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A&P I FINAL PREP
Terms in this set (205)
Anatomy is the study of
Structure & Form
As a runner sprints down a track, her movement is an example of
Cell shrinking, also known as crenation, occurs when a cell is placed into a _____ solution
Disease is often considered the result of
Failure of homeostatic systems
Enzyme regulations by negative feedback involves
allosteric inhibition of an enzyme by a product of its metabolic pathway
If testosterone levels rise in the body, negative feedback mechanisms will trigger
a decrease in GnRH, FSH, and LH release, resulting in shrunken testicles
Movement of a substance from an area of higher concentration to one where it is less concentrated is known as
Mucus is moved along the lining of the trachea by extensions from cell membranes known as
Osmosis is the diffusion of
Water across a membrane
Proteins that assist the movement of a substance across the membrane are called _____ proteins
single-stranded and contains uracil
The _____ are responsible for synthesizing most of a human body cell's ATP
The _____ is responsible for forming the outer, limiting barrier of a cell
The body system that provides support & protection as well as being a site of blood cell production (hemopoiesis) is the _____ system
The building blocks that from the DNA double helix are called
The building of complex molecules from simpler ones is described as
The control center of a homeostatic mechanism
integrates sensory input & signals for change as needed
The function of the nucleolus is to make
the subunits of ribosomes
The largest internal cellular structure is known as the _____ and is the cell's control center
The lipid that stabilizes the membrane at extreme temperatures & is found in the hydrophobic regions of the bilayer is
The most abundant lipid of the membrane consists of a head and two tails. This type of lipid is a
The organelles responsible for organizing microtubules that are part of the mitotic spindle are called
The part of the homeostatic control mechanism that brings about change is the
The presence of an enzyme within a chemical system
decreases activation energy
The process of making proteins from mRNA at the ribosome is called
The region of an enzyme into which the substrate fits is a
highly specific active site
The release of neurotransmitter from a neuron is an example of
exocytosis and it requires expenditure of ATP
The scientific discipline that studies the functions of body structures is
The smallest structural unit that exhibits the characteristics of living things is
The sodium level inside and outside of a resting cell is an example of the
potential energy of a concentration gradient, because sodium is more abundant outside the cell
The sodium-potassium pump uses ATP to move ions against their concentration gradient. This is called
primary active transport
The term "metabolism" refers to
all the chemical reactions in the body
The term that refers to the ability of organisms to react to changes in the environment is
When a cell surrounds a large particle with pseudopodia and then engulfs it, the process is called
When the body's digestive system breaks down starch, a complex carbohydrate, into simpler carbohydrates, the reaction is
catabolic and exergonic
Which answer lists the steps of enzyme action in correct order?
1)Formation of enzyme-substate complex
3)Formation or breakage of chemical bonds
4) Release of product
Which branch of microscopic anatomy is the study of tissues?
Which enzyme class transfers functional groups from one substance to another?
Which form of DNA is the most condensed?
Which is a form of energy that is generally unavailable to do any work?
Which of the following is considered a required enzyme for the process of transcription?
Which of the following is NOT required for DNA replication to occur?
Which of the following is NOT required for transcription to occur?
Which of the following is NOT required for translation to occur?
Which of the following statements accurately describes the organization of structures?
organs are made up of tissues, which are made up of cells, which are made up of organelles and molecules
Which of the following structures function in holding organelles in place, maintaining cell shape and rigidity, and directing organelle movement?
Which of the following serve to increase the surface area of a cell for absorption & secretion
Which statement accurately describes the effects of substrate & enzyme concentrations on reaction rate?
An increase in either substrate or enzyme concentration will increase the reaction rate
Which statement is accurate?
a sequence of nucleotides in DNA constitutes a gene; DNA and associated proteins form chromatin
an RNA molecule is formed as a DNA sequence is read
Which are applicable to the stratum corneum?
the most superficial stratum, the cells are dead, interlocking keratinized cells, and cells are anucleate
What would be the effect on bone growth of insufficient dietary calcium
The matrix would be softer.
Are found only in tooth sockets
Which is an accurate description of appositional bone growth?
Osteoblasts build bone at the circumferential lamellae while osteoclasts widen the medullary cavity.
Normally skin color results from a combination of
melanin, hemoglobin, carotene
And articular capsule is present in
Which is NOT true about bone remodeling
It occurs only at articular surfaces.
What is true about bone remodeling?
It can occur in response to stress on a bone.
It assists in the maintenance of calcium & phosphate levels in the body.
