189 terms

Chapter 8, 12, 13 Educational Psychology Test 3


Terms in this set (...)

Cognitive Views of Learning
an approach to learning that views learning as an active mental process. It proposes that learning involves acquiring, remembering and using knowledge
Domain Specific Knowledge
information that relates to a specific area or expertise
Example: Knowledge of football
General Knowledge
information related to a wide variety of topics, not limited to one thing
Example: Knowledge of all-purpose facts
Procedural Knowledge
"knowing how" knowledge of how to perform a task, includes both physical and mental
Example: Riding a bike
Conditional Knowledge
"knowing when and why" - more than knowing facts, knowing the conditions under which a behavior should occur
Example: Adding ingredients to a recipe
Sensory Memory
the first encounter with a stimulus - its duration is very brief. If information is received it must be processed further to be retained
detecting a stimulus and assigning meaning to it
Working Memory
information one is focusing on at a given time. It is the place where new memories are held and references can be drawn from long term memories for processing
Short-Term Memory
the component of memory that holds information for a limited amount of time (~ 5-20 seconds) Information is held here temporarily and must be transferred to LTM for longer retention. Capacity is limited to 7 ± 2 bits of information
Central Executive
the part of working memory that directs and controls the activities there
Phonological Loop
part of working memory where rehearsal for words and sounds occurs
Visuospatial Sketchpad
part of working memory that holds visual and spatial components
a way to increase capacity by combining bits of information - allows us to retain "more" information by combining the information into useful chunks of information
i.e. instead of 1 7 7 6 - remember as one date 1776
Maintenance Rehearsal
repeating information over and over, usually does not guarantee long term retention, but will keep information around longer
Elaborative Rehearsal
a type of rehearsal which links new information to information already known or already learned, it allows learning by association and not simply rote memorization
Cognitive Load
The amount of mental resources required to complete a task.
Intrinsic Cognitive Load
The load required to complete a task - an unavoidable component of cognitive processing.
Extraneous Cognitive Load
The amount of extra mental resources needed to complete tasks irrelevant to original task. This would include the effort required to rid the learner of distractions etc.
Germane Cognitive Load
Deep knowledge, including connecting information to old information and activation - accessing necessary information to handle the current cognitive task. This type of load is helpful as it processes relevant material.
information gets in the way or is confused with newly acquired information
"use it or lose it" Over time if we do not focus on the acquired information we will no longer retain it
Long-Term Memory
holds and maintains information for retention over an extended period of time - really the goal of teaching is to get information into LTM. The capacity as well as duration of LTM are unlimited
Explicit Memory
long-term memories that involves deliberate or conscious recall. Can be either semantic or episodic
Implicit Memory
knowledge of which we are not consciously aware - but still influences our behaviors and memories without awareness on our part
Propositions/Propositional Network
storage of information in related clusters.
- visual part of memory - representations of memory based on physical attributes and visions
Words and Images
Information coded both visually and verbally are better retained
a category used to group similar events, ideas, objects or people. These are defining attributes and are stored as abstracts in LTM
Prototype - a best example or representative of a category
Exemplars - an actual memory of a specific object
stores complicated pieces of information and organizes vast amounts of information so multiple aspects of a complex idea can be stored as one piece of information
Story Grammars
part of our memory which helps us to understand and comprehend stories
part of memory which stores the specific steps of an event - such as going to a restaurant
Episodic Memory
memories of "episodes" tied to specific time and place. This part of memory keeps track of when things occur and the order of occurrence etc.
Procedural Memory
memory of how to do things and procedures which need to be retained for long periods of time
part of procedural memory - directs behavior in regard to rules about what actions to take under specific circumstances
the activation of various parts of memory when a cue is provided - it occurs without our awareness
Spreading Activation
based on the way our memory is organized (networks) and recalling one piece of memory in turn activates other related ideas
Levels of Processing
theory which proposes that the more deeply we process something, the more likely we are to recall the information. Deeper processing corresponds to extensive or meaningful processing
in an attempt to recall information, we "fill - in" information that may be missing - so we recreate the memory
idea that we never learned something in the first place - even though we assume we did, because of its seemingly familiar aspect of the material. Because it was never learned, recall is impossible. Not because we can't remember it
