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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Terms in this set (53)
in the Middle Ages, the earth-centered view of the universe in which scholars believed that the earth was an immovable object located in the center of the universe
the idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun
a major change in European thought, starting in the med-1500s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and the questioning of accepted beliefs
Italian Scientist; built his own telescope and began to study the skies in 1609; in 1610 he publishes Starry Messenger- Jupiter has 4 moons, the moon isn't smooth, the sun has dark spots; supported Copernicus' theories
a new way of thinking about the actual world
English scientist, mathematician, and physicist ; brings together idea of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo into on theory of motion or gravity; some force ruled motion of planets and all mater on Earth; The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy- 1687; the universe is like the giant clock- he thought god made the "clock"
philosophers and scholars sought insights into the underlying beliefs regarding economics, government, education, law, religion
people hand over their rights and in exchange get law and order (absolute monarchy); an agreement among individuals to create a society and a government; broad view of democracy; abolished all titles of nobility (everyone is equal); French Revolution
a philosopher; positive view of human nature and can learn from their experiences and improve themselves; humans have a natural ability for self-government; All people are born free and equal - life, liberty, property; gov't should protect the rights of the people
social critics; French word for philosophers; applying reason to all aspects of life
(Reason - truth could be discovered through reason and logic; Nature - what was natural was good and reasonable; Happiness - reject idea of happiness in the "hereafter"; humans can be happy on earth (humanism); Progress - improvement; liberty)
Francoise Marie Arouet; Author of about 70 books; employed satire as a method in his writing; "I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it."
French writer interested in political theory; believed Britain was the best government and most politically balanced country of his day; On The Spirit of the Laws (1748) - advocated for separation of powers and checks and balances
Jean Jacques Rousseau - committed to individual liberty; Civilization corrupts peoples' natural goodness; "Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains."; social contract
women of the 1700s; published A Vindication of the Rights of Women in 1792
social gathering hosted by earthy French women in their mansions: people in their mansion included philosophers, writers, artist, scientists, and other intellectuals met and discussed ideas
grand ordinate design
new classical: simplistic, recapture themes from Greece and Rome
a monarch who embraced the ideas the Enlightenment and attempted to make reforms that reflected the Enlightenment spirt
Catherine the Great
Empress of Russia (1762- 1796); Read the works of the philosophes; 1767- she forms a commission to examine the laws of Russia and make reforms; Catherine proposes reforms: abolish torture & capital punishment (death penalty) (Beccaria): allowing religious toleration; sought to abolish serfdom (nicer to peasants); expands Russia
Explain the causes of the Scientific Revolution.
The Scientific Revolution is a new way of thinking about the actual world. A cause of the Scientific Revolution is the heliocentric theory. The heliocentric theory is a theory saying that the sun is the center of the universe. Another cause of the Scientific Revolution is Copernicus. Copernicus is a Polish cleric & astronomer; interested in old Greek idea of the Earth as center of the universe; studied planetary movements for 25 years.
Identify key individuals in the Scientific Revolution and their contributions to the movement.
Galileo is a key individual during the Scientific Revolution. He published two books Starry Messenger and Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. Starry Messenger and Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is about how Galileo supports Copernicus' ideas. After Galileo passed away the church figured out that Galileo was correct.
Identify the contribution that Bacon and Descartes made to the scientific method.
Bacon and Descartes contributed a lot to the Scientific method. Bacon is an English statesman, writer, interested in science; experiments before the conclusion (empiricism). Bacon's book Novum Organum encourages experimental method. Descartes is French mathematician; also believed in rejecting ancient assumptions; conclusions should be formed based on mathematics and logic; "I think before I am." Descartes's book Discourse in method sets forth his scientific method of reasoning from the basis of doubt.
Identify specific events that support the idea of a scientific revolution.
Telescope- Galileo/ Dutch lens maker
Thermometer- Fahrenheit and Celsius
Microscope- Leeuwenhoek and Janssen
Barometer- Evangelista Torricelli
Explain the Enlightenment.
The Enlightenment is a new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought the power of individuals to solve problems. The Enlightenment is also known as the Age of Reason. The Age of Reason is the movement reached its height in the mid-1700s and brought great change to many aspects of Western civilization.
Discuss the differing opinions of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke with regards to government.
Thomas Hobbes and John Locke have different opinions on government. Thomas Hobbes is about the social contract. John Locke's idea on government is people are born free and equal.
