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Arts and Humanities
Chapter 32: Key Figures in European Intellectual History
Terms in this set (83)
(NICCOLÒ MACHIAVELLI [1469-1527]) Renaissance __ philosopher who wrote __.
(NICCOLÒ MACHIAVELLI [1469-1527]) Believed that people are __ and __.
-ungrateful and untrustworthy
(NICCOLÒ MACHIAVELLI [1469-1527]) Urged rulers to study __, avoid __, and always base policy upon the principle that ___.
-the end justifies the means
(DESIDERIUS ERASMUS (1466-1536)) Northern __ who wrote ___.
-"In Praise of Folly"
(DESIDERIUS ERASMUS (1466-1536)) Wrote in _(language)_ while most humanists wrote in __.
-the vernacular (native language)
(DESIDERIUS ERASMUS (1466-1536)) Wanted to __ the Catholic Church, not __.
(MARTIN LUTHER (1483-1546)) _(religion)_ reformer whose criticism of __ helped spark the __.
(MARTIN LUTHER (1483-1546)) Advocated salvation by __, the authority of the __, and a __ of all believers.
-priesthood (position of a priest)
(MARTIN LUTHER (1483-1546)) Believed that Christian women should strive to become models of __ and __.
-wifely obedience and Christian charity
(JOHN CALVIN (1509-1564)) Protestant reformer who wrote ___.
-"The Institutes of the Christian Religion"
(JOHN CALVIN (1509-1564)) Believed in ___ of God, the __ of humanity, and the doctrine of __.
-the absolute omnipotence (the quality of having unlimited or very great power)
(JOHN CALVIN (1509-1564)) Established Geneva as a model __.
(JOHN CALVIN (1509-1564)) Influenced followers who were known as __ in France, __ in Scotland, and __ in England and the New England colonies.
(JOHN CALVIN (1509-1564)) Advocated that each local congregation have a ruling body composed of both __ and __ who carefully supervised __.
-ministers (a person authorized by a church) and laymen (nonordained male member of a Church)
-the moral conduct of the faithful
Luther and Calvin: Both were __ reformers who challenged __ and relied upon __ as the sole source of religious authority. Unlike Luther, Calvin formulated a systematic theology that stressed __. In addition. while Luther relied on ___, Calvin devised a flexible system of church government that resisted __.
-control by the state
(MICHEL DE MONTAIGNE (1533-1592)) French __ who developed the __ as a literary genre
(MICHEL DE MONTAIGNE (1533-1592)) Known for his __ attitude and willingness to __.
-look at all sides of an issue
(NICOLAUS COPERNICUS (1473-1543)) Polish clergyman and astronomer who wrote ___.
-"On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres"
(NICOLAUS COPERNICUS (1473-1543)) Helped launch the __ by challenging the widespread belief in the __ theory that the earth is __.
-the center of the universe
(NICOLAUS COPERNICUS (1473-1543)) Offered a new __ universe in which the earth and the other planets revolve around the __.
(JOHANNES KEPLER (1571-1630)) Began his career as an assistant to the Danish astronomer __.
(JOHANNES KEPLER (1571-1630)) Formulated three laws of __.
(JOHANNES KEPLER (1571-1630)) Proved that planetary orbits are __ rather than circular.
(GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642)) Italian scientist who contributed to the scientific method by conducting ___.
(GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642)) Major accomplishments included using the __ for astronomical observation, formulating __, and popularizing __.
-laws of motion
-the new scientific ideas
(GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642)) Condemned by the __ for publicly advocating __.
-Copernicus's heliocentric theory
(ISAAC NEWTON (1642-1727)) English scientist and mathematician who wrote the __.
(ISAAC NEWTON (1642-1727)) Viewed the universe as a vast machine governed by the universal laws of __ and __.
-gravity and inertia
(ISAAC NEWTON (1642-1727)) Mechanistic view of the universe strongly influenced __.
(FRANCIS BACON (1561-1626)) English __ and __.
-politician and writer
(FRANCIS BACON (1561-1626)) Formalized the empirical method into a general theory of __ known as empiricism
(RENÉ DESCARTES (1596-1650)) French __ and __.
-philosopher and mathematician
(RENÉ DESCARTES (1596-1650)) Used deductive reasoning from __ principles to reach __.
Bacon and Descartes: Both contributed to seventeenth-century scientific development by articulating theories of __. Remember that Bacon's inductive method is based upon __ while Descartes's deductive method is based upon __ and __ to __.
-the scientific method
-systematic doubt and the use of mathematics to express scientific laws
(THOMAS HOBBES (1588-1679)) English political philosopher who wrote __.
(THOMAS HOBBES (1588-1679)) Viewed human beings as naturally __ and prone to __.
(THOMAS HOBBES (1588-1679)) Feared the dangers of __ more than the dangers of __.
(THOMAS HOBBES (1588-1679)) Argued that monarchs have __ and __ political authority.
-absolute and unlimited
(JOHN LOCKE (1632-1704)) English philosopher who wrote __.
-"The Second Treatise of Government"
(JOHN LOCKE (1632-1704)) Viewed humans as __ beings who learn from __.
(JOHN LOCKE (1632-1704)) Formulated the theory of __, arguing that people are born with basic rights to "__(3)__."