It occurs at both the endosteal & periosteal surfaces of the bone.
It occurs throughout life.
A synarthrosis is
Among the components of the dermis are
sweat glands, hair follicles, collagen fibers, sensory nerve endings, arrector pili muscles
The term diarthrosis refers to a joint that is
From deep to superficial the order of the strata of the epidermis is
basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum
Bone is considered an important storage reservoir for
calcium, phosphate, and lipids
What helps bone resist compression
Calcium salts (hydroxyapatite)
Before beginning ortho treatment a patient may have her wrist and hand x-rayed to determine her stage of growth what feature of the long bones will the ortho used to assess this
What gives bone it's flexibility
The process of bone repair includes these steps the correct chronological order for these steps is
Fracture hematoma forms, Fibrocartilaginous callus forms, bony callus forms and bone is remodeled
Sebum is a secretion that
lubricates skin and helps defend against bacteria
Blood capillaries that supply nourishment for the epidermis are located in the
Which is not a function of the integument
No exceptions; all are functions of the integument.
Protection, water loss prevention, temperature regulation
Epidermal dendritic (Langerhans) cells function as part of the _____response
The zones found in an epiphyseal plate are.: The correct order for the zones beginning with the edge closest to the epiphysis and proceeding toward the diaphysis is
Resting Cartilage, proliferating Cartilage, hypertrophic Cartilage, calcified Cartilage and ossification
Structurally a syndesmosis is a ____joint functionally it is an _____
A synarthrotic joint would have
low mobility and high stability
Which is NOT a function of synovial fluid
What are functions of synovial fluid?
Distributes stress forces across articular surfaces.
Lubricates articulating surfaces.
Serves as shock absorber.
The cancer arising from cells of the stratum Spinosum is called
Squamous cell carcinoma
The function of melanin in the skin is to
protect against UV light
Why might someone pale when they are exposed to a cold temperature?
Vasoconstriction has occurred
The pubic symphysis is classified as
cartilaginous joint and an amphiarthrosis
The joint formed by the axis and atlas that permits the "no" shaking of the head is a ____ joint
Fluid-filled sacs that cushion synovial joints are called
What are functions of bone?
Parathyroid hormone and calcitriol
stimulate osteoclasts to resorb bone and release calcium into the blood
Bone cells called ____ break down bone by secreting hydrochloric acid & enzymes that dissolve the matrix
What is the thin layer of connective tissue that lines the medullary cavity of a long bone?
Where does hemopoiesis occur?
red bone marrow
Cerumen is a secretion that
lubricates the ear canal and traps debris before it reaches the eardrum
Which choice places the steps of intramembranous ossification in correct chronological order?
Ossification centers form
Osteoid undergoes calcification
Formation of woven bone and its periosteum
Formation of lamellar bone
Which type of cell produces new bone tissue by secreting matrix?
The most freely moving joint in the body is the
Mechanical stress of bones, such as that caused by weight lifting, is detected by
osteocytes, which then communicate to osteoblasts to increase synthesis of osteoid
Bone is ____ and contains mainly ____ nerves
highly vascularized; sensory
As the bone matrix calcifies and the secreting cells become walled in
osteoblasts become osteocytes
The steps in the process of endochondral ossification are
Cartilage model develops
Cartilage calcifies and a bone collar forms
Ossification center forms in the diaphysis
Ossification centers form in the epiphysis
Bone replaces cartilage
Epiphyseal plates ossify
Sutures are joints that are found
between certain bones of the skull
High blood calcium & exercise cause calcitonin release to
What is the definition for a greenstick fracture?
Only one side of the bone is broken; the other side is bent
What is true about the periosteum?
It provides stem cells for bone growth & repair.
It covers the entire bone surface, with the exception of articular areas.
It provides stem cells for bone growth & repair.
It includes two layer: outer fibrous & inner cellular.
It is anchored to the bone by collagen fibers.
What is NOT true about the periosteum?
It is found in the medullary cavity.
Parathyroid hormone effects each of the following organs
bone, kidney, small intestine
Parathyroid hormone effects each of the following organs EXCEPT
The deeper sublayer of the dermis is the ____ layer, and it is the ____ of the two.