Outline the core beliefs of the philosophes
Reason is when truth could be discovered through reason and logic. Nature is when the philosophes believed what was natural was good and reasonable. Happiness is when philosophes reject the idea of happiness in the "hereafter"; humans can be happy on earth (humanism). Progress is when the philosophes thought the society can be improved. Liberty is when the philosophes called for the liberties.
Locke, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Beccaria, Voltaire, Wollstonecraft
Who are the key philosophes in the Enlightenment?
Who was the thinker that came up with this idea- natural rights- life, liberty, property?
How did Locke impact on the Enlightenment?
Fundamental to US Declaration of Independence
Who was the thinker that came up with this idea- Separation of powers?
How did Montesquieu impact on the Enlightenment?
France, US, and Latin American nations use Separation of powers in new contributions
Who was the thinker that came up with this idea- Freedom of thought and expression?
How did Voltaire impact on the Enlightenment? (Freedom of thought and expression)
Guaranteed in US Bill of Rights and French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen; European monarchs reduce of eliminate censorship
Who was the thinker that came up with this idea- Abolishment and torture?
How did Beccaria impact on the Enlightenment?
Guaranteed in US Bill of Rights; torture outlawed or reduced in nations of Europe and the Americas
Who was the thinker that came up with this idea- Religious freedom?
How does Voltaire impact on the Enlightenment? (Religious Freedom)
Guaranteed in US Bill of Rights and French Declaration of the Rights of Man an Citizen; European reduce persecution
Who was the thinker that came up with this idea- Women's equality?
How did Wollstonecraft impact on the Enlightenment?
Women's rights groups form in Europe an North America
Explain the ideas of Mary Wollstonecraft with regards to women.
Mary Wollstonecraft wants women to be equal and treated properly. She argued that women should get education. Women should be able to do things men can do like medicine and politics.
Describe an Enlightened salon and what it would have been like.
A salon is a place where people would gather and discuss everyday topics. A salon would be a mistress' house and the hostesses would basically host the party while all the men in the house would discuss about politics and medicine.
Explain the impact of Diderot's Encyclopedia in spreading Enlightenment ideas.
Diderot's Encyclopedia was created at a salon. Diderot went to a salon and wrote all the topics down and wrote all the saying on this one topic and wrote it down and then after he put all these sayings in a book and published all of these in a book called the Encyclopedia.
Describe changes in art, music, and literature in the Enlightenment ideas.
Art, Music, and Literature changed vastly during the Enlightenment. Art is baroque and neoclassical. Baroque is a grand ordinate design. Neoclassical is a new classical type of art. Music is more organ and choral music. Literature is now in novels like Pamela and Tom Jones.
Explain the relationship between the Enlightenment and the monarchy.
Enlightened despots are the people that are in the Enlightenment era that believed in the monarchy. Enlightened despots are monarchs who embrace the ideas the Enlightenment and attempt to make reforms that reflected the Enlightenment spirt. Some people who are in the monarch are Frederick the Great (king of Prussia), Joseph II (radical roya reformer of Austria), and Catherine the Great (empress of Russia).
"I think before I am."
Descartes, Discourse on Method
"short, brutish, solitary, nasty"
"With sincere heart and unpretended faith I abjure, curse, and detest the aforesaid errors and heresies [of Copernicus] and also every other error ... contrary to the Holy Church, and I swear that in the future I will never say again say or assert ... anything that might cause a similar suspicion toward me."
Galileo, The Discoveries
"first servant of the state"
Frederick the Great- he called himself this
"war ... of every man against every man"
"I ... therefore five the name "Republic" to every state that is governed by laws, no matter what the form of its administration may be: for only in auch a case does the public intrest govern, and the res republica rank as a reality ... Laws are, properly speaking, only the conditions of civil association. The people, being subject to the laws, ought to be their author: the conditions of the society ought to be regulated ... by those who come together to form it"
Rousseau, The Social Contract
"It is true that in democracies the people seem to act as they please; but political liberty does not consist in nan unlimited freedom. ... We must have continually present to our minds the difference between independence and liberty. Liberty is a right of doing whatever the laws permit, and if a citizen could do what they [the laws] forbid he would be no longer possessed of liberty, because all his fellow-citizens would have the same power."
Montesquieu, The Spirt of Laws
"Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains"
"If absolute sovereignty be not necessary in a state how comes it to be so in family? ... If al men are born free how is it that all women are born slaves?"
Mary Astell, A Serious Proposal to the Ladies
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