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Neurocytology: Neurons, Glia, and their Functions
Terms in this set (79)
___ process information, sense environmental changes, communicate changes to other neurons, and command body response.
___ insulate, support, and nourish neurons.
___ is the microscopic study of tissue structure.
The ___ facilitates the study of cytoarchitecture in the CNS.
The ___ revealed two parts of neurons: soma (perikaryon) and neurites (axons and dendrites).
Cajal's contribution to Neuron Doctrine states that neurons communicate by ___, not continuity. (neurons adhere to cell theory)
The ___ supports the metabolic and synthetic needs of neuron.
The ___ are branching processes that receive information from other neurons via synaptic contacts (synapses).
A (blank) is a long and cylindrical process that conducts information away from the cell body
___ are the contact structures between two neurons or between a neuron and the targeted effector cell.
___ neurons are the majority of vertebrate neurons.
___ neurons have two processes; one dendritic zone and one axon. They are found in the retina, auditory system, and olfactory epithelium.
___ neurons have 1 process and are primarily in the autonomic nervous system of lower vertebrates; primarily in invertebrates.
___ neurons start as bipolar neurons but the two processes eventually merge into one. Examples include spinal ganglia and some cranial ganglia.
Classification of neurons based on morphology: ___ cells are star-shaped and ___ cells are pyramid-shaped.
___ are membrane-enclosed structures within the soma, including a nucleus, nucleoli (one or more; containing RNA), mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, cytoskeleton, and Nissl bodies (Nissl substance: rER and ribosomes)
The ___ is a lipid bilayer with inserted proteins including ion channels, receptors, enzymes, pumps, and transporters.
___ is watery fluid inside the neuron.
___ is contents within a cell membrane, excluding the nucleus.
The structure of discrete membrane regions influences neuronal function from the ___.
Gene expression, transcription, and RNA processing take place in the ___.
The ___ and ___ are major sites for protein synthesis.
rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER); polyribosomes (free ribosomes)
The ___ and ___ are sites for preparing/sorting proteins for delivery to different cell regions (trafficking) and regulating substances.
ER; golgi apparatus
The ___ is the internal scaffolding of the neuronal membrane.
___ are the largest type of cytoskeleton and function as the substrate along which organelles are transported. Each protofilament is a polymer of ___.
___ are intermediate in size, multiply twisted, rope-like assemblies. Made up with at least 3 different proteins from the ___ family.
__ are the thinnest cytoskeleton and function in anchoring membrane molecules in place and movement of the advancing tip of growing axons. They are twisted pairs of ___ filaments.
The ___ is the site of cellular respiration (inhale and exhale). It uses the ___ cycle to generate ATP, which is the cell's energy source.
Differences between axon and soma: ___ does not extend into axon.
At the ___, the Nissl bodies (rER and ribosomes) stop.
The ___ segment is the starting point of the ___; it is the most excitable part of the neuron.
initial; action potential
___ may be more concentrated in the initial segments of the axon.
sodium (Na+) channels
Beyond the initial segment, many axons are wrapped by ___; which increases the speed of propagation of electrical signals along axons.
___ are transported in both directions of the axons.
___ transport is from the soma to the terminal.
___ transport is toward the soma.
___ transport uses microtubules as "railroad tracks" to move membrane-associated substances (e.g. mitochondria, lysosomes, vesicles with NT precursors, membrane components).
___ is the protein in fast transport that moves in the anterograde direction.
___ is the protein in fast transport that moves in the retrograde direction.
___ transport moves soluble proteins such as cytoskeletal proteins and cytoplasmic enzymes.
___ neurons are either directly sensitive to various stimuli (e.g. touch, temperature) or they receive direct connections from non-neuronal receptor cells.
___ neurons end directly on muscles, glands, or other neurons in PNS ganglia.
___ neurons' axons stay in the CNS. They project information from the brain to control the specific LMNs.
___ integrate and relay information.
___ locally interconnect other neurons. They are confined within a small area of CNS.
___ have long axons connecting different areas.
differences between the cytoplasm of axon terminal and axon (4)
-no microtubules in terminal
-presence of synaptic vesicles
-abundance of membrane proteins
-large number of mitochondria
___ are sites for synaptic contacts.
All 3 types of neuronal cytoskeletons, Nissl bodies, Golgi apparatus, and mitochondria are present in ___.
___ are especially abundant near the synaptic endings; providing energy for synaptic activities.
There is local ___ at the dendritic terminals.
The ___ terminal contains synaptic vesicles with ___ molecules.
The ___ terminal is another neuron with ___ molecules to receive neurotransmitter molecules.
The ___ is the space between pre- and post-synaptic elements.
The neurotransmitter ___ through the synaptic cleft and reached the postsynaptic membrane.
___ describes a synapse from an axon terminal onto soma.
___ describes a synapse from an axon terminal onto dendrite.
___ describes a synapse from an axon terminal onto the axon hillock (initial segment).
___ synapse is between two different cell dendrites.
Axosomatic, axodendritic, and axoaxonic synapses are ___ synapses.
Dendrodendritic synapses are ___ synapses.
CNS glia cells (4)
PNS glia cells (2)
___ are the most numerous glia in the brain.
Astrocytes fill spaces between ___, influence ___ growth, regulate chemical content of ___ space, form ___ during injury, and metabolize ___.
neurons; neurite; extracellular; gliotic scars; neurotransmitters
___ astrocytes are in gray matter.
___ astrocytes are in white matter.
___ glia is a type of astrocyte that guides axonal growth and neuronal migration during development.
___ forms the intermediate filaments in astrocytes. It is used as a marker to identify astrocytes.
Glial Fibrillary Acidic Proteins (GFAP)
___ is regulation of the extracellular K+ concentration by the glia cells (especially astrocytes).
K+ spatial buffering
___ as phagocytes; respond to the CNS injury.
microglial cells (microglia)
___ form lining on the ventricles and produce CSF.
The ___ is a tuft of capillaries found in the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles.
___ form myelin sheaths in the CNS.
1 oligodendrocyte: ___
Oligodendrocytes may also serve as
___ is a region where the axonal membrane is exposed.
nodes of ranvier
___ cells provide metabolic and myelin sheath for electrical insulation in the PNS.
1 axon segment
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