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Public Copy: AP Euro Final Review
(set 1) https://quizlet.com/288305074/test-set-3-ap-european-history-crash-course-key-terms-ap-intellectual-figures-flash-cards/ Crash Course
Terms in this set (90)
Humanism (Renaissance and Exploration, 1450-1648)
The scholarly interest in the study of the classical texts, values, and styles of Greece and Rome. Humanism contributed to the promotion of a liberal arts education based on the study of the classics, rhetoric, and history.
Christian Humanism (Renaissance and Exploration, 1450-1648) (what did they study?)
A branch of humanism associated with Northern Europe. Like thier italian counterparts, the christian humanists closely studied classical texts. However, they also sought to give humanism a specifically Christian context. Christian humanists like Desiderious Erasmus were commited to religious piety and institutional reform.
Vernacular (Renaissance and Exploration, 1450-1648) (examples)
The everyday language of a region or country. Miguel de Cervantes, Geoffrey Chaucer, Dante, and Martin Luther all encouraged the development of their national languages by writing in the vernacular. Desiderius Erasmus, however, continued to write in Latin.
New Monarchs (Renaissance and Exploration, 1450-1648) (key new monarchs)
European monarchs who created professional armies and a more centralized administrative bureaucracy. The new monarchs also negotiated a new relationship with the Catholic Church. Key new monarchs include Charles VII, Louis XI, Henry VII, and Ferdinand and Isabella.
Secularism (Renaissance and Exploration, 1450-1648)
Promoted by the Humanists and the Renaissance. Trend toward making religious faith a private domain rather than one directly connected to state power. Promoted a search for nonreligious explanations for political authority and natural phenomena.
Columbian Exchange (Renaissance and Exploration, 1450-1648)
The interchange of plants, animals, diseases, and human populations between the Old World and the New World. Opened new opportunities for Europeans while at the same time creating a demographic catastrophe for indigenous peoples in the Americas.
Mercantilism (Renaissance and Exploration, 1450-1648) (what did it emphasize?)
Economic philosophy calling for close government regulation of the economy. Mercantilist theory emphasized building a strong, self-sufficient economy by maximizing exports and limiting imports. Mercantilists supported the acquisition of colonies as sources of raw materials and markets for finished goods. The favorable balance of trade would enable a country to accumulate reserves of gold and silver. Mercantilism gave the new monarchies a leading role in promoting commercial development and the acquisition of New World colonies.
Commercial Revolution (Renaissance and Exploration, 1450-1648)
Innovations in banking and finance that promoted the growth of urban financial centers and a money economy.
Joint-Stock Company (Renaissance and Exploration, 1450-1648)
A business arrangement in which many investors raise money for a venture too large for any of them to undertake alone. They share the profits in proportion to the amount they invest. English entrepreneurs used joint-stock companies to finance the establishment of New World colonies.
Indulgence (Age of Reformation, 1450-1648)
A certificate granted by the people in return for the payment of a fee to the church. The certificate stated that the soul of a dead relative or a friends of the purchaser would have his time in purgatory reduced by many years or canceled altogether.
Anabaptists (Age of Reformation, 1450-1648)
Sixteenth-century Protestants who insisted that only adult baptism conformed to Scripture. Protestant and Catholic leaders condemned Anabaptists as radicals who advocated the complete separation of church and state.
Predestination (Age of Reformation, 1450-1648)
Doctrine espoused by John Calvin that God has known since the beginning of time who will be saved and who will be damned. Calvin declared that "by an eternal and immutable counsel, God has once and for all determined, both whom he would admit to salvation, and whom he would condemn to destruction."
Hugenots (Age of Reformation, 1450-1648)
French Protestants who followed the teachings of John Calvin
Politiques (Age of Reformation, 1450-1648)
Rulers who put political necessities above personal beliefs. For example, both Henry IV of France and Elizabeth I of England subordinated theological controversies in order to achieve political unity.
