PP Chp 6 with practice questions

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- Explain what is a self-concept and how it develops
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Terms in this set (112)
- East Asians are more likely to view themselves aschanging across different situations, to search for information outside of the individual to explain behvaiour.- Define self-esteem and identify how differences in level and stability of self-esteem relate to emotions and behaviourthe amount of value people place on themselves, high self esteem is good for coping with failure, people with low self esteem are more persuaded by social influence they experience conflict between wanting success and approval and being afraid of falling short- People with unstable self esteem have more difficultycoping and they tend to be more defensive and prone to anger- Explain the difference between self-esteem and self-concept clarityhow well people know themselves or think they know themselves- People with high self esteem have ________ self concept clarityhigh- Myth-too many people suffer from low self esteemthe average person sees themselves as better than average- Myth-people with high self esteem are smarter, more likeable and more physically attractivesome correlation for self ratings but not for objective measures, people with high self esteem tend to believe these things themselves- Myth-People with high self esteem do better in school, achieve more in their job and have greater life satisfactioncorrelations but one may not directly cause the other, accomplishing these things makes us feel good- Myth-Interventions that aim to increase achievement by increasing the self esteem of school students are successfulless successful than more traditional methods, bolstering self esteem can actually lead to poorer performance- Myth-Relationships are more likely to break up if a partner has low self esteem than if a partner has high self esteemboth high and low self esteem cause problems in relationships- Myth-Bullies suffer from low self esteem so they need to lash out and hurt othersthere is no correlation between self esteem and self report bullying or peer reported likelihood of bullying- Myth-people with low self esteem are likely to abuse alcohol and other drugs than people with high self esteemno correlation- Myth-People with low self esteem are likely to engage in premature sexual activity and to have unwanted pregnancy than people with high self esteemevents that cause self esteem, correlation does not equal causation, people with high self esteem are often less inhibited and more willing to take risks than people with low self esteem- List and describe the 11 steps for conducting content analysis.identify research question, decide if content analysis will answer the research question, material needed, unit of analysis, content coding system, test system, train coders, collect responses,code data, analyze data,interpret results- Define social identity and explain the difference between authentic and strategic self-presentation.- List and describe the 5 most common types of self-presentation tacticsingratiation, intimidation, self promotion, exemplification, supplication- high self monitors aresensitive to the behaviour of others in social situations and use other people as a guideline for their own behaviour, take the lead initiating conversations and managing smooth social interaction, want external rewards from relationships value physical attractiveness and social status, choose friends for activities- Low self monitors haveless concern for social appropriateness and pay less attention to what others in a situation are doing, consistent in their expressive behaviour across situations, show great correspondence between their attitude and behaviours, pleasure in relationships from being with partners and valued kindness, consideration and loyalty, choose activities for friends- Comment on the evidence for what Jean Twenge has dubbed 'The Narcissism Epidemic" and articulate the difference between high self-esteem and narcissism- Explain how connection to our future selves can help us to make better decisions in the presentKey Terms- Attributive self-descriptionsIn the Twenty Statements Test, aspects of the self-concept that refer to psychological or physiological states or traits- Authentic self-presentationPresenting a true, correct image of the self- CollectivismThe belief that the views, needs, and goals of the group are more important than those of the individual, emphasizing the interconnectedness of individuals and the group- Collectivistic culturesCultures that emphasize collectivism more than individualism- Content analysisOrganizing and making sense out of people's verbal responses in a meaningful way- ExemplificationA self-presentation strategy of projecting a false image of the self as a good example in order to arouse guilt in others- Feared selvesNegative image of what we do not want to become or dread becoming in the future.- Hoped-for selvesA positive image of what we would like to become in the future- IdentityOur place in society; definitions and standards imposed on us by others- Identity crisisWhen a socially ascribed identity does not match our unique self-concept.