CAPM CH 5 Terms

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Terms in this set (48)
Context diagramThese diagrams show the relationship between elements of an environment. For example, a context diagram would illustrate the networks, servers, workstations, and people that interact with the elements of the environment.Focus groupsA moderator-led requirements collection method to elicit requirements from stakeholders.Functional analysisThis is the study of the functions within a system, project, or, what's more likely in the project scope statement, the product the project will be creating. Functional analysis studies the goals of the product, how the product will be used, and the expectations the customer has of the product once it leaves the project and moves into operations. Functional analysis may also consider the cost of the product in operations, which is known as life-cycle costing.Funding limitMost projects have a determined budget in relation to the project scope. There may be a qualifier on this budget, such as plus or minus 10 percent based on the type of cost estimate created.InterviewsA requirements collection method used to elicit requirements from stakeholders in a one-on-one conversation.MajorityA group decision method where more than 50 percent of the group must be in agreement.Mind mappingThis approach maps ideas to show the relationship among requirements and the differences between requirements. The map can be reviewed to identify new solutions or to rank the identified requirements.Nominal group techniqueAs with brainstorming, participants are encouraged to generate as many ideas as possible, but the suggested ideas are ranked by a voting process.Passive observationThe observer records information about the work being completed without interrupting the process; sometimes called the invisible observer.PluralityA group-decision method where the largest part of the group makes the decision when it's less than 50 percent of the total. (Consider three or four factions within the stakeholders.)Product acceptance criteriaThis project scope statement component works with the project requirements, but focuses specifically on the product and what the conditions and processes are for formal acceptance of the product.Product breakdownA scope definition technique that breaks down a product into a hierarchical structure, much like a WBS breaks down a project scope.Product scope descriptionThis is a narrative description of what the project is creating as a deliverable for the project customer.Product scopeDefines the product or service that will come about as a result of completing the project. It defines the features and functions that characterize the product.Project assumptionsA project assumption is a factor in the planning process that is held to be true but not proven to be true.Project boundariesA project boundary clearly states what is included with the project and what's excluded from the project. This helps to eliminate assumptions between the project management team and the project customer.Project constraintsA constraint is anything that limits the project manager's options. Consider a predetermined budget, deadline, resources, or materials the project manager must use within the project—these are all examples of project constraints.Project objectivesThese are the measurable goals that determine a project's acceptability to the project customer and the overall success of the project. Objectives often include the cost, schedule, technical requirements, and quality demands.Project requirementsThese are the demands set by the customer, regulations, or the performing organization that must exist for the project deliverables to be acceptable. Requirements are often prioritized in a number of ways, from "must have" to "should have" to "would like to have."Project scopeThis defines all of the work, and only the required work, to complete the project objectives.Project scope management planThis project management subsidiary plan controls how the scope will be defined, how the project scope statement will be created, how the WBS will be created, how scope validation will proceed, and how the project scope will be controlled throughout the project.Requirements documentationThis documentation of what the stakeholders expected in the project defines all of the requirements that must be present for the work to be accepted by the stakeholders.Requirements management planThis subsidiary plan defines how changes to the project requirements will be permitted, how requirements will be tracked, and how changes to the requirements will be approved.Requirements traceability matrix (RTM)This is a table that maps the requirements throughout the project all the way to their completion.Schedule milestonesThe project customer may have specific dates when phases of the project should be completed. These milestones are often treated as project constraints.Scope creepUndocumented, unapproved changes to the project scope.Scope validationThe formal inspection of the project deliverables, which leads to project acceptance.Stakeholder analysisA scope definition process where the project management team interviews the stakeholders and categorizes, prioritizes, and documents what the project customer wants and needs. The analysis is to determine, quantify, and prioritize the interests of the stakeholders. Stakeholder analysis demands quantification of stakeholder objectives; goals such as "good," "satisfaction," and "speedy" aren't quantifiable.Systems analysisA scope definition approach that studies and analyzes a system, its components, and the relationship of the components within the system.Systems engineeringThis project scope statement creation process studies how a system should work, designs and creates a system model, and then enacts the working system based on the project's goals and the customer's expectations. Systems engineering aims to balance the time and cost of the project in relation to the scope of the project.UnanimityA group decision method where everyone must be in agreement.Value analysisAs with value engineering, this approach examines the functions of the project's product in relation to the cost of the features and functions. This is where, to some extent, the grade of the product is in relationship to the cost of the product.Value engineeringThis approach to project scope statement creation attempts to find the correct level of quality in relation to a reasonable budget for the project deliverable while still achieving an acceptable level of performance of the product.WBS dictionaryA WBS companion document that defines all of the characteristics of each element within the WBS.WBS templateA prepopulated WBS for repetitive projects. Previous projects' WBSs are often used as templates for current similar projects.Work breakdown structure (WBS)A deliverables-oriented breakdown of the project scope.Work packageThe smallest item in the WBS.Work performance informationStatus of the deliverables: the work that's been started, finished, or has yet to begin.