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Exam 3 Lecture
Terms in this set (160)
Glycolysis occurs within the _____________.
How many net ATP molecules are produced from glycolysis?
How many CO2 molecules are produced as a waste product during glycolysis?
How many NADH molecules are produced from glycolysis?
The final products from the glycolysis of glucose include:
2 pyruvic acids, 2 NADH
Glycolysis can occur when oxygen is present, even though glycolysis is anaerobic.
How many CO2 molecules are produced as a waste product during oxidative decarboxylation?
When oxygen is not sufficiently present within the cytoplasm during glycolysis, NADH unloads its hydrogen. The hydrogen is picked up by the pyruvic acid, which becomes ____________.
How many NADH molecules are produced from oxidative decarboxylation?
Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?
How many ATP molecules are produced during oxidative decarboxylation?
Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?
How many times does the Krebs cycle spin for each fully catabolized glucose molecule? (Consider the fact that one glucose is broken down into 2 pyruvic acid molecules)
Unlike inspiration, quiet or normal expiration is a passive act because muscular contractions are not involved. Normal expiration depends on two factors. Which of the choices below lists those two factors?
the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid
The products from the oxidative decarboxylation of the 2 pyruvic acids include:
2 Acetyl CoA, 2 NADH
Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is
greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.
How many ATP molecules are produced during the entire Krebs cycle?
The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to ________.
How many CO2 molecules are produced as a waste product from the two turns of the Krebs cycle?
Which of the processes below is completed by a system other than the respiratory system?
transport of respiratory gases
The Krebs cycle is _______________.
Most alveoli are clustered around which of the following tubes?
How many NADH molecules are produced from the Krebs cycle?
Which of the following cells are composed of simple squamous epithelium?
Type I Alveolar cells
How many CO2 molecules are produced as a waste product during oxidative phosphorylation?
The respiratory zone of the lungs begins with the ___________________.
The products that result from the Krebs cycle include:
all of the above
No exchange of gases occurs here.
How many ATPs are produced from a typical molecule of NADH as a result of oxidative phosphorylation?
Which of the choices below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?
parietal pressure gradient
What is the "waste" product produced from oxidative phosphorylation?
Tidal volume is air ________.
exchanged during normal breathing
The energy that is used to form ATP from NADH and FADH2 comes from which sources?
Which of the following determines lung compliance?
alveolar surface tension
Which of the following is not an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2?
blood pH adjustment
How many ATPs are produced from a typical molecule of FADH2 as a result of oxidative phosphorylation?
The final acceptor of the electrons (that are transferred along the electron transport chain) is:
Which of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the lungs away from the thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs?
the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid
All of the following statements are true. Which of the following is the exception?
respiratory rate is lower in newborn infants than it is in adults
Oxidative phosphorylation is _______________.
Cellular respiration includes which of the following process _____________.
gycolysis, oxidative decarboxylation,krebs cycle, electron transport chain
Each of the following will result in inspiration or an increase in the respiratory rate. Which of the following is the exception?
inflation of the lungs
The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is due to which of the following chemicals?
The enzymatic pump that phosphorylates the ADP within the mitochondrial matrix is ________________.
In cellular respiration, how many ATP molecules are produced for each glucose molecule completely metabolized by cellular respiration when oxygen is present?
For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ________.
o.5 to 1 micrometer thick
Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.
interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid.
Most of the ATP molecules produced during cellular respiration are produced from which phase of cellular respiration?
How many ATPs are produced from the breakdown of one molecule of glucose during cellular respiration?
Respiratory control centers are located in the ________.
medulla and pons
The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, are regulated by the ________.
hepatopancreatic sphincter (sphincter of Oddi)
The functional residual capacity is ________.
the total amount of air remaining in the lungs after a tidal expiration
You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?
Which of the following is not a structure of the right lung?
The enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule is called ________.
How is the bulk of carbon dioxide carried in blood?
as the bicarbonate ion
Short-chain triglycerides (lipids) are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?
Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to blow up a balloon?
internal intercostals and abdominal muscles would contract
Parietal cells of the stomach produce ________.
Select the correct statement about the pharynx.
The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx.
A digestive function of the liver is to produce bile.
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the alveoli and capillaries in the lungs via which process?
The pancreas has both an endocrine and an exocrine function.
Which statement about CO2 is incorrect?
More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.
Another term for swallowing is deglutition.
The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________.
The soft palate rises reflexively to open the nasopharynx when we swallow food.
Each of the following is a stimulus for breathing except ____________________.
rising blood pressure
Select the correct statement about calcium absorption.
Low blood calcium stimulates the release of parathyroid hormone. This causes blood calcium levels rise due to the following actions: enhanced calcium reabsorption and activation of Vitamin D by the kidneys as well as activation of osteoclasts within bone.
Labored or difficult breathing is termed dyspnea.
From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen to the external layer.
mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa
The lungs are perfused by two circulations: the pulmonary and the bronchial. The pulmonary circulation is for oxygenation of blood. The bronchial circulation supplies blood to the lung structures (tissue).
Which hormone inhibits gastric secretions?
Which of the following does not influence hemoglobin saturation?
The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.
connective tissue of the mucosa (lamina propria)
Which of the disorders below is characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli producing abnormally large air spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation?
Which hormone causes an increased output of enzyme-rich pancreatic juice and stimulates gallbladder contraction to release bile?
Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood:
Exercise causes more oxygen to be released to the tissues.
