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exam 6 review
Terms in this set (21)
1. Which statement indicates the patient understands nutrition recommendations regarding carbohydrate intake?
a. "It is important to consume the proper balance of starch, sugar, and fiber at each meal."
b. It is important to consume the correct amount of carbohydrate at each meal and snack."
c. "People with diabetes should avoid sugars and foods that contain sugars."
d. "Carbohydrates must be balanced in relation to the amount of protein and fat consumed."
What can cause ketoacidosis in a type 1 diabetic?
Not enough insulin, too much food, infection, other stresses
1. If the insulin to carbohydrate ratio is 1:15 and the person eats 120 grams of carbohydrates, how much insulin should they take? If they eat 60 grams?
1. A newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic is learning about the complications that can occur in acute diabetes. The nurse knows the patient is misunderstanding the education when he says:
a. "Hypoglycemia occurs when my blood glucose level falls below 70 mg/dL."
b. "When I eat too much, I am at high risk of developing this condition."
c. "Delaying meal times can cause hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetics."
d. "When becoming hypoglycemic, you should consume about 15g of absorbable carbohydrate like lifesavers."
1. The student nurse learns that there are similarities and differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Which are true statements about diabetes? Select all that apply.
a. Type 1 diabetics require exogenous insulin via syringe, pen, or pump
b. All types of diabetes benefit from nutrition therapy
c. Type 2 diabetics MIGHT need exogenous insulin if the diet and exercise are not able to be controlled by diet and exercise
d. To lessen the risk of type 2, increase exercise and lose weight
e. There are no differences. Both require insulin and carbohydrate counting.
f. All diabetics should also avoid saturated fat, similar to those with heart disease.
g. People are born with type 2 diabetes, and are unable to produce insulin.
A, B, C, D, F
1. A client asks how to alter a diet to lower high triglyceride levels. Which of the following is the nurse's best response?
a. "Eliminate egg yolks and butter."
b. "Eat a Mediterranean-style eating pattern."
c. "Eat less sodium by avoiding processed foods and don't salt your food at the table."
d. "Alcohol lowers triglycerides, but don't drink more than 2 drinks daily.
You are informing a patient that is at risk for cardiovascular disease of the detrimental effect of excess sodium in their diet. How many mg should their sodium intake be limited to?
List some foods high in sodium that the patient should avoid:
processed cheese, soups, sandwiches, pizza, canned foods, lunch meats, hotdogs, processed/packaged foods
What is the desirable HDL level?
What is the desirable LDL level?
1. _____<100______ mg/dL
What is the desirable total cholesterol level?
1. _____<200____ mg/dL
1. When developing a teaching plan for a client who must restrict potassium, which fruits and vegetables would the nurse suggest?
a. Grapefruit, tomatoes, beets
b. Kiwi, kale, tomatoes
c. Apricots, broccoli, spinach
d. Apple, blueberries, green beans
1. What is the active role of the kidneys?
Filter blood, balance fluid content in the body, and control blood pressure
1. In an effort to help prevent kidney stones, what is a nutritional precaution that does not need to be taken?
a. Increase fluid intake to excrete 2.5 L of urine daily
b. Limit sugar-sweetened beverages
c. Limit coffee and tea
d. A normal intake of 1200 mg/day of calcium
1. A client with predialysis chronic kidney disease asks if it is okay that she saves all of her meat allowance for her evening meal. Which of the following would be the nurse's best response?
a. "If you want to eat your meat allowance all at one time, it would be better to eat it for breakfast so that your body has all day to metabolize it."
b. "You cannot have any meat on a predialysis diet."
c. "It is best if you spread your meat allowance out over the whole day."
d. "It doesn't matter when you eat your meat allowance, so it you prefer to save it all for dinner, that is fine."
1. A client asks if it is okay to drink nutrition supplements in place of eating solid food because it seems to be the only thing she tolerates. Which of the following is the nurse's best response?
a. "It is fine to rely on nutrition supplements, but vary the brand to ensure you are getting adequate nutrition."
b. "Nutrition supplements generally are too high in calories and protein to use in place of meals."
c. "Nutrition formulas are rich in nutrients and can be used in place of meals if they are what you are able to tolerate best."
d. "Nutrition formulas are okay to use as a supplement in your diet, but they do not provide enough nutrition to use them in place of a meal."
1. What are ways to manage the complications of stomatitis? Select all that apply.
a. Eat cold, soft foods
b. Consume foods like cottage cheese and canned fruit that are easy to chew and swallow
c. Do not use straws, as they can cause irritation of the mouth
d. Use spices rather than added salt for flavoring
e. Gurgle with mouthwash to clean the mouth out
f. Cut food into small pieces
A, B, F
1. For a patient with xerostomia, what is a nutrient-dense availability that makes the patient more comfortable?
a. Drink high-calorie, high-protein supplemental drinks like Boost/Ensure between meals
b. Use a mouthwash with alcohol to cleanse the mouth before eating
c. Consume soups to stimulate saliva
d. Only drink fluids at meals
1. What should the diet of a client diagnosed with HIV/AIDS consist of?
1. Prediabetes is the period of impaired glucose metabolism that precedes the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. What is the fasting blood sugar level for a patient that may be pre-diabetic?
a. 100-126 mg/dL
b. <100 mg/dL
c. <70 mg/dL
d. > 126 mg/dL
1. TRUE OR FALSE: Alcohol is more likely to cause hypoglycemia when consumed without food:
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