The type of gland that secretes sweat into a hair follicle that is found in the axillary, anal, & genital regions is the ____ sweat gland
A graded potential is one that
varies in size depending on the magnitude of the stimulus (larger voltage change for stronger stimulus)
A motor unit consists of
a single neuron and the multiple muscle fibers it controls
is a cablelike bundle of parallel axons
A nerve impulse travels fastest along ____ axons of ____ diameter
A power stroke involves
a myosin head pulling a thin filament toward the center of the sarcomere
Acetylcholine is released from a neuron
through exocytosis when a vesicle fuses with the membrane
Action potentials are generated by the opening of ____ gated channels and they occur on the ____
Choose the answer that correctly lists, in chronological order, the events involved in synaptic transmission
A nerve impulse reaches the synaptic knob.
Neurotransmitter molecules diffuse across the synaptic cleft.
Neurotransmitter molecules bind to receptors in the postsynaptic cell.
A voltage change occurs in the postsynaptic cell.
A nerve impulse begins in the postsynaptic cell.
Electrical synapses involve coupling of neurons by
Events of excitation contraction coupling, such as the release of calcium from intracellular stores, occur during the ____ period of a muscle twitch.
For a sprint lasting 60 seconds, ATP is supplied primarily by
phosphate transfer and glycolysis
For relaxation to occur,
sarcoplasm calcium levels fall, calcium is removed from troponin, & tropomyosin blocks binding sites on actin.
Hyperpolarization of a neuron results from
either the entry of an anion or the exit of a cation
In a lab, wave summation is demonstrated by increasing the ____ of the stimulus
In order to trigger the release of neurotransmitter from a neuron terminal, calcium ions
bind to proteins on the surface of synaptic vesicles.
Invaginations of the muscle cell membrane that extend deep into the cell are known as the
Myoglobin is a molecule within muscle cells that can bind
Of the two types of synapses, based on mode of communication, which is less common but allows faster signal transmission?
One of the reasons you might struggle to lift a heavy object with your arm fully extended is because
full extension results in decreased overlap between thick and thin filaments in the muscle.
Oxidative fibers are
red and fatigue-resistant
Potassium has a higher concentration
inside the cell versus outside the cell, whereas sodium has a higher concentration outside versus inside the cell
The calcium ions involved in skeletal muscle contraction bind to a(n) ____ subunit
The function of myelin is to
produce faster nerve impulse propagation
The glial cell that helps to circulate cerebrospinal fluid is the
The glial cell that helps to form the blood-brain barrier is the
The hyperpolarization that occurs at the end of an action potential is due to the prolonged
open state of voltage-gated potassium channels
The membranous network that wraps around myofibrils and holds relatively high concentrations of calcium is known as the
The narrow space that separates the motor neuron and the skeletal muscle fiber in a neuromuscular junction is called the
The nervous system controls the activity of muscles and glands. Muscles and glands can generate changes and are therefore called
The neurons that are responsible for integrating information by retrieving, processing, storing, & "deciding" how the body responds to stimuli are
The portion of the nervous system that has voluntary control over skeletal muscles is the ____ division
The separation of oppositely charged ionic particles across a resting neuron's membrane results in a potential that is measured as a
The spring-like property that returns muscle to its original length after a contraction ends is
The type of muscle fibers that are striated, form Y-shaped branches, and are joined by intercalated discs are
The type of muscle fibers that have only a single nucleus, both thick and thin filaments, but no Z discs, are
To initiate a smooth muscle cell contraction, calcium enters the cell and binds to
calmodulin, which then binds to and activates myosin light-chain kinase
Typically, the resting membrane potential of a neuron is
When a neurotransmitter causes the opening of chemically gated potassium channels on the postsynaptic cell, the postsynaptic potential that results is an
IPSP, which is a hyperpolarization
When an impulse arrives at the knob of the motor neuron, calcium
enters through voltage-gated channels and triggers the release of transmitter
When multiple presynaptic neurons release neurotransmitter at various locations onto the postsynaptic neuron at the same time, this results in
When voltage-gated K+ channels open on the conductive segment of a neuron,
potassium exits, repolarizing the cell to a negative value
Which are possible functions of skeletal muscles?
Maintenance of posture.
Both highly coordinated & localized simple movements.
Support of certain body organs.
Regulation of the movement of material through certain body tracts.
Which is a correct listing of the hierarchy of a skeletal muscle's components, beginning with the smallest?
Which is the correct order of the connective tissue layers of a skeletal muscle, beginning with the most superficial?
What are general functions of the nervous system?
Responding to information.
Processing & evaluating information.
Which is NOT a general function of the nervous system?
Transporting materials throughout the body.
What proteins are found in thin filaments?
Which is NOT a protein found in thin filaments?
Which structures are reservoirs that store acetylcholine?