-"life, liberty, and property"
(JOHN LOCKE (1632-1704)) Insisted that governments are formed to __.
-protect natural rights
(JOHN LOCKE (1632-1704)) Stated that the governed have a right to rebel against ___.
-rulers who violate natural rights
(VOLTAIRE (1694-1778)) French __ and __ author of __ and __.
-prolific (highly productive)
-essays and letters
(VOLTAIRE (1694-1778)) Championed the enlightened principles of __(4)__
-reason, progress, toleration, and individual liberty
(VOLTAIRE (1694-1778)) Opposed __(3)__
-superstition, intolerance, and ignorance
(VOLTAIRE (1694-1778)) Criticized organized religion for perpetuating __ and __.
-superstition and intolerance
(JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU (1712-1778)) Enlightened thinker best known for writing __.
-"The Social Contract and Emile"
(JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU (1712-1778)) Believed that since "law is the expression of __," the state is based on a __.
-"the general will"
(JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU (1712-1778)) Emphasized the __ of the whole person for __.
(JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU (1712-1778)) Rejected excessive __ and stressed __, thus anticipating __.
-the Romantic movement
(ADAM SMITH (1723-1790)) Scottish __ who wrote __.
-"An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations"
(ADAM SMITH (1723-1790)) Opposed __.
(ADAM SMITH (1723-1790)) Advocated __ and "the __."
-"Invisible Hand of competition"
(MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT (1759-1797)) British __(3)__ who wrote ____.
-writer, philosopher, and feminist
-"A Vindication of the Rights of Woman"
(MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT (1759-1797)) Argued that women are not ___.
-naturally inferior to men
(MARY WOLLSTONECRAFT (1759-1797)) Maintained that women deserve __.
-the same fundamental rights as men.
(EDMUND BURKE (1729-1797)) English __ leader who wrote __.
-"Reflections on the Revolution in France"
(EDMUND BURKE (1729-1797)) Denounced the __ and __ of the French Revolution
-radicalism and violence
(EDMUND BURKE (1729-1797)) Favored ____ (in terms of change).
-gradual and orderly change
(JOHN STUART MILL (1806-1873)) English __ and __ best known for writing __.
-Utilitarian and essayist
-"On Liberty and The Subjection of Women"
(JOHN STUART MILL (1806-1873)) Advocated __ and endorsed __.
(KARL MARX (1818-1883)) Scientific __ who coauthored __.
-"The Communist Manifesto"
(KARL MARX (1818-1883)) Believed that the history of class conflict is best understood through the dialectical process of __, __, and __.
-thesis, antithesis, and synthesis
(KARL MARX (1818-1883)) Contended that a class struggle between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat would lead "to the dictatorship of the __," which in turn would be a transitional phase leading to __.
-proletariat (working-class people)
-a classless society
(CHARLES DARWIN (1809-1882)) British _(occupation)_ who wrote __.
-"The Origin of Species"
(CHARLES DARWIN (1809-1882)) Challenged the idea of special creation by proposing ___.
-a revolutionary theory of biological evolution
(CHARLES DARWIN (1809-1882)) Concluded that every living plant and animal takes part in a constant "__" in which only the "__" survive
-"struggle for existence"
(CHARLES DARWIN (1809-1882)) Argued that the fittest are determined by a process of __.
(SIGMUND FREUD (1856-1939)) Austrian _(occupation)_ who formulated groundbreaking theories of __.
(SIGMUND FREUD (1856-1939)) Theorized that the human psyche contains three distinct parts: (1) the id, which is the center of __; (2) the superego, which is the center of __; and (3) the ego, which is the center of __.
-unconscious sexual and aggressive drives
-pragmatic (rational) reason
(SIGMUND FREUD (1856-1939)) Argued that human behavior is often __.
(ALBERT EINSTEIN (1879-1955)) German _(occupation)_ whose theory of __ undermined Newtonian physics
(ALBERT EINSTEIN (1879-1955)) Challenged traditional conceptions of __(3)__
-time, space, and motion
(ALBERT EINSTEIN (1879-1955)) Contributed to the view that humans live in a universe with __.
(ALBERT EINSTEIN (1879-1955)) Added to the feeling of uncertainty in the __ world.
(FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE (1844-1900)) German _(occupation)_ whose writings influenced __.
(FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE (1844-1900)) Expressed contempt (worthlessness) for middle-class __, saying that it led to a __ and __ existence
-false and shallow
(FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE (1844-1900)) Rejected __ and embraced __.
(FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE (1844-1900)) Believed that the "will-to-__" of a few heroic "supermen" could successfully __ the world.
(ALBERT CAMUS (1913-1960) AND JEAN-PAUL SARTRE (1905-1980)) French __ philosophers and writers
-existentialist (the existence of the individual person as a free and responsible agent determining their own development through acts of the will)
(ALBERT CAMUS (1913-1960) AND JEAN-PAUL SARTRE (1905-1980)) Questioned the efficacy of __ and __ to understand the human situation.
-reason and science
(ALBERT CAMUS (1913-1960) AND JEAN-PAUL SARTRE (1905-1980)) Believed that __(3)__ are myths, and that humans live in a __ world, __ and __ (how do they live?).
-God, reason, and progress
-alone and isolated
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