Putting-Out System (Age of Reformation, 1450-1648)
A pre-industrial manufacturing system in which an entrepreneur would bring materials to rural people who worked on them in their own homes. For example, watch manufacturers in Swiss towns employed villagers to make parts for their products. The system enabled entrepreneurs to avoid restrictive guild regulations.
Baroque Art (Age of Reformation, 1450-1648)
An artistic style of the seventeenth century that featured dramatic action, intense emotions, and exaggerated lighting. Monarchies, city-states, and the Catholic Church commissioned Baroque works as a means of promoting their own stature and power.
Absolutism (Absolutism and Constitutionalism, 1648-1815)
A system of government in which the ruler claims sole and incontestable power. Absolute monarchs were not limited by constitutional restraints.
Divine Right of Kings (Absolutism and Constitutionalism, 1648-1815) (and Jacques-Bénige Bossuet)
The idea that rulers receive their authority from God and are answerable only to God.
Jacques-Bénige Bossuet, a French Bishop and court preacher to Louis XIV, provided the theological justification for the divine right of kings by declaring that "the state monarchy is the supremest thing on earth, for kings are not only God's lieutenants upon Earth and sit upon God's throne, but even by God himself are called gods. In the Scriptures, kings are called Gods, and their power is compared to the divine powers."
Intendants (Absolutism and Constitutionalism, 1648-1815)
French royal officials who supervised provincial governments in the name of the king. Intendants played a key role in establishing French absolutism.
Constitutionalism (Absolutism and Constitutionalism, 1648-1815)
A system of government in which rulers share power with parliaments made up of elected representatives.
Transatlantic Slave Trade (Absolutism and Constitutionalism, 1648-1815)
The exchange of goods and labor between Africa, the Americas, and Europe. West Indian sugar, Chesapeake tobacco, British manufacturing goods, and West African slaves dominated transatlantic slave trade.
Scientific Method (Absolutism and Constitutionalism, 1648-1815)
The use of inductive logic and controlled experiments to discover regular patterns in nature. These patterns or natural laws can be described with mathematical formulas.
Scientific Revolution (Absolutism and Constitutionalism, 1648-1815)
New ideas in science based on the scientific method that challenged classical views of the cosmos, nature, and the human body.
Enlightenment (Absolutism and Constitutionalism, 1648-1815)
Applied scientific revolution concepts and practices to political, social, and ethical issues. Led to an increased-but not unchallenged-emphasis on reason in European culture.
Philosophes (Absolutism and Constitutionalism, 1648-1815)
Eighteenth century writers who stressed reason and advocated freedom of expression, religious toleration, and a reformed legal system. Leading philosophes such as Voltaire fought irrational prejudice and believed that society should be open to people of talent.
Deism (Absolutism and Constitutionalism, 1648-1815)
The belief that God created the universe but allowed it to operate through the laws of nature. Deists believed that natural laws could be discovered by the use of human reason.
General Will (Absolutism and Constitutionalism, 1648-1815)
A concept in political philosophy referring to the desire or interest of a people as a whole. As used by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who championed the concept, the general will is identical to the rule of law.
Enlightened Depotism (Absolutism and Constitutionalism, 1648-1815) (what did Enlightened monarchs support and who are some Enlightened Monarchs)
A system of government supported by leading philosophies in which an absolute ruler uses his or her power for the good of the people. Enlightened monarchs supported religious tolerance, increased economic productivity, administrative reform, and scientific academies. Joseph II, Frederick the Great, and Catherine the Great were best-known Enlightened monarchs.
Enclosure Movement (Absolutism and Constitutionalism, 1648-1815)
The process by which British landlords consolidated or fenced in common lands to increase the production of cash crops. The Enclosure Acts led to an increase in the size of farms held by large landowners.
Agricultural Revolution (Absolutism and Constitutionalism, 1648-1815)
The innovations in farm production that began in eighteenth-century Holland and spread to England. These advances replaced the open-field agriculture system with a more scientific and mechanized system of agriculture that produced more food with fewer workers, increased food supply, and reduced the number of demographic crisis caused by major epidemic diseases.
