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Terms in this set (56)

• Apologetics
o Take defense on way of thinking
o "attempt to offer a reasonable (or even a philosophically respectable) defense of the convictions and way of life of people in a particular tradition"
• Justin Martyr
o One of the earliest apologetics
o Christians are gifted with revelation that is fulfillment of great questions of philosophers before Jesus' time
o **Chapter 5
• Examines Socrates death
The actions done to him is not dissimilar to what is done to Christians
Logos was prevailing through Socrates
Condemnation by Logos (Jesus) to barbarians
o **Chapter 13
o Died around 160 from disobeying local regulations of teaching Christianity
o ***main reason why Justin appeals to Socrates was : because Socrates got executed *** as was Jesus and Christians in his time
o Objects to text about God speaking to Moses about burning bush
• Debated with Rabi Trifo
• Justin believed that God doesn't engage with humans in our time because of His nature
• Justin believed that God does not change
• Logos was mediator that
o Perfection means unchanging
• Clement of Alexandria
o Allowed women to be in his school
• Origen
o There was a rebellion where souls fell away from God (free-fall forever if God hadn't created a safety net called the world) - pre-existence to earth
o Eventually all souls will be gathered back and restored to God (based on 1 Corinthians 15:28)
o Believed in free will - God will not save any soul if they are against His will.
• Believed that souls were reborn to "try again" if they were against God the first time
• The end of souls are restored in the presence of God
o Bodies are discardable, souls endure
o His teach was Clement of Alexandria
o Origen castrated himself to deny accusation that he was after the women students in his class
o His teaching was called universalism
• Teaching that all will eventually be saved
Logos overall:
• Logos = word, structure, communication, reason, logic, wisdom
o Logos - masculine
o Wisdom - feminine ... personified as woman
o But Jesus is wisdom incarnate
Logos role in John 1:
• John 1
o Not synoptic gospel
o Says nothing of Jesus' birth
o Like a cosmic creation story... light of logos
o Verse 1
• Starts where Genesis 1 starts : "In the beginning"
• God creates with "word" which is speaking because logos. Logos is masculine.
o Verse 2
• "He" was with God. Who is He?
Jesus is a human being. What was in the beginning was not a human being. His figure doesn't show up until v. 14
Not typical that it was Jesus' soul
SO WHO IS HE?? Who is logos?
Is the Bible inherent?
• Contradicts itself sometimes. 1 person at gravesite in one gospel, 2 present in others
• Written by people... all show same message... way of understanding is different
• Some differences in the way stories are told, but same message
• Inherently reveals the meaning/word of God
o Verse 4-5
• "In him (logos) was life"
• Light and life of logos
o Verse 9
• True light comes into the world
o Verse 14
• The Word became flesh and lived among us
• Incarnation of logos
o Verse 17
• Law given through Moses
• Grace and truth through Christ
o Verse 18
• No one has seen God
• Only Christ has made God known
God revealed in Jesus' actions i.e. wash feet.
Role in apologetics:
• Justin Martyr
o Logos seen in Socrates death
o LOGOS prevailed through Socrates
o Condemnation by Logos (Jesus) to barbarians
o Logos was mediator between God and Moses
Logos in Acts 17
• V 17: Stoics loved Logos
Apollinaris of Laodicea
• Apollinaris was a student and aide of Athanasius (opposes Arian)
• Impossible to both worship and not worship the same person so Jesus couldn't have worshipped God?
• Inconceivable that same person should be both God and ENTIRE human
• Christ
o Had God's spirit
o Had humans body
o NOT a human being, but is like a human being b/c coessential with humanity in his highest part
o He was an incarnate intellect
o IS flesh withOUT consuming the human mind ~ a changeable mind... So how did He pray???
o Can't contain 2 whole natures
• Prophets
o Word of God descended upon them
• This did NOT happen to Jesus

Gregory of Nazianzus
• Against Apollinaris
• Christ had to be whole man b/c you can't put your trust in half a man
• Jesus can't be human in Apollinaris' sense if he had the body of a human but not its mind
• Instead human being mingled with Divine Nature
• It's true Jesus can't have 2 whole natures if looked upon in a bodily fashion so you must look at what is mental and incorporeal
• "The Word was made Flesh and dwelt among us"
• God is God of flesh and souls
• Jesus sanctifies humanity
o He became everything that people are (human) except sin
• Human's are not mindless animals
• Jesus is human in flesh and mind "The Word became flesh"
• Jesus became all that we are
• Laws of nature tell us God exists
• God is not a body because then He wouldn't be Infinite and Limitless
• God is incorporeal but His essence is not contained within that
• God is not nowhere because then He wouldn't exist
• God is incomprehensible.. The Divine Nature cannot be apprehended by human reason

• Did not believe Jesus had a human mind ~ called Apollinarism (considered heresy today)
o Appealed to 1 Corinthians 15
• Instead of a human mind, the Divine Logos inhabited a human body... So Jesus had a Divine mind in a human body
o Opposition: Luke 2:52 "And Jesus kept increasing in wisdom and stature, and in favor with God and men."
• Questions opposing Apollinaris:
How can Jesus increase in wisdom if He was born with a Divine mind?
How is Jesus tempted?
Why did Jesus pray?
• Apollinaris' views were officially is' views were officially condemned in year 381

• Opponent of Apollinaris
• Asked "How does this touch me?"
o If Jesus is not fully human, how does He connect with our lives?