Metacognition - 3 Aspects
has an impact on memory - it is the knowledge about our own thinking process - an awareness which can lead to changes in behavior
Knowing the what, how, when and why in the memory process. It is used to regulate thinking and learning.
Planning, Monitoring, Evaluating
Metacognition Planning
knowing how much time to devote to a task
Metacognition - Monitoring
being aware of the effectiveness of the strategy being used
Metacognition - Evaluating
making judgment of how well the process worked and whether or not it should be used again
Rote Memorization
repeating information over and over again, but no attempt is make to link it to previously learned information
Distributed Practice
working on memorizing intermittently with breaks between memorization sessions
Massed Practice
practice for an extended period of time - it can lead to fatigue and a decrease in motivation, so it is not the most effective means of memorization
Practice with Feedback
allowing students to practice tasks, but giving them feedback if they are incorrect and allowing them to change it - this ensures they are not learning incorrect information as a basis
Domain-Specific Strategies
consciously applying skills to reach goals in a particular subject or problem
an internal state that arouses, directs and maintains behavior
Intrinsic Motivation
behavior driven from within. The behavior is performed for its own sake and does not require an external reward
Extrinsic Motivation
behavior is driven by an external source. The purpose of the behavior is due to reinforcement and/or punishment
Locus of Causality
the source or location of the causes for behavior - can be internal or external
an attractive object/event which is given as a consequence of a behavior
the promise of a reward or punishment - used to encourage or discourage behavior or potential behaviors
Expectancy X Value Theory
explains motivation in terms of the person's expectation of whether or not they will attain and goal AND the value of that goal. If either are zero - as in any mathematical equation, the motivation will be zero.
Legitimate Peripheral Participation
a key aspect of the sociocultural motivational theory. It means that beginners are genuinely involved in the work of a group, even if their abilities are undeveloped and small at first. Being a part of a learning community helps with motivation to learn more and more
Need for Autonomy
part of self-determinism - desire to allow self to make decision etc.
an outcome an individual strives to accomplish and are is best if they are: specific, moderately difficult and likely to be reached in the near future
Goal Orientation
patterns of beliefs about goals as they relate to achievement in school. It refers to what the person ultimately wants to achieve and as a result influences behaviors. Goals can be coordinated and combined
Mastery Goal
the goal is to learn and master a skill regardless of the graded outcome - often set by people who are task involved learners.
Task-involved learner
student who is most concerned with mastering a task and does not consider grades
Performance Goal
outward performance is the focus - the bottom line is the grade or to do better than others. Individuals who set performance goals are often ego-involved learners.
Ego-involved learner
student is self-involved and concerned primarily with their own performance
Work-avoidance learner
student's motivation is to avoid work, they do not care how they are perceived or how much they learn
Social Goal
acceptance by others and engagement in social activities is the major motivation. This goal can influence academic goals
Career Goal
future-oriented. Make choices based on future plans
Goal Framing
How assignments are explained in regard to a student's goals
Goal Acceptance
Commitment to goals results in better performance and the setting of higher goals. It is important to also remember that students are more committed to goals that are realistic, reasonably difficult, and meaningful
Beliefs about Knowing
student's beliefs about knowledge and learning are an important part of motivation
Epistemological Beliefs
a person's belief about the structure, stability and certainly of knowledge and how knowledge is best learned. These will influence motivation and the choice of strategies.
Beliefs about Ability
Two beliefs about ability that can influence motivation: Entity View of Ability and Incremental View of Ability
Beliefs about Causes and Control
Humans often try to explain or make sense of behavior. They do this by searching for an explanation or a cause
Beliefs about Self-Worth
a student's self-worth has a direct impact on motivation. A sense of self-efficacy, control and determination are all factors in learning
Entity View of Ability
belief that ability is stable. This is often associated with performance goals
Incremental View of Ability
beliefs that ability can change. This is often associated with learning goals
Learned Helplessness
the individual learns to be helpless. Because they have experienced failures in the past, they feel they are incapable of accomplishing tasks and have no control over their environment. These feelings can lead to decreased motivation
Personal/Individual Interests
enduring aspect of the person and is tied to their likes and dislikes
Situational Interests
more short-lived - may be an activity or topic that captures the students for a short period
