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Terms in this set (83)
The parietal pericardium ________.
lines the internal surface of the fibrous pericardium
The second heart sound is heard during which phase of the cardiac cycle?
If a person is severely dehydrated you would expect to see all of the following EXCEPT ________.
With a patient that is administered an injection of erythropoietin (EPO) you would expect to see ________.
Genetic segregation implies that the members of the allele pair determining each trait are distributed to different gametes during mitosis.
Acrosomal enzymes trigger exocytosis of cortical granules in the cortical reaction.
Select the correct statement about the physical factors influencing pulmonary ventilation.
As alveolar surface tension increases, additional muscle action will be required.
Spirometry results reveal a vital capacity of two liters which is well below the predicted value of five liters. This suggests which disorder?
Catabolism of food molecules involves ________.
All but one of the following is a function of the low pH found in the stomach. Select the description below that does NOT reflect a role of stomach acid.
The stomach's acid catabolically breaks down food stuff in preparation for absorption.
Some antacid drugs block histamine receptors, resulting in reduction of the production and excretion of stomach acid. These drugs have the biggest effect on which of the following?
What stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBCs?
Which of the following is NOT true of saliva?
contains acids which aid in chemical digestion
Which of the choices below is a function of the nephron loop?
form a large volume of very dilute urine or a small volume of very concentrated urine
The mechanism that establishes the medullary osmotic gradient depends most on the permeability properties of the ________.
Which of the choices below is NOT a method by which the cells of the renal tubules can raise blood pH?
by secreting sodium ions
Select the correct statement about the ureters.
The ureters are capable of peristalsis like that of the gastrointestinal tract.
Which of the following hormones controls the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropins?
Solutes, regardless of size, are able to move freely between compartments because water carries them along the osmotic gradients.
Ghrelin, produced by the stomach, is a powerful appetite stimulant.
The digestive function of the liver is to produce digestive enzymes.
Oxygenated hemoglobin releases oxygen more readily when the pH is more basic.
Which statement is true about T cells?
Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2.
An advantage to adaptive immunity is ________.
its memory cells that provide quicker, larger and more efficient immune response upon second and subsequent exposure to an antigen
During a marathon which of the following hormones is least likely to be released by the runner?
atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
Which of the following statements regarding NK cells is a false or incorrect statement?
NK cells are a type of neutrophil.
Which of the following is NOT a role of activated complement?
prevention of immediate hypersensitivity reactions
Tissue rejection after an organ transplant is least likely due to the action of _________.
regulatory T cells
If a person has lost a significant amount of blood but still maintains a normal blood pressure it does not necessarily mean that the person is maintaining adequate perfusion. Which of the following best explains why this is so?
Blood vessels are constricting causing greater peripheral resistance.
A person with type B blood could receive blood from a person with either type B or type O blood.
Many hormones synthesized in the gastrointestinal tract are chemically identical to brain neurotransmitters.
ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones.
An increase in the permeability of the cells of the collecting tubule to water is due to a(n) ________.
increase in the production of ADH
If the diameter of the efferent arterioles leading away from the glomerulus decreases (vasoconstriction), which of the following is NOT likely to occur?
Systemic blood pressure will go up.
After completing a marathon on a particularly warm day, Dave consumes four liters of water. Soon after, he begins to feel nauseous and starts vomiting. What is likely happening to Dave?
hyponatremia; very low extracellular sodium ion concentration
Which of the choices below is NOT a function of testosterone?
stimulates the HPG axis
Increased temperature results in decreased O2 unloading from hemoglobin.
All of the following can be expected with polycythemia EXCEPT ________.
low blood viscosity
Pectinate muscles are found in the ________.
Mineralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to ________.
The source of blood carried to capillaries in the myocardium would be the ________.
If you centrifuge (spin) whole blood, you will find the red blood cells (erythrocytes) at the bottom of the tube and white blood cells atop them. This implies that ________.
red blood cells have a greater density than white blood cells
The cells responsible for producing platelets are called ________.
Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood.
A 50% oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal.
The erythrocyte (red blood cell) count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the ________.
concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudes
Oxidative deamination takes place in the ________.
When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it usually indicates increased metabolism of ________.
Gastric pits, as opposed to gastric glands, are completely lined with ________.
The local matching of blood flow with ventilation is ________.
Which structure is lined with simple squamous epithelium?
The hormone that raises blood sugar levels is insulin.
Autonomic regulation of heart rate is via two reflex centers found in the pons.
The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the parathyroid.
As pressure in the aorta rises due to atherosclerosis, more ventricular pressure is required to open the aortic valve.
Which of the following is activated by the binding of proteins to sugars on the surface of microorganisms?
In general, it is expected that ________.
osmotic pressure will remain relatively consistent throughout the capillary bed
There are more efferent lymphatic vessels leaving a lymph node than there are afferent vessels entering a lymph node.
Natural killer cells destroy target cells or pathogens by ingestion and destruction of particulate matter in a process called phagocytosis.
Calcitonin targets the bones and causes the release of calcium from storage when serum calcium levels are low.
The corpus luteum secretes progesterone only.
The proximal convoluted tubule is the portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct.
Which of the choices below is NOT a function of the urinary system?
eliminates solid, undigested wastes and excretes carbon dioxide, water, salts, and heat
The single most important factor influencing potassium ion secretion is ________.
potassium ion concentration in extracellular fluid
Which of the following is NOT a disorder of water balance?
excessive hydration due to excess atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion
An important physical characteristic of urine is its specific gravity or density, which is ________.
slightly higher than water
The thymus is the only lymphoid organ that does not DIRECTLY fight antigens.
Osmotic pressure is created by the presence in a fluid of small diffusible molecules that easily move through the capillary membrane.
The soft palate reflexively opens the nasopharynx to allow the passage of food, which is now called a bolus.
The functions of the nasal conchae are to enhance the air turbulence in the cavity and to increase the mucosal surface area exposed to air for greater efficiency.
Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.
pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and ________ are converted to glucose.
The dental formula for an adult is 2-1-2-3. What does the 1 stand for?
Which of the following is NOT found in saliva?
Myelocytic leukemia involves a cancerous condition of lymphocytes.
Direct gene activation involves a second-messenger system.
Heart tissue is supplied with nutrients primarily by diffusion from the heart chambers through the myocardium.
Sperms are ejaculated from the corpora cavernosa of the penis.
Arteriolar blood pressure increases in response to all but which of the following?
falling blood pressure
Antibody functions include all of the following EXCEPT ________.
cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood types are properly matched
Select the correct statement about factors that influence blood pressure.
Excess red cell production would cause a blood pressure increase.
The primary immune response ________.
has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells
The lymphatic capillaries are ________.
more permeable than blood capillaries
Which of the following is NOT a function of the lymphatic system?
transporting respiratory gases
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