- Impression managementUsing self-presentation to convey a specific image of the self to others, for example, as likable, dangerous, competent, a good example, or helpless- IndividualismThe belief in the uniqueness of the individual, emphasizing the separateness of individuals from the group- Individualistic culturesCultures that emphasize individualism more than collectivism- IngratiationA self-presentation strategy of projecting a false image of the self as likable in order to arouse affection in others.- IntimidationA self-presentation strategy of projecting a false image of the self as dangerous in order to arouse fear in others- Looking-glass selfSeeing our self as others see us- Mirror testA test to see if an animal or human infant has a sense of self by showing self-directed behaviours while looking in a mirror. Often tested by placing a red spot on the research subject and observing its behaviour- Objective self-awarenessSeeing the self as an object of social scrutiny- Physical self-descriptionsPhysical qualities without implying social roles or group membership such as the information you might find on a driver's licence- Possible selvesImages of what we hope, fear, or expect that we may become in the future- Qualitative methodsResearch methods that classify, judge, or organize participants' verbal responses into themes or patterns, captures and discovers meaning from the data, data in words or observations- Quantitative methodsResearch methods that use numerical measures of some sort including questionnaires, rating scales, test scores, and the like, distinct variables, data in numbers, analysis in statistics and charts- Reflected appraisalsThe opinions of significant others that are used as a mirror to evaluate ourselves- Self-conceptThe set of ideas and inferences we hold about ourselves.- Self-concept clarityHow well people know themselves; consistency of self-concept- Self-esteemThe evaluative component of the self; how we evaluate ourselves- Self-esteem stabilityHow consistent people's feelings of self-worth are over time; consistency of self-esteem.- Self-handicappingPurposely setting oneself up for failure in order to have a ready-made excuse when things go wrong and look particularly good when things go right.- Self-monitoringA personality trait that describes the extent to which people are aware of and manipulate their self-presentations, expressive behaviours, and nonverbal displays of emotion in order to control the images and impressions others form of them.- Self-presentationActing, speaking, or dressing in a certain way in order to convey a specific image of ourselves to our self or others- Self-promotionA self-presentation strategy of projecting a false image of the self as competent in order to arouse respect in others- Social self-descriptionsSocial roles, institutional memberships, socially defined status- Stereotype threatThe distress people feel in a situation where their performance may confirm a stereotype. This distress causes them to perform worse than they are capable of.- Strategic self-presentationPresenting a false image of the self to others in order to achieve a goal- SupplicationA self-presentation strategy of projecting a false image of the self as helpless in order to arouse nurturance in others- Twenty Statements Test (TST)A test of self-concept where participants generate 20 answers to the statement "I am ______.In humans, mirror recognition generally develops A) a few days after birth. B) at about six months. C) between one and two years. D) at about three years.C) between one and two years.It has been show that chimps who have been _______________are unable to recognize themselves in the mirror test even after much practice. A) raised by humans B) taken from their mothers and raised in isolation C) deficient in their language development D) raised in zoosB) taken from their mothers and raised in isolationGallup and others saw chimps' self-directed behaviors in this mirror test as evidence of chimpanzee A) self-recognition. B) vanity. C) intelligence. D) language potential.A) self-recognition.Chyou is Chinese. According to Dr. Stephen Heine at the University of British Columbia, which of the following is most likely to be true regarding her worldview? A) Possess an independent self-concept B) Views others as malleable C) Views the social world as malleable D) Views herself as malleableD) Views herself as malleableAll of the following are true of individuals with high self-esteem EXCEPT A) they are better at coping with failure. B) they are more easily persuaded by social influence. C) they are more physically healthy D) they are less conflicted between desire for success and desire for approval.B) they are more easily persuaded by social influence.When members of an identifiable group are made aware of cultural stereotypes about that group, they are sometimes unable to perform up to their potential as a result of a phenomenon known as A) prejudice. B) social facilitation. C) in-group out-group. D) stereotype threat.D) stereotype threat.In a study comparing American university students with Japanese university students on the Twenty Statements Test (TST), it was found that A) American students fell into the attributive self-description more than the Japanese. B) Japanese students fell into the attributive self-description more than the Americans. C) both groups were equal on the attributive self-description scale. D) there is no attributive self-description scale on the TST.A) American students fell into the attributive self-description more than the Japanese.When Gallup painted a red dot on chimps' foreheads and then had them view themselves in a mirror, what percentage recognized that they were