Invisible hand (Absolutism and Constitutionalism, 1648-1815)
Phrase coined by Adam Smith to refer to the self-regulating nature of a free marketplace.
Neoclassicism (Absolutism and Constitutionalism, 1648-1815)
A style of art and architecture that emerged in the later 18th century as part of a general revival of interest in Classical Greek and Roman themes of order, balance, and harmony.
Parlements (Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction, 1648-1815)
French regional courts dominated by hereditary nobles. The parliament of Paris claimed the right to register royal decrees before they could become law.
Girondins (Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction, 1648-1815)
A moderate republican faction active in the French Revolution from 1791 to 1793. The Girondin Party favored a policy of extending the French Revolution beyond France's borders.
Jacobins (Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction, 1648-1815)
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. Led by Maximilien Robespierre, the Jacobins unleashed the Reign of Terror. Other key leaders included Jean-Paul Marat, Georges-Jacques Danton, and the Comte de Mirabeau. The Marquis de Lafayette was not a Jacobin.
Sans-culottes (Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction, 1648-1815)
The working people of Paris who were characterized by their long working pants and support for radical politics.
Levée en Masse (Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction, 1648-1815)
The French policy of conscripting all males into the army. This created a new type of military force based upon mass participation and a fully mobilized economy.
Thermidorian Reaction (Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction, 1648-1815)
Name given to the reaction against the radicalism of the French Revolution. It is associated with the end of the Reign of Terror and reassertion of bourgeoisie power in the Directory.
Legitimacy (Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction, 1648-1815)
The principle that rulers who have been driven from their thrones should be restored to power. For example, the Congress of Vienna restored the Bourbons to power in France.
Balance of Power (Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction, 1648-1815)
A strategy to maintain an equilibrium, in which weak countries join together to match or exceed the power of a stronger country. It was one of the guiding principles of the Congress of Vienna.
Nationalism (Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction, 1648-1815)
Belief that a nation consists of a group of people who share similar traditions, history, and language. Nationalists argued that every nation should be sovereign and include all members of a community. Thus, a person's greatest loyalty should be to a nation-state.
Romanticism (Conflict, Crisis, and Reaction, 1648-1815)
Philosophical and artistic movement in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Europe that represented a reaction against the Neoclassical emphasis upon reason. Romantic artists, writers, and composers stressed emotion and the contemplation of nature.
Industrial Revolution (Industralization and its Effects, 1815-1914)
Began in Great Britain in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Britain established its industrial dominance through the mechanization of textile production, iron production, and the construction of a network of railroads.
Conservatism (Industralization and its Effects, 1815-1914)
Political philosophy that emerged after 1789. Conservatives preferred monarchs over republics, traditions over revolution, and established religion over Enlightenment skepticism. Conservatives favored gradual change in the established social order.
Liberalism (Industralization and its Effects, 1815-1914)
Political philosophy in the nineteenth century that advocated representative government dominated by the propertied masses, minimal government interference in the economy, religious toleration, and civil liberties such as freedom of speech.
Concert of Europe (Industralization and its Effects, 1815-1914) (or Congress System)
Sought to maintain the status quo through collective action and adherence to conservative principles. Metternich used the Concert of Europe to suppress nationalist and liberal revolutions.
Proletariat (Industralization and its Effects, 1815-1914)
The industrial working class concentrated in large cities
Bourgeoisie (Industralization and its Effects, 1815-1914)
French term referring to the commercial class of urban shopkeepers and factory owners.
Socialism (Industralization and its Effects, 1815-1914)
A social and political ideology that advocated the redistribution of society's resources and wealth.
Utopian Socialists (Industralization and its Effects, 1815-1914)
Early nineteenth-century socialists who hoped to replace the overly competitive capitalist structure with planned communities guided by a spirit of cooperation. Leading French utopian socialists such as Charles Fourier and Louis Blanc believed that property should be communally owned.