a physical and psychological alertness
Trait Anxiety
anxiety that is a characteristic of the person in general - one of their personality traits
State Anxiety
anxiety that is due to a situation or state (i.e. testing)
Attribution Theory
a cognitive theory of motivation. The focus is on what a person attributes as the reason for doing or not doing a behavior (or what is perceived as the reason)
belief about personal competence in a particular situation. This need not necessarily be tied into one's feelings of self-esteem or self worth.
If the task at hand is not important to the person or valued, doing poorly on it will not negatively influence self-esteem
belief about one's own ability in general and feeling of sense of worthiness. This can take one of 3 forms: Mastery-Oriented, Failure-Avoiding, Failure-Accepting
Mastery-Oriented Students
students who focus on learning goals because they value achievement and see their ability as improvable
Failure-Avoiding Students
students avoid failure by not taking risks - they tie their self-worth into their performance so only take calculated risks
students who not only accept, but expect failure. Feel they have limited ability and accept it
Problem-Based Learning
a classroom technique in which the learned centers around real-life problems which may not have clear-cut answers
Attended Time
time scheduled in class minus absences
Actual Academic Time
time set aside for learning - minus lunch, recess, transitions etc.
Engaged Time
time spent actively learning minus time student is "off task"
Academic Learning Time
time when students are actually succeeding in learning
Participation Structures
rules defining how to participate in different activities - teaching students "how" to be a part of school
maintain and manage own behavior and accepting responsibility for own actions
specific statements which outline the expected and forbidden behaviors in a classroom - a violation of rules often implies a consequence. A few general rules that cover specifics is usually more effective than a long list of dos and don'ts
prescribed steps for an activity - rarely written down, yet are necessary for classroom management
the effect, result, or outcome of something that occurred earlier
Natural Consequences
the ordinary effects of a misbehavior which do not have to be arranged or contrived. Example: not getting up when the alarm goes off means being late for school
Logical Consequences
inventing consequences for misbehaviors in classroom. Students may be required to redo, repair, or in some way face the consequences that occur as the result of their actions
Preventive Strategy
an instructional strategy designed to put a stop to discipline problems before they begin
successfully stopping a behavior. The effective teacher deals with the behavior on time and on target
holding students responsible for their performance during basic classroom lecture. Suggestions include choral responses, students showing work to teacher as they go, teachers circulating among students to observe their understanding of the material...
Group Alerting
keeping students "on their toes" by calling on them periodically to answer questions during the lecture. Students are chosen at random, so they all must pay attention
Principle of Least Intervention
Teachers correct misbehaviors by using the simplest intervention that works. Teachers need a continuum of strategies for dealing with minor misbehaviors - from least to most disruptive
involves the repeated attempts to harm a victim. There is an imbalance of power between the bully and the victim. A fine line exists between "good-natured" teasing and actual bullying
the use of information and communication technologies to support deliberate, repeated, and hostile behavior by an individual or group, that is intended to harm others
Hostile Attribution Bias
tendency to interpret behaviors directed at them as an attempt to hurt them. This is often the mindset of a bully and they strike back in what they perceive to be self-defense
the interactive exchange of information, ideas, feelings, needs, and desires. It is a valuable part of creating learning environments.
Paraphrase Rule
the listener says what they heard before they respond to the question or comment. They do not restate the words verbatim but interpret it in their own words. The purpose of which is to allow communication to proceed accurately
determining who is in charge of a problem, and ultimately whose responsibility it is to solve that problem. As a general rule, if someone does not own a problem, it is not their problem to solve
Empathic Listening
actively listening to student - listen not only to words, but listen to intentions, emotions, etc. This is where paraphrasing can help the teacher to judge the accuracy of what he/she perceives to be the problem
"I" Message (3 possibly 4 parts)
telling student/colleague etc. in straightforward and non-judgmental way what they are doing and how it affects you and your role. The approach is to be as non-accusatory as possible.
I feel (express feeling)
when you (describe action)
because (explain)
Assertive Discipline
clear, firm, but not hostile approach to a problem.
Confrontation and Negotiation
When the previous solutions have not worked - the problems requires either the teacher to impose a solution or the teacher gives into student.
"No Lose" Method
A six step problem solving strategy where both the teacher and the student's needs are considered in the solution.