looking at themselves and touched in the region of the dot? A) 0 B) 10 C) 25 D) 70C) 25By 21 to 25 months, roughly _____% of infants are able to recognize themselves in a mirror. A) 10 B) 25 C) 50 D) 75D) 75The textbook suggests that an identity is _____________ and includes definitions and standards imposed by others including values, interpersonal roles, potentialities, etc. A) genetic B) imposed by family C) projected by the group D) socially definedD) socially definedActing, speaking, or dressing in a certain way to convey a specific image of ourselves is defined in the textbook as A) self-presentation. B) self-definition. C) self-portrayal. D) self-augmentation.A) self-presentation.Adolescents begin to build their self-concept, in part, by internalizing the evaluations of them by others in a process known as A) reflected appraisal. B) identification. C) internalization of other. D) mirroring.A) reflected appraisal.One key factor in Gallup's study that seems to be necessary for a chimp to demonstrate self-awareness in his experiment is A) intelligence. B) being raised by humans. C) prior experience with mirrors. D) having seen an adult chimp go through the procedure.C) prior experience with mirrors.Erik Erikson suggested that almost all adolescents experience A) an identity crisis. B) some form of hallucinations. C) desire for an identity similar to one or both of their parents. D) Oedipal identification.A) an identity crisis.Katie is a math student. After watching a commercial depicting women as not good at math, she felt that women are respected and lost motivation to pursue her career in math. Which of the following concepts does this example illustrate? A) acceptance B) neurosis C) stereotype threat D) opennessC) stereotype threat__________________ is a personality trait that describes the extent to which people are aware of and manage their self-presentations, expressive behaviors, and nonverbal displays of emotion to control the images and impressions others form of them. Question 1 options: A) Image-projection B) Self-awareness C) Self-monitoring D) Image-managementC) Self-monitoringPresenting oneself with a manufactured image for some ulterior motive is termed _______________ self-presentation. Question 2 options: A) ulterior B) enhanced C) deceptive D) strategicD) strategicUsing procedures similar to Gallup's mirror test, self-recognition has been demonstrated in all of the following EXCEPT Question 3 options: A) elephants. B) dolphins. C) gibbons. D) magpies.C) gibbons.Adolescents are influence by a number of different individuals in their lives. They combine various views and come to internalize the view of Margaret Mead called the Question 4 options: A) societal self. B) generalized other. C) collective other. D) many.B) generalized other.As self-esteem is defined in the textbook, it is Question 5 options: A) objective. B) accurate. C) a perception or opinion. D) a theory.C) a perception or opinion.The textbook suggests that social repressiveness in Victorian England in the middle and late 19 century forced Victorians to do all of the following EXCEPT Question 6 options: A) hide their true selves. B) fear that their true selves could be revealed inadvertently. C) use the family for the expression of true feelings and thoughts. D) become more self-conscious.C) use the family for the expression of true feelings and thoughts.All of the following are suggested as possible factors in the creation of individualism in a society EXCEPT Question 7 options: A) geography. B) urbanization. C) centralized government. D) affluence.C) centralized government.The outcome of the process in which adolescents internalize the evaluations of others to partially form their self-concept is termed the ___________________ by Charles Cooley, an American sociologist. Question 8 options: A) objective self B) acquired self C) reflected self D) looking glass selfD) looking glass selfYou can get some idea of your own level of self-esteem by taking the ____________ Self-Esteem Scale. Question 9 options: A) Eysenck B) Rosenberg C) Baumeister D) CheungB) RosenbergImages of our ___________ selves help us choose our aspirations, maintain motivation, and provide continuity in our self-concepts over time. Question 10 options: A) dominant B) collectivistic C) possible D) identifiedC) possibleResearch suggests that students who do not keep up with readings, make little effort, and fail a class Question 11 options: A) feel quite bad about it. B) experience reduced self-esteem. C) tend to work extra hard when given a second chance. D) don't feel diminished self-esteem as a result.D) don't feel diminished self-esteem as a result.One classic study of self concept is the ___________ Statements Test. Question 12 options: A) Five B) Ten C) Twenty D) FiftyC) TwentyIn Gallup's study of chimpanzee behaviour, how did the chimps' behaviour change from day 1 to day 3 when a mirror was placed in their line of sight? Question 13 options: A) On both days they showed no interest in the mirror at all. B) From the start, they treated the mirror much as a human would by occasionally grooming themselves. C) At first they behaved as if they were looking at a different chimp (bobbing, threatening, etc.), and then started to respond with self-directed responses such as grooming. D) At first they behaved with self-directed behaviours such as grooming, but gradually started to behave as if a second chimp was present and became aggressive.C) At first they behaved