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fon100 exam 3: chapters 10-13
Terms in this set (34)
What does it mean for amino acids to be essential versus non-essential?
essential- 9; need to be obtained through your diet
non-essential- 5; our body can make them ourselves
What are the functions of protein?
cells growth, maintenance, and repair
enzymes and hormones
strong immune system
Wound Healing and Tissues Regeneration
What are complete proteins, along with food examples?
When a food item contains all nine amino acids:
meat, quinoa, eggs, and soybeans
can combine two incomplete food items to make a complete protein:
beans and rice, peanut butter on toast, and a salad with chickpeas and sunflower seeds
What are the various types of vegetarianism & what key animal products are included or excluded?
-Lacto vegetarians only consume dairy from animal sources like milk, cheese, or yogurt
-Lacto-Ovo vegetarians consume dairy and eggs from animals.
-Pescatarians will consume fish and seafood on top of dairy and eggs.
What are complementary proteins?
Grains and legumes are called complementary proteins because when you combine them, you get all of the essential amino acids. Nuts and seeds are also complementary to legumes because they contain tryptophan, methionine and cysteine.
What are a few examples of complementary protein in a meal?
Peanut butter sandwich or spread on grainy crackers.
Hummus on bread or crackers.
Veggie patties (made with lentils/legumes) on a roll or bread.
Macaroni and cheese.
Grilled cheese sandwiches.
Tofu with rice, quinoa, barley, or buckwheat.
What are the health benefits of a vegetarian diet?
Reduced risk for some cancers - associated with higher fiber intake.
Fewer digestive issues - associated with higher fiber intake.
Reduced risk of kidney diseases - associated with higher intake of vegetable proteins (legumes, soy).
Reduced risk for heart disease - associated with decreased saturated fat intake.
Lower blood pressure - associated with increased intake of fruits and vegetables.
What are nutrients of concern in a vegetarian diet?
B12-essential for keeping blood, nerves, and DNA healthy
vitamin D, ω-3 fatty acids, calcium, iron, and zinc
Do Americans generally eat adequate amounts of protein?
protein consumption is typically greater than need on a daily basis.
Know how to calculate the RDA for daily protein consumption for a given individual.
take your weight in kilograms (weight in pounds divided by 2.2) and multiply it by 0.8 to get the total grams of protein needed for a normal healthy adult each day based on the RDA.
What are the top 8 food allergens?
What is the difference between a food allergy, sensitivity, and intolerance?
allergy- immunologically based abnormal reaction to a food; symptoms usually develop within a few minutes to two hours after eating
sensitivity- reactions to food that do not cause an allergic reaction and are not an intolerance; symptoms can be uncomfortable, they do not cause life-threatening symptoms.
intolerance- reaction to food that has nothing to do with the immune system
What is anemia?
a deficiency in red blood cells or hemoglobin.
fatigue, skin pallor, shortness of breath, lightheadedness, dizziness, or a fast heartbeat.
lack of iron
What are the steps in building proteins?
How much of your body is made up of protein?
approximately 20 percent of the human body
What is an epi-pen?
deliver epinephrine in an auto-injector to help ease a severe allergic reaction
What happens when excess water-soluble vitamins are consumed?
quickly excreted in urine and will rarely accumulate to toxic levels
can cause diarrhea
They get excreted when they are not needed, which means the body needs to get these more often to utilize them in the body
What happens when excess fat-soluble vitamins are consumed?
stored in the tissues to be used later
Why is vitamin A important in the body?
skin, vision, reproduction, and immune function.
enable the epithelial tissue and bone cells to form.
What are the general functions of vitamins E and C?
E- important antioxidant; protect the cells from free radicals; keep the skin moisturized and healthy
C- wound healing; form collagen; aiding in the absorption of iron
What are good food sources of vitamin E?
sunflower seeds, almonds, peanuts, spinach, kiwis, and tomatoes
Be familiar with what happens when you are cooking foods that contain vitamin C.
Vitamin C is very fragile, so it may be broken down or destroyed easily. Cooking (with high heat and for a long duration) and exposure to oxygen are two common instances where Vitamin C can be destroyed
Which vitamin can be made upon exposure to sunlight?
What are health problems associated with low vitamin D intake?
at risk for osteoporosis (low bone mass) or get rickets in children. Rickets is when the bones do not mineralize correctly.
Which vitamin aids blood clotting?
What is the general function of B vitamins?
maintaining good health and well-being
building blocks of a healthy body
direct impact on your energy levels, brain function, and cell metabolism
helps prevent infections and helps support or promote: cell health.
Which compounds in plants give them their colors?
What are antioxidants?
compounds that inhibit oxidation, a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals and chain reactions that may damage the cells of organisms
What type of safety testing do supplements have to go through?
What are free radicals?
oxygen-containing molecules with an uneven number of electrons. The uneven number allows them to easily react with other molecules. Free radicals can cause large chain chemical reactions in your body because they react so easily with other molecules. These reactions are called oxidation.
adversely alter lipids, proteins, and DNA and trigger a number of human diseases.
What is the benefit of consuming phytochemicals?
reducing risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer, as well as age-related physical and mental decline
What are the names of few phytochemicals?
Carotenoids, indoles, lignans, phytoestrogens, stanols, saponins, terpenes, flavonoids, carotenoids, anthocyanidins, phenolic acids, and many more
What is the vitamin deficiency associated with neural tube defects?
What are the deficiency/signs or symptoms related to B6, B12, B3 Niacin, B1 Thiamine, and Biotin?
B6- Muscle weakness, dermatitis, mouth sores, fatigue, confusion
B12- Muscle weakness, sore tongue, anemia, nerve damage, neural-tube defects
B3 (Niacin)- Pellagra: diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia, death
B1 (Thiamine)- Beriberi: fatigue, confusion, movement impairment, swelling, heart failure
Biotin- Muscle weakness, dermatitis, fatigue, hair loss
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