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Terms in this set (27)
Pitch is ________ and loudness is __________.
The speed of particle vibration is measured in cycles per _______, or Hertz. Individual frequencies are analyzed by the ________ to evaluate complex sounds and determine if the sound is a pitch (harmonically related tones) or if the sound is a ________ (random tones).
second, cochlea, noise
The size of the sound wave indicates the intensity or strength of the molecular movement. Amplitude is measured in dB (decibels). The human ear is sensitive to sound pressure level range of 0-140. Most spoken communication occurs around 60dB. Prolonged exposure to sounds >90dB can cause structural damage to the cochlea. Sounds >140dB will cause pain.
What is the muscle connected to the stapes? The malleus?
Stapedius (CNVII), tensor tympani (CNV)
What do the muscles of the middle ear do?
Control ossicles and protect the auditory mechanism when exposed to high intensity sounds
Ossicle bones connect the tympanic membrane to the ________ of the inner ear.
The middle ear acts like a transformer by _______ the signal from the outer ear by as much as 30 dB so that it can navigate the cochlear fluid. It helps the signal get through the _________. Absence or middle ear disfunction will cause _________ of a large proportion of sound waves and reduced _________ of the cochlear fluid.
increasing, oval window, reflection, movement
Stiffness of the ossicles compensates for the difference in _________ between air (middle ear) and fluid (inner ear) and the ______ discrepancy between tympanic membrane (50mm2) and oval window (3.5mm2). This is accomplished by reducing _______ of the tympanic membrane and increasing movement of the _________. This impacts sound frequencies we can hear.
impedance, size, movement, oval window
The inner ear includes these structures...
cochlea, semicircular canals, saccule and utricle
The cochlea is a ______ structure containing two flexible windows, the ________ and ________ windows.
bony, oval, round
The cochlea has three different compartments: Scala _________, Scala ________, and Scala __________.
vestibuli, media, tympani
The oval window opens to _________ and the round window opens to ____________.
scala vestibuli, scala tympani
The three compartments of the cochlea (Scala vestibuli, etc) are separated by the _________ and _________ membrane .
The compartments of the cochlea (Scala vestibuli, etc) are _______ filled. There is _________ in the scala vestibuli and scala tympani, and ___________ in the scala media.
fluid, perilymph, and endolymph
Hair cells near the _________ are tuned to high frequencies, hair cells in the middle tuned to medium frequencies, and hair cells near the _________ are tuned to low frequencies.
oval window, helicotrema
The ________ is the receptor organ for hearing. It is found in the __________ and sits on top of the _________ membrane. This is where the _________ that are the receptors for hearing are located.
organ of Corti, Scala media, Basilar, hair cells
The organ of corti contains: 15000 ________, 2-5 rows (12000) of _______ hair cells, and 1 row of (3500) of ______ hair cells.
hair cells, outer, inner
The cochlea is fluid filled and that fluid is sent into motion by sound induced movement of the _________ of the oval window. This movement initiates movement of the _________ membrane which has the __________ on top. Movement is in the shape of a wave that travels from the _______ to the _________ of the __________ membrane.
foot plate, basilar, organ of corti, base, apex, basilar
The basilar membrane is laid out in a __________ specific map, a _________ map. Each point has a "favorite frequency" where that frequency is optimally processed. It splits the signal into different frequency components. High frequencies are represented at the ________ and low frequencies at the _________. Movement of the basilar membrane causes hair cells to move. ___________ of the hair cells move which causes ______ channels to open and positive ______ to flow into the cell.
frequency, tonotopic, base, apex, Steriocilia, ion, ions
When depolarized, OHCs ________ and elongate to _________ the wave. This is especially pronounced for _______ intensity sounds (which require more amplification). This is why we have a large frequency (20-20000Hz) selectivity and a wide dynamic _________ (120 dB). OHCs are innervated by ___________ auditory pathways especially the __________ bundle.
shorten, amplify, low, range, descending, olivocochlear
The job of the ________ hair cells is to inform the brain of the signal. When steriocilia of the IHCs is deflected, _______ ions enter the cell. There are approximately 30 ________ neurons per IHC and no _________.
inner, positive, afferent, efferents
There is a difference in electric __________ potential (+80mV) and intracellular potential (-70mV). The mechanical movement of stereocilia in the cochlea cells opens ______ channels. _____ moves into the cell and _______ it. This opens _______ channels, which move into the cell, which causes synaptic vesicles to release _________.
Then this causes ____________ of cochlear nerve terminals.
endolymph, K+, K+, depolarizes, calcium, glutamate, depolarization
There are 3000 nerve fibers innervating the IHCs. Type 1 myelinated synapse (___%) synapse with IHC. Type II unmyelinated synapse (___%) synapse with OHC. Cell bodies are located in the ___________. The Cochlear nerve maintains the _________ representation with fibers from the base close to the _________ and fibers from the apex near the _________. The Cochlear nerve travels toward the brainstem with the ________ nerve and _________ nerve.
95, 5, spiral ganglion, tonotopic, surface, center, Facial, Vestibular
List the roles of the cochlea...
Frequency analysis, Amplification, Transduction (mechano-electrical transduction)
_______ damage or loss can result in problems with frequency selectivity, which can lead to poor ________ discrimination as well as difficulty hearing in ___________ noise (symptoms of sensorineural hearing loss).
OHC, speech, background
Loss or damage to ______ causes deafness in the affected region (frequency processed there) "________ regions".
Sensorineural hearing loss can be caused by problems with the OHCs, IHCs or __________.
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