as if they were looking at a different chimp (bobbing, threatening, etc.), and then started to respond with self-directed responses such as grooming.The regulation of public self-presentation is called Question 14 options: A) self-aggrandizement. B) impression regulation. C) self-regulation. D) impression management.D) impression management.ne study suggests that the possible selves of delinquent teenagers are Question 15 options: A) actually somewhat more positive than those of non-delinquent teenagers. B) about the same as those of non-delinquent teenagers. C) more likely to include criminal than having a job. D) impossible to study due a high rate of refusal to participate in such studies.C) more likely to include criminal than having a job.You have been asked to design a program for a school that will reduce stereotype threat. What will your program focus on? A) Improving the overall grade point average for the school B) Breaking down assumptions that teachers and students make about identifiable groups C) Counseling programs for troubled students D) Developing and anti-bullying programB) Breaking down assumptions that teachers and students make about identifiable groupsIn the study comparing American with Japanese students on the TST, Japanese students responded much more in the __________ category than American students. A) attributive self-description B) physical qualities C) group cohesion D) social self-descriptionsD) social self-descriptionsTriandis suggests that about _________% of the world's population live in collectivistic cultures. Question 3 options: A) 10 B) 20 C) 60 D) 80D) 80Which of the following is NOT an advantage of using open-ended questions in qualitative research? Question 4 options: A) They allow for freedom of expression on the part of the subject. B) Open-ended questions are more reliable than, for example, forced choice questionnaires. C) Asking open-ended questions may be the only way to capture the true feelings of subjects. D) If the experimenter has left out an important concept in the study design, open-ended questions allow subjects to introduce it.B) Open-ended questions are more reliable than, for example, forced choice questionnaires.In addition to the level of self-esteem, researchers study how changeable one's self-esteem is. This variable is known as Question 5 options: A) self-esteem stability. B) self-esteem constancy. C) low self-variance. D) self determinacy.A) self-esteem stability.You are responsible for a group of chimps previously raised in such a way that they failed to develop self-recognition. The program that you design to foster their development of self will likely centers on Question 6 options: A) a quiet, relaxing environment. B) daily mirror practice. C) improved diet. D) increased social interaction.D) increased social interaction.Dr. Aswad studied people's thoughts, feelings, and reactions through open-ended questions. What is the process through which researchers judge, categorize, and analyze the content of these responses in a meaningful fashion called? Question 7 options: A) Numerical method B) Quantitative method C) Content analysis D) Statistical analysisC) Content analysisWhich of the following people are most likely to have an independent self-concept? Question 8 options: A) African Americans B) Americans with Italian ancestry C) Americans living in urban areas D) Quakers living in the USC) Americans living in urban areas______________ analysis involves judging, categorizing, and analyzing the content of essays, stories, etc. Question 9 options: A) Content B) Theme C) Self D) NarrativeA) Content__________________ is a process of purposely holding oneself back in order to have a ready-made excuse for failure other than lack of skill or ability. Question 10 options: A) Personal sabotage B) Failure avoidance C) Self-handicapping D) Self-protectionC) Self-handicappingBy the age of _________, children begin to describe other children using personality attributes in addition to social comparison: She is the hardest worker. Question 11 options: A) 2-3 B) 3-4 C) 5-6 D) 7-8C) 5-6Robert is defensive and attacks if he is criticized. He also tends to be self-aggrandizing and has difficulties in his relationship. Which of the following types of self-esteem is he most likely to possess? Question 12 options: A) Stable and high self-esteem B) Unstable and high self-esteem C) Stable and low self-esteem D) Unstable and low self-esteemB) Unstable and high self-esteemAll of the following are accurate with regard to differences between high and low self-monitors EXCEPT Question 13 options: A) high self monitors report lower external rewards from their relationships. B) professional actors tend to be high self-monitors, politicians, low self-monitors. C) high self-monitors tend to choose friends for activities whereas low self-monitors choose activities for friends. D) low self-monitors report more pleasure in relationships from simply hanging out with friends that high self-monitors.A) high self monitors report lower external rewards from their relationships.Which of the following show signs of self-recognition? Question 14 options: A) Rhesus monkeys B) Orangutans C) Mandrills D) BaboonsB) Orangutans_________ has/have been shown to reduce the impact of the stereotype effect. Question 15 options: A) Encounter groups B) Encouraging self-fulfilling prophecies C) Cathartic counseling D) Writing about things that are importantD) Writing about things that are important