hardin (1968) described the overgrazing of common pastures in New England. Those pastures were public areas where sheepherders could freely graze their animals. On their own private pastures, herders grazed only as many animals as the land could support, aware that overgrazing would destroy the grass and starve their whole herd. On the commonly shared areas, however, herders showed no such restraint. Consequently, the commons were frequently destroyed by overgrazing.
a particular "game" between two captured prisoners that illustrates why cooperation is difficult to maintain even when it is mutually beneficial
Replenishing resource management dilemma
A situation in which group members share a renewable resource that will continue to produce benefits if group members do not overharvest it but in which any single individual profits from harvesting as much as possible.
The human capital model
education makes people more productive workers
The signaling model
education signals preexisting traits to employers
The traits signaled by earning a degree
In order to get all the way through college it's a big help to be smart. And especially when it comes to having a high GPA, intelligence plays a big role. Not only that, but consider that all degrees are not equal- a degree from Harvard is considered more valuable than a degree from Boston college. According to the signaling model, a Harvard education is worth more not because going to classes at Harvard makes you smarter, but rather you have to be really smart to get into Harvard. To get into Harvard you need really strong grades which is an indicator of intelligence and strong SAT scores. So having a degree from Harvard means that you were accepted into Harvard meaning you must be very smart.
If you can put up with college for four years, you have to be decently conscientious. A lot of people can't. a lot of people don't finish college because they just can't do it. Even if they are smart, they just can't get themselves to wake up early every morning, go to a boring class, do difficult assignments, get everything in on time etc. so a college degree is an indicator of conscientiousness, and having good grades is also an indicator.
Going to college is what's expected of you. By going to college instead of moving to los angeles to be an actor or something, you show that you conform at least to some degree. Also to get by in your classes you have to kinda go with the flow. Even if a professor is teaching you something that doesn't make sense to you, you have to act like it's brilliant and regurgitate whatever is being taught to you. When you write an essay you just repeat profs opinions back to her. So getting a college degree means you're probably not a rebel. You are probably going to do what your boss tells you to do.
the minimum credentials required for a given job increases while the value of degrees decreases
Sets with similar terms
The Policy Based Profession Key Terms ch 1-7
350 POLICY EXAM ONE
Social Psych Pre-Test
Intro to Social Work Social Welfare Policy
Other sets by this creator
Social psychology Exam 4 other Terms
Universal Justice Exam 2 terms
Universal Justice Exam 2 questions
Social Psychology Exam 3 other terms