Pepsinogen is the precursor to the gastric enzyme for protein digestion (pepsin) and is secreted by the parietal cells.
Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ________.
ciliated mucous lining in the nose
The chemical and mechanical phases of digestion from the mouth through the small intestine are directed toward changing food into forms that can pass through the epithelial cells lining the mucosa into the underlying blood and lymphatic vessels.
The erythrocyte count increases when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the ________.
concentration of oxygen is lower at high altitudes (hypoxia)
The major role of absorption in the ileum is to reclaim bile salts to be recycled back to the liver.
A primary factor responsible for holding the lungs to the thorax wall is ________.
the surface tension of the fluid within the pleural cavity
The primary digestive activity of the stomach is to begin the digestion of proteins.
Which of the choices below is not a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?
number of red blood cells
You have just eaten french fries, buttered toast, ice cream, and whole milk. Which of the following glands/organs would play the most active role in digestion of this food?
The nose serves all the following functions except ________.
a site for gas exchange
The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?
Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.
The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.
alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes
Which of the following enzymes digests proteins?
A premature baby usually has difficulty breathing due to the lack of ________.
Surgical cutting of the lingual frenulum would occur in which part of the body?
The average individual has 500 ml of residual volume in his lungs.
A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol, emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.
Dalton's law states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture.
The thickest connective tissue layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodes, and a rich supply of elastic fibers is the ________.
The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air (air that can move into and out of the lungs during ventilation) is the ________.
Each of the following is a characteristic of the large intestine except ________.
it is longer than the small intestine
Possible causes of hypoxia include all of the following except ________.
an obstruction within the esophagus
What stomach secretion is necessary for normal hemoglobin production in RBCs?
The functions of the nasal conchae are to enhance the air turbulence in the cavity and to increase the mucosal surface area exposed to the air.
How are most nutrients absorbed through the mucosa of the intestinal villa?
active transport driven directly or indirectly by metabolic energy
During normal quiet breathing, approximately 750 ml of air moves into and out of the lungs with each breath.
Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion.
Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth.
Atelectasis (lung collapse) renders the lung useless for ventilation.
Intestinal crypts ________.
contain cells (Paneth cells) that secrete chemicals, which kill bacteria
Intrapulmonary pressure is the ________.
pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
Select the correct statement about digestive processes.
As chyme enters the duodenum the stretch on the duodenal walls can decrease gastric motility.
Kupffer cells are macrophages that reside in the liver and are responsible for removing bacteria and waste materials.
Important peritoneal folds do not include the ________.
Due to the the presence of HCl in the stomach, microbes that may invade other organs of the body are rarely found in the stomach.
________ is (are) not important as a stimulus in the gastric phase of gastric secretion.
As food passes through the digestive tract, it is broken down, so the nutrients are more readily available to the body.
Pancreatic amylase does not get to the small intestine via the ________.
The circular folds of the small intestine enhance absorption by causing the chyme to spiral, rather than to move in a straight line, as it passes through the small intestine.
Most nutrients are absorbed through the mucosa of the small intestinal villi by active transport.
Normally food is contained within the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract from the time of ingestion until the material is completely digested, nutrients are absorbed, and the waste products are prepared for elimination.
Fats significantly delay the emptying of the stomach.
The peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place and carry the blood supply, nerves, and lymphatics are called ________.
Mumps is an inflammation of the parotid glands caused by a virus.
When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is called ________.
Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?
The chemical and mechanical processes involved in the breakdown of food are called ________.
Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ________.
the vagus nerve and enteric plexus
The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to ________.
collect absorbed nutrients for processing or storage in the liver
Which of the following is an essential role played by large intestine bacteria?
synthesize vitamin K and B-complex vitamins
The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located ________.
within the walls of the digestive tract (alimentary canal)
The function of the goblet cells is to ________.
produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful enzymes needed for food digestion
Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?
Hepatocytes do not ________.
produce digestive enzymes
Chyme is the mixture of food and digestive chemicals that is formed in the ________.
Which of the following is not a phase of gastric secretion?
In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach ________.
initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins
Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?
The solutes contained in saliva include ________.
electrolytes, digestive enzymes, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA
Chief cells ________.
are found deep within the gastric glands
The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells?
serous cells and mucous cells
Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds via which metabolic process?
Which of the following is not true of saliva?
contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins
The ________ contains lobules with sinusoidal capillaries (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central venous structure.
Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?
There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.
If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the outermost layer, known as the ________.
Which of these is not a component of saliva?
The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the ________.
The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?
plicae circulares (large circular folds), microvilli, and intestinal villi
The dental formula for an adult is 2-1-2-3. What does the 1 stand for?
Choose the incorrect statement regarding bile.
Bile contains enzymes for digestion.
If the liver were severely damaged, digestion of which of the following would be affected the most?
Dentin anchors the tooth in place.
Gastrin, histamine, cholecystokinin, and secretin are hormones of digestion. Which of the following cell types synthesize and secrete these products?
The first teeth to appear are the deciduous teeth.
There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs ________.
before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought
The myenteric nerve plexus provides the major nerve supply to the GI tract wall and controls GI motility.
Peristaltic waves are ________.
waves of muscular contractions that propel contents through the digestive tract
Peyer's patches are found in the submucosa of the distal end of the small intestine (ileum).
Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of ________, the nutrient that is acted upon by the enzyme pepsin.
protein and peptide fragments
The peritoneum is the most extensive serous membrane in the body.
Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.
chief cells of the stomach
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