The point where there are enough positive charges entering the cell to open the voltage gated channels and start an action potential is known as
During the depolarization phase of an action potential, which channels are open on the axon?
You walk into a restaurant and amidst the sights, sounds, and smells of food preparation, you notice that you have begun to salivate. This is evidence that a particular neuronal circuit has been activated. Which one?
Sweat glands are controlled by the
sympathetic nervous system
What are functions of cerebrospinal fluid?
protects CNS by providing liquid cushion
Keeps CNS environment stable
Transports waste and nutrients
Protects against chemical fluctuations
Sleep is important for
consolidation of memories
growth, rest, energy conservation, & strength renewal
What is the correct order for the events that occur during a reflex?
1) a stimulus activates a receptor
2) impulse travels through sensory neuron to the CNS
3) information is processed by interneurons
4) motor neuron transmits impulse to the effector
5) effector responds
Dual innervation means that an individual effector
receives input from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
Formation of new memories involves the ________, and storage of long term memories primarily involves the ________.
hippocampus; association areas of the cerebrum
The superior olivary complex is involved in detecting the
location of a sound
the cranial nerve that innervates smooth muscle and glands of the heart, lungs, larynx, trachea, and most abdominal organs is the ____nerve
which division functions to conserve energy and replenish the supply of nutrients?
in the heart, activation of these receptors increases heart rate
which is NOT an effector innervated by the autonomic nervous system
Which skills are associated with the right hemisphere for most individuals?
visuospatial skills & music
The location of conscious thought processes and the origin of all complex intellectual functions is the
Pre-ganglionic axons of the ANS release
Which type of innervation causes reduced blood flow to the digestive tract?
This portion of the brain ensures that skeletal muscle contraction follows the correct pattern leading to smooth, coordinated movements.
information about pain and temperature is conveyed to the brain by way of the
When Ach binds to nicotinic receptors it:
always produces an excitatory response
Neurons of the thalamus that are part of sensory conduction pathways are considered:
The superior colliculi help you respond to
visual stimuli — for example, when you turn toward a bright flash of light.
the cranial nerve responsible for movement of the medial rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles is the ____ nerve
a diminished reflex response that may indicate damage to a segment of the spinal cord is a(n) ____ reflex
What is the name of the brainstem sensory area that contains axons that project to the cerebral cortex to arouse us from sleep?
reticular activating system
the vasomotor center is an important regulator of ____ and is located in the ____.
blood pressure; medulla oblongata
the blood-brain barrier is made up of
astrocyte perivascular feet and capillary endothelial cells
the anterior spinocerebellar tract conducts signals about
proprioception from the lower limbs
the ____ is composed of multiple structures that collaboratively process and experience emotions
the primary gustatory cortex processes information about ____ and is located in the ____
damage to which lobe of the brain (that normally plans appropriate behavior) has been most frequently associated with personality abnormalities?
the portion of the brain involved primarily with vision is the
The cranial nerve that controls tongue movement is the
which structure serves as the main relay point for sensory information that is headed to a primary sensory region of the cerebral cortex?
which division functions to increase alertness and direct bodily responses in stressful situations?
The largest and longest nerve in the body is the _________ nerve.
A person with damage to the premotor cortex area that coordinates eye movements:
can understand the words but cannot follow the lines on a page
This portion of the brain secretes the hormone melatonin, which helps to regulate the body's circadian rhythm.
Which space associated with the spinal cord meninges contains cerebrospinal fluid?
a posterior root contains
sensory axons only
An electroencephalogram measures:
electrical activity in the brain
which is NOT characteristic of the parasympathetic division of the ANS?
Long post-ganglionic axons
The endocrine system, ANS, hunger, and thirst are all regulated by the
Which statement accurately describes spinal nerves?
Each spinal nerve is mixed in that it contains some sensory axons and some motor axons
Which statement accurately compares the motor systems of the somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system?
the SNS does not have ganglia for its motor neurons but the ANS does
Consider a basketball player whose heart is racing during the final moments of a game. With seconds on the clock, she makes a jump shot. Her excitement is a function of her ________ nervous system, and her movements are a function of her _______ nervous system.
which would be the correct order of brain activation if one were to understand a sentence and repeat it aloud?
Wernicke area, Broca area, Primary motor cortex
Which of the cranial meninges consists of dense irregular connective tissue in two layers (the periosteal layer and the meningeal layer)?
The major pathway of communication between the right and left hemispheres is the
Reflexes are described as
rapid and involuntary
the neurons that directly innervate skeletal muscles are called
lower motor neurons
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