Marxism (Industralization and its Effects, 1815-1914)
Political and economic philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. They believed that history is the result of a class conflict that will end with the triumph of the industrial proletariat over the bourgeoisie. The new classless society would abolish private property.
Anarchists (Industralization and its Effects, 1815-1914)
Asserted that all forms of governmental authority were unnecessary and should be overthrown and replaced with a society based on voluntary cooperation
Cult of Domesticity (Industralization and its Effects, 1815-1914)
Idealization of women in their roles as wives and mothers. As a nurturing mother and a faithful spouse, the wife had a special responsibility to create a home that was a "haven in a heartless world."
Second Industrial Revolution (Nineteenth-Century Perspectives and Political Developments)
A wave of late nineteenth-century industrialization that was characterized by an increased use of steel, chemical processes, electric power, and railroads. This period also witnessed the spread of industrialization from Great Britain to Western Europe and the United States. Both the United States and Germany soon rivaled Great Britian.
Zionism (Nineteenth-Century Perspectives and Political Developments)
A form of Jewish nationalism developed in the late nineteenth century as a response to growing anti-Semitism throughout Europe.
Realpolitik (Nineteenth-Century Perspectives and Political Developments)
"The politics of reality"; used to describe the tough, practical politics in which idealism and romanticism play no part. Otto von Bismarck and Camillo Benso di Cavour were the leading practitioners of realpolitik.
Social Darwinism (Nineteenth-Century Perspectives and Political Developments)
The belief that there is a natural evolutionary process by which the fittest will survive. Wealthy business and industrial leaders used Social Darwinism to justify their success.
Autocracy (Nineteenth-Century Perspectives and Political Developments)
A government in which the ruler has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner. The Romanov dynasty in Russia is the best example of autocracy.
Positivism (Nineteenth-Century Perspectives and Political Developments)
A theory developed in the mid-nineteenth century that the study of facts would generate accurate, or "positive," laws of society and that these laws could, in turn, help in the formulation of policies and legislation.
Imperialism (Nineteenth-Century Perspectives and Political Developments)
European dominance of the non-West through economic exploitation and political rule. Imperialists justified overseas expansion by claiming cultural and racial superiority. Imperialism created diplomatic tensions among European states that strained alliance systems.
Sphere of Influence (Nineteenth-Century Perspectives and Political Developments)
A region dominated by, but not directly ruled by, a foreign nation.
Freudian Psychology (Nineteenth-Century Perspectives and Political Developments)
Emphasized the role of the irrational and the struggle between the conscious and the subconscious.
Realism (Nineteenth-Century Perspectives and Political Developments)
Painters and writers depicted the lives of ordinary people and drew attention to social problems
Modern Art (Nineteenth-Century Perspectives and Political Developments)
Artistic and literary movements that moved beyond the representational to the subjective, abstract, and expressive.
Fourteen Points (Twentieth-Century Global Conflicts, 1914-2021)
President Woodrow Wilson's idealistic peace aims. Wilson stressed national self-determination, the rights of small countries, freedom of seas, and free trade.
Bolsheviks (Twentieth-Century Global Conflicts, 1914-2021)
A party of revolutionary Marxists, led by Vladimir Lenin, who seized power in Russia in 1917.
New Economic Policy (Twentieth-Century Global Conflicts, 1914-2021)
A program initiated by Vladimir Lenin to stimulate the economic recovery of the Soviet Union in the early 1920s. The New Economic Policy utilized a limited revival of capitalism in light industry and agriculture.
Existentialism (Twentieth-Century Global Conflicts, 1914-2021)
Philosophy that God, reason, and progress are all myths. Humans must accept responsibility for their actions. This responsibility causes an overwhelming sense of dread and anguish. Existentialism reflects the sense of isolation and alienation in the 20th century.
