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phasic 7 quiz 3

Terms in this set (64)

a. Libertarian
i. Influenced by such Philosophers as John Locke and Robert Nozick
ii. Focuses on. individuals' liberties, and emphasizes the duties to respect others' liberties and the state's duty to protect the liberties, conceived as rights, of its citizens when they are threatened.
iii. This view leads to a conception of the "minimal state," sometimes called the "night watchman state," designed to prevent or punish transgressions of individual boundaries., including individuals' property rights.
iv. Taxation is generally opposed as an unjust violation of liberty rights, especially if it goes beyond what is necessary for the minimal state to protect liberty rights.
v. In this view, health care is not a right, but people may voluntarily choose to act charitably and contribute to health care for others and may within a community even voluntarily consent to some form of healthcare distribution.
vi. Public health may be against contagious diseases—a form of boundary violation— rather than on broader conceptions of health promotion that mark much contemporary public health.

b. Utilitarian
i. Utilitarian theories of justice historically shaped by such figures as-Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, ground conceptions of justice in the principle of utility, which requires actions, policies, or rules that produce maximal net benefits.
ii. According to Mill, " justice is a name for certain moral requirements, which. stand higher in the scale of social utility, and are therefore of more paramount obligation, than any others; though particular cases may occur in. which some other social duty is so important, as. to overrule any one of the general maxims of justice."
iii. Justice, which involves correlative duties and rights, is not independently warranted but is rather derivative from utility.
1. In this framework, duties and rights in just health care or just public health presuppose a foundation in net social utility.
2. Health care and public health can be valued at least to the extent that they contribute to net social utility.
3. justice has to do with the way that tangible benefits and burdens are assigned, and not with the happiness or unhappiness that the assignees experience.
c. Egalitarian
i. Egalitarian theories of justice draw on philosophical and religious perspectives that recognize the. equality of persons in at least some respects and the importance of treating them as equals in certain respects.
ii. Although there are a number of different versions of egalitarian theories, many of those in the, last several decades have been influenced by the magisterial theory of justice propounded by John Rawls.
iii. These generally recognize equalities in certain basic social goods but allow for other inequalities as well, and most of them recognize the possible legitimacy of a two-tiered system, with the lowest tier being a decent minimum or adequate level of health care (to be set in a deliberative democratic way).
iv. Norman Daniels, building on Rawls conception of "fair equality of opportunity argues that justice requires a society to remove or reduce obstacles that prevent fair equality of opportunity.
1. This includes providing programs that compensate for persons' disadvantages such as their health disadvantages.

d. Communitarian
i. Communitarian theories of justice, drawing on a number of philosophical perspectives, do not assign independent significance to individual rights, such as liberty, in contrast to libertarians (and to proponents of egalitarian justice).
ii. Their conception of just health care and public health depends on the community's conception of the good of health, in relation to other goods, and the contributions of health care and public health to all those goods, not simply to health.
1. Daniel Callahan approaches the allocation of health care from a putative shared substantive consensus about the good society. Hence, his questions for judging just allocations in health care and public health focus on their contributions to a good society: Just what is it that good health brings to a society and how much and what kind of it are necessary for a good society.
iii. This approach resonates with public health ethics», in viewing the community as both a source of insight into values and as a target (beyond the aggregation of individuals)' for just health care and public health