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14 terms

Classical Greek Philosophy

STUDY
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Thales of Miletus
all matter is a form of water
Anaximander
student of Thales; all matter is a form of apeiron ("the boundless")
Anaximenes
all matter is a form of air
Pythagoras
established school in Crotona Italy; emphasized myths, reincarnation, musical pitch, and math
Heraclitus of Ephesus
all matter made of fire; only reality is the law of change, Logos
Parmenides
established school in Elea Italy; emphasized unchanging universe; "being is"
Zeno of Elea
student of Parmenides; introduced four logical paradoxes to prove the unity of being
Empedocles
proposed the four elements of air, water, earth, and fire and the two forces of love and strife; eternal cycle of chaos
Anaxagoras
all matter is composed of tiny seeds; proposed cosmic evolution
Democritus
student of Leucippus; proposed atomic theory and deterministic materialism
Protagoras
"Man is the measure of all things"; natural science and religion are worthless; one should only be ethical if it is to his advantage; sophists were known as deceitful and insincere
Socrates
sentenced to death 399 BC; refused payment for his lectures; held that all people have full knowledge of ultimate truth; Socrates' paradox: no man does evil voluntarily
Plato
student of Socrates; recorded Socrates' teachings in his dialogues; virtue = wisdom; proposed theory of Ideas, doctrine of Forms, the intelligible and sensible realms, and the Absolute Idea of the Good; wrote the Republic (discussion of justice), Meno (Socrates shows innate knowledge of all people by teaching a slave the Pythagorean theorem), Apology (Socrates' trial defense), Crito (Socrates' defense of obedience to the state), Phaedo (death of Socrates), Symposium (a drama), Parmenides (theory of Forms), Laws (political discussions), Timaeus (thoughts on cosmology and science)
Aristotle
student of Plato; tutor to Alexander the Great; founded Lyceum and Peripatetic ("walking") school; founded logic, syllogism, scientific method; forms contained in objects; natural hierarchical order of inanimate, vegetative, animal, rational, and heavenly ether; emphasized happiness; wise king best government but limited democracy a good compromise; wrote Organon ("instrument" logic), Physics, Metaphysics, Poetics (literary criticism, definitions of drama)