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Genetics and Conditioning : 4402 horse production
Terms in this set (30)
What is the term "Twitch" referring to?
The contraction and relaxation of a muscle fiber.
What are the three muscle fiber types?
Fast twitch high oxidative (FTa)
Fast twitch low oxidative (FTb)
What fiber does muscle normally contain?
A mixture of all three fiber types just in different ratios.
What does fiber type influence?
How much faster does fast twitch fiber contract compared to slow twitch fibers?
3 times faster
What are other common names for Slow twitch muscle fibers?
Red fiber or Type 1 fibers
What do mitochondria use to burn fatty acids or glycogen?
Why are slow twitch muscle fibers surrounded by capillaries?
So they can receive oxygen quickly
What are two qualities slow twitch muscle fibers have?
Meat suited for endurance activities & high tolerance against fatigue
What muscle fiber contracts slowly and is able to hold that contraction for a relatively long time without fatigue?
Slow Twitch muscle fibers
What are other common names for fast twitch muscle fibers?
White fibers and type 2 fibers
What do fast twitch muscles fibers have high concentrations of and what do they produce energy from ?
They have high concentrations of enzymes that rapidly produce energy from glycogen
What determines fiber types?
Heredity and breed
Slow twitch fiber cannot be trained to?
Contract any faster
What occurs to glycogen when the muscles can use fatty acids longer to fuel exercise?
It is spared for later such as when oxygen runs out.
During what performance are all three muscle fiber types used at the same time?
Throughout sprint performance
Suitable horses for sprint performance would be greater proportions of what fiber compared to?
Greater proportions of white fibers (fast twitch) compared to red fibers (slow twitch)
List 3 areas how horses muscles get strengthened by conditioning.
Muscles learn to contract faster
Delays the onset of fatigue
Developes greater confidence and desire to perform
What are specific training necessities for endurance racing?
Must train over uneven, rugged terrain at competition speeds (lots of extended trotting)
What are specific training necessities for sprint type horses?
Train for endurance but must also have training for quick bursts of speed
What is dependent on good conditioning?
Durability and longevity
What type of exercise is known for low resistance but highly repetitive?
What type of exercise is known for high resistance with fewer repetitions?
What is the best indicator of fitness?
What should the heart rate of a well conditioned horse return to after 10 mins?
What is the respiratory rate more reflective of?
Heat buildup and dissipation
When does fatigue occur?
When glycogen is all used up and muscles are out of fuel
What is the term that defines multiple workouts on the same day, separated by short rest periods?
List 3 characteristics of aerobic training and 1 example.
Improves stamina, elasticity of muscle improves, improves neuromuscular precision, efficiency of movement increases, muscle range of motion increases.
Example: trotting for miles at the same speed over level terrain
List 3 characteristics of anaerobic training and 1 example.
Duration should be less than 30 seconds, muscles are quickly depleted of stored energy, muscles are rested between repetitions, increases the bulk of fast muscle fibers, Hill work puts less stress on bones, tendons & ligaments than sprinting, while providing effective cardiovascular benefits
Example: short sprints, or steep hill climbs at a gallop
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