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Never unified before 1850; divided since the middle ages; battleground for greater powers since the 1400s; 1815=hodgepodge of different states organized by the Congress of Vienna.
*Von Metternich: "Italy was a geographical expression."

Between 1815-1848, many Italians wished for a unified Italy (based on the rule of Louis Napolean III Emperor).

1: Radical, idealistic Giuseppe Mazzini, who called for a centralized democratic republic based on universal male suffrage and the will of the people. (seemed unrealistic and too radical for most Italians, Austria also smashed Mazzini's republicanism in 1848)
2: Vincenzo Gioberti, a catholic priest, called for a federation of states under the presidency of a progressive pope. (most italians hated this because the papacy opposed national unification and modern trends like rationalism, separation of church and state and religious liberty).
3: The Autocratic Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont, lead by Victor Emmanuel II. A constitution combined with a strong monarchy and degree of civil liberties and parliamentary government. (Most saw this as a liberal, progressive state strong enough to force Austria out of Northern Italy and lead a united Italy.

*Leadership of Sardinia-Piedmont, nationalist fervor, and Garibaldi's attack on the Kingdom of Two Sicilies were decisive factors in the unification of Italy.
*While unified on paper, the state was still divided. Northern Italy (progressive, urban, industrialized) & Southern Italy (stagnant, agrarian). It was also neither radical or democratic. Only half a million out of the 22 million had a right to vote.
Who William I picked to help control the troublesome liberals in parliament. Was of noble class (Prussian-Junker Family); admired traditional Prussian values and devoted to his sovereign; high-ranking diplomat for the Prussian government.

Became Prime Minister in 1862, in the midst of a constitutional crisis caused by the deadlock on the military budget (William wanted it to increase, Parliament said no). Bismark defied Parliament, went ahead collecting taxes and reorganized the military. Eventually though, he believed he had to make peace, on his own terms with the liberal middle class and nationalists because of their popularity. He also drew inspiration from Napolean III's example. His ideas: Co-opted some of their wants pertaining to the workers (social security/welfare programs), embraced the idea of bringing all of these people together. He fashioned a federal constitution for the North German Confederation.; Each state retained its own local government. With unity in sight, the German middle class came to accept the monarchial authority the Bismark represented. Souther German States were the only ones that remained independent, although allied.



* Otto held wars throughout the years to take on Unification. In this process we lost Austria (1866), He then begins a war against France of 1870-71; mobilized the country and used nationalism to rally people around the flag.
HE achieved through: vision, military success, co-opting liberal ideas and thereby outwitting liberals, therefore emerging as the custodian as the man who is interested in society.
Okonkwo
• Dad was lazy, wanted to exceed his dad's status. He liked partying, loved music. Okonkwo came from a poor family.
• Okonkwo later is hard-working and gains money.
• Nwoye & Insima: son and daughter. He loves Inzima, but wished she was a boy because she would've been successful. Her rationale of the world was what it should be, she strong like a man. In that culture, women couldn't have power. Howeve, he hated Nwoye because he was lazy in Okonkwo's eyes.
• Adopted Son: Ikemefuna, Okonkwo had to kill him---locusts come to Umuofia, and Okonkwo had to kill him.
• Nwoye cries, Okonkwo beats him—he knows his father had something to do with this—he loses faith in the father.
o Death of Ikemefuna—cracks Okonkwo's household.
o This book shows the fractured society; where some are frustrated with the cultural and have no way to escape.
• Reverend Smith vs. Reverend Brown, Smith was more intolerant than Brown.
o Civilize the primitive societies of the lower Niger. "The White Man's burden"—moral responsibility for the civilized world for them to help improve the condition of these primitive tribes.
o Spread civilization, commerce, trade, and then we see the flag and cross coming together.
• They had to accept new language or new names.
• Pragmatism, "we have to embrace this world and this technology.
• There are gong to be individauls who embrace western education and go to school. Those who held on to the traditional world view, couldn't survive. The cultural was falling apart (culturally & economically).