Relativity (Twentieth-Century Global Conflicts, 1914-2021)
A scientific theory associated with Albert Einstein. Relativity holds that time and space do not exist separately. Instead, they are a combined continuum whose measurement depends as much on the observer as on the entities being measured.
Totalitarianism (Twentieth-Century Global Conflicts, 1914-2021)
A political system in which the government has total control over the lives of individual citizens.
Fascism (Twentieth-Century Global Conflicts, 1914-2021)
A political system that combines an authoritarian government with a corporate economy. Fascist governments glorify their leaders, appeal to nationalism, control the media, and repress individual liberties.
Kulaks (Twentieth-Century Global Conflicts, 1914-2021)
Land-owning peasantry in statist Russia. Joseph Stalin accused the kulaks of being class enemies of the poorer peasants. Stalin "liquidated the kulaks as a class" by executing them and expropriating their land to form collective farms.
Keynesian Economics (Twentieth-Century Global Conflicts, 1914-2021)
An economic theory based on the ideas of twentieth-century British economist John Maynard Keynes. According to Keynesian economies, governments can spend their economies out of a depression by using deficit-spending to encourage employment and stimulate economic growth.
Appeasement (Twentieth-Century Global Conflicts, 1914-2021)
A policy of making concessions to an aggressor in the hopes of avoiding war. Associated with Neville Chamberlain's policy of making concessions to Adolf Hitler.
Holocaust (Twentieth-Century Global Conflicts, 1914-2021)
During World War II, mass extinction of Jews by Nazis under Adolf Hitler. Part of Hitler's ruthless attempt to create a "new racial order".
Containment (Cold War and Contemporary Europe, 1914-2021)
The name of a U.S. foreign policy designed to contain or block the spread of Soviet policy. Inspired by George F. Kennan, containment was expressed in the Truman Doctrine and implemented in the Marshall Plan and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) alliance.
A prolonged period of economic and political rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union. Led to the division of Europe, which was referred to in the West as the Iron Curtain. The Cold War began with the announcement of the Truman Doctrine in 1947 and ended with the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Massive program of economic aid from the United States that financed an extensive reconstruction of industry and infrastructure and stimulated an extended period of growth in Western and Central Europe.
The process by which colonies gained their independence from the imperial European powers after World War II.
The policy of liberalization of the Stalinist system in the Soviet Union. As carried out by Nikita Khrushchev, de-Stalinization, meant denouncing Joseph Stalin's cult of personality, producing more consumer goods, allowing greater cultural freedom, and pursuing peaceful coexistence with the West.
Assertion that the Soviet Union and its allies had the right to intervene in any socialist country whenever they saw the need. The Brezhnev Doctrine justified the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968.
The relaxation of tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. Détente was introduced by Secretary of State Henry Kissinger and President Richard Nixon. Examples of détente include the Strategic Arms limitation Talks (SALT), expanded trade with the Soviet Union, and the President Nixon's trips to China and Russia.
A Polish labor union founded in 1980 by Lech Walesa and Anna Walentynowicz. Solidarity contested Communist Party programs and eventually ousted the party from the Polish government.
Policy initiated by Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev in the mid-1980s. Glasnost resulted in a new openness of speech, reduced censorship, and greater criticism of Communist Party policies.
An economic policy initiated by Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev in the mid-1980s. Meaning "restructuring," perestroika called for less government regulation and greater efficiency in manufacturing and agriculture.
A social system in which the state assumes primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens in matters of health care, education, employment, and social security. Germany was the first European country to develop a state social welfare system.
foreign workers working temporarily in European countries
The unprecedented combination of theoretical science and complex engineering under government sponsorship.
The trend by which peoples and nations have become more interdependent. The term is often used to refer to the development of a global economy and culture.
Evolved from the common market and the European community. Formed in 1994 under the terms of the Maastricht Treaty, its members have political ties through the European Parliament as well as long-standing common economic, legal, and business mechanisms.
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