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Terms in this set (52)
What are the three major types of muscle tissue?
Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
Which type of muscle tissue has voluntary control and is multi-nucleated?
Which type of muscle has a fast rate of contraction?
Which type of muscle has no regeneration capability?
Which type of muscle is striated and involuntary?
Which type of muscle is found in walls of hollow organs/vessels and has a slow rate of contraction?
What are the four properties of muscle tissue?
excitability, contractility, extensibility, elasticity
What are the five major functions of muscles?
Posture and body support
Regulating organ volume
Moving substances within the body
Sheet or broad band of fibrous connective tissue; surrounds muscles
Define superficial fascia and its role
Fascia that separates muscle from skin; provides a pathway for nerves and vessels to enter muscles
Define Deep fascia and its role
Fascia that lines body walls and separates muscle groups. Allows for free movement by decreasing friction as one muscle glides over the other.
What are the three layers of deep fascia?
Epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium
Explain how the three layers of deep fascia are organized in the muscle (as in which is the outermost, innermost, and what they surround)?
Endomysium (innermost) surrounds each individual muscle fiber
Which then are grouped into bundles called fascicles. Fascicles are surrounded by perimysium
Fascicles surrounded by perimysium are bundled to form the entire muscle, which is surrounded by epimysium
What are the five types of connective tissue of muscle tissues
Fascia, superficial fascia, deep fascia, tendons, and aponeurosis
Broad, flat layer of tendon
What are the structures of a skeletal muscle?
Muscle fiber (an individual muscle cell)
Of the four (muscle fiber, myofibril, sarcomere, and filament), which is the contractile element and which is the contractile unit? What is the difference?
Contractile element: myofibril
Contractile unit: sarcomere
The elements are the components of the unit. Myofibrils (thin and thick filaments) move passed each other to contract the entire sarcomere
Fill in the blank: ___________ are built from two contractile proteins, the thick and thin filaments
Name the protein that makes up thin filaments and thick filaments.
Thin filaments are made up of actin
Thick filaments are made up of myosin
What are the two regulatory proteins that regulate when myosin heads bind to thin filaments?
Troponin and tropomyosin
Give an overview of how muscle contraction works. Use terms such as myosin heads, thin actin filaments, and sarcomere.
1. Myosin heads attach to and walk along thin actin filaments, pulling the thin filaments towards the middle of the sarcomere (M line)
2. Result is a shorter sarcomere, a shorter myofibril, and a shorter muscle fiber
3. Many muscle fibers shortening results in a muscle contraction
Excitation phase of muscle contraction: what triggers the excitation of a muscle (inflow of what across the membrane)? In other words, what ion is needed to trigger muscle excitation?
An inflow of sodium ions across the membrane
In the excitation-contraction coupling phase: Sodium (Na+) ions enter the muscle fiber, which then causes _________________ ions to be released. These ions flow around the thin and thick filaments
What causes tropomyosin to move and uncover the myosin-binding sites on actin?
When Ca2+ ions bind to troponin
Muscle contraction cycle: where does the energy for muscle contraction come from?
From the hydrolysis of ATP. ATP breaks down into ADP and Phosphate group. The phosphate group then attaches to a myosin head
Phosphate group + myosin head = energized myosin head. The energized myosin head then attaches to the myosin binding site on thin actin filaments and the phosphate group is released. What is the attachment of myosin called?
What happens when the myosin head attaches to actin and the phosphate group is released?
Myosin head pulls thin actin filaments towards the center of the sarcomere (power stroke)
After the power stroke, myosin heads are still attached to actin. What allows the release of the crossbridge formation (detachment from actin)?
When an ATP molecule binds
The contraction cycle will continue as long as what two components are present?
ATP and Ca2+
During a muscle contraction, what shortens and what remains the same length?
Sarcomeres shorten and filaments do not
Relaxation of muscles occurs when what two ions are not present?
Sodium and calcium
What are the three types of skeletal muscle fibers?
Slow oxidative, fast oxidative-glycolytic, and fast glycolytic
Of the three types of skeletal muscle fibers, which produces most power but fatigues quickly?
Of the three types of skeletal muscle fibers, which produces the least power but fatigues slowly (or has a high fatigue resistance)?
Which muscle fiber type is best suited for endurance activities, such as long-distance jogging? And why?
where are fast glycolytic muscle fibers found
Abundant in the arms
What is the difference between the sarcolemma and sarcoplasm?
Sarcolemma is the cell membrane of the muscle fiber and sarcoplasm is the cytoplasm of the muscle fiber cell
Define a motor unit
An efferent (conducting signals towards muscles) neuron plus all the muscle fibers it innervates (supplies)
What is the All-or-None principle
ALL of the muscle fibers of a motor unit will contract at the same time or will NOT contract at all
What is the difference between a twitch and a tetany in terms of muscle tension/contraction force?
A twitch is a brief contraction of muscle fibers in response to just ONE nerve impulse (a single action potential)
A tetany is a sustained muscle contraction due to MANY nerve impulses.
Tetany results in more work produced because it produces a greater contraction
Name the three types of muscle contractions
Isotonic, isokinetic, and isometric
Which type of muscle contraction involves a constant resistance (constant weight) but variation in speed of contraction? Give an example of an exercise
Isotonic contraction (iso=same tonic=tension. Same tension)
Ex: bicep curls with constant weight
What are the two types of isotonic contractions?
Eccentric: lengthening of muscles when contracting; resisting gravity; downward motion
Concentric: shortening of muscles when contracting; against gravity; upward motion
What is isokinetic contraction? Give an example of an exercise
Involve concentric and eccentric contractions (shortening and elongating). The speed of contraction is constant but resistance varies.
(Iso=same kinetic=speed; contraction speed is constant)
Stationary bike going "up a mountain". Speed of contraction is the same but resistance varies
What is isometric contractions? Give an example of an exercise
Length of muscle and the joint angle is constant
Ex: wall sit
Define atrophy and hypertrophy
Atrophy-muscle decreasing in size
Hypertrophy-increase in muscle size
Increase in number of muscle fibers.
Which type of muscle tissues (skeletal/cardiac/smooth) can grow via hypertrophy and hyperplasia?
What is the origin and the insertion in terms of muscle attachment?
Origin: attachment on the more proximal bone
Insertion: attachment on the more distal bone
Define the agonist muscle
Muscles that cause the desired action; the prime mover
Define the antagonist muscle
The muscle that is inhibited or does the opposite movement. Tricep is the antagonist to the bicep for lifting
What are synergist muscles?
Muscles that work WITH the agonist to help the movement or provide stabilization
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