Define the Problem
Generate Many Possible Solutions
Evaluate Each Solution
Make a Decision
Determine how to implement the decision
Evaluate the success of the solution
Comparison of Behavioral and Cognitive Views of Learning
Behavioral: New behaviors are learned, learning is dependent on external events, reinforcement strengthens responses
Cognitive: Knowledge is learned changes in knowledge make changes in behavior possible, individual brings internal knowledge to learning situation, reinforcement is a source of feedback.
Recht and Leslie (1988) study of knowledge
Subjects - Very Good or Very Poor Readers - were tested on their baseball knowledge - and were divided into:
Good Reader/High Baseball Knowledge
Good Reader/Poor Baseball Knowledge
Poor Reader/High Baseball Knowledge
Poor Reader/ Low Baseball Knowledge

All subjects then read a baseball passage and were tested on various aspects of understanding of what they read

Results - Knowledge was the best predictor of retention and learning of the material. Poor readers who knew baseball remembered more than good readers with little baseball knowledge and almost as much as good readers who knew baseball.
Contents of Long-Term Memory
Declarative Knowledge, Procedural Knowledge, Self-Regulatory Knowledge
Declarative Knowledge
verbal information, facts, "knowing that" something is the case
Self-Regulatory Knowledge
Knowing how to manage your learning, or knowing when and how to use your procedural or declarative knowledge
Semantic Memory
memory for meaning - generally the focus of school. These are not tied a specific episode and are stored as propositions, images, concepts and schemas
Specific Mnemonic Devices
method of loci, peg work, chain mnemonics, and keyword
Tips for Better Memory (10 tips)
Pay Attention
Create Associations
Create a Picture
Practice Practice Practice
Encode information in multiple modes - (read aloud, write out notes etc.)
Reduce Overload - use notes when you can
Time Travel - in your mind go to the original source
Get Some Sleep
Create a Rhyme/Poem/Story
Relax - Give yourself time to remember
Three stages to automation
Cognitive, Associative, Autonomous
Automation: Cognitive
at initial stage of learning new material it requires a great deal of conscious effort - must think about every step
Automation: Associative
when we are more familiar with the information, we can begin to combine steps and the conscious effort required is less
Automation: Autonomous
when the task learned/ or information gained is truly automatic and requires little or no conscious effort
Two aspects which make motivation hypothetical
Motivations are NOT directly observable and must be inferred from behavior

Motivations are often unknown - even to the person
Five Approaches to Motivation
Social Cognitive
Sociocultural Perspectives
Behavioral Motivation
An approach to motivation which states that in order to understand the motivation of students one must perform a careful analysis of the incentives and rewards in a classroom. Behaviors are a direct result of rewards and promises of rewards and the appeal of these to the student
Humanistic Motivation
Approach to motivation which focuses on encouraging people's inner resources. A specific model was proposed by Abraham Maslow
Cognitive Motivation
the emphasis is on the intrinsic or inner drives, but behaviors are determined by thinking. The person/learner is an active participant. Motivation is initiated by goals, schemas (mindsets), expectations and attributions
Social Cognitive Motivation
Approach to motivation which states motivation is the result of a thinking process. It is not simply based on a reward system, but the person plays a role in their motivation.
Sociocultural Perspectives Motivation
Motivational theory which takes into account person's identity and that person's involvement in their culture/ community to maintain their identity plays a role in motivation. A person's identity is central to this view.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Self-Transcendence *tip
Basic/Physiological *base

*in pyramid shape
living for a purpose higher than self
fulfilling one's potential - the very top of Maslow's hierarchy
belief about personal competence in a particular situation. This need not necessarily be tied into one's feelings of self-esteem or self worth.
Motivation in Teaching
Needs, Goals, Interests/Emotions, and Self-Perception
Motivation in Teaching Needs
Based on the idea that students are motivated by needs. Specific needs include: Self-Determinism,
Autonomy, Information and Control, Relatedness
need to feel competent, in control and connected
part of self-determinism - desire to allow self to make decision etc.
Information and Control
need to have appropriate information to learn and have a sense of control
need to belong - feel a relationship with others. To feel connected - students need to feel people in school care about them
Motivation in Teaching Goals
an outcome an individual strives to accomplish and are is best if they are: specific, moderately difficult and likely to be reached in the near future
Goal Orientation
patterns of beliefs about goals as they relate to achievement in school. It refers to what the person ultimately wants to achieve and as a result influences behaviors. Goals can be coordinated and combined
Work Avoidance Goal
student's motivation is to avoid work, they do not care how they are perceived or how much they learn
Locke and Latham (2002) Goals
Goal setting improves performance because it:
Directs attention to the task at hand
Energizes effort
Increases persistence
Promotes development of new knowledge & strategies
Importance of Interest in Learning
Classrooms often have to rely on situational interests - challenge is to catch, but also hold interest
Interest can be generated when learning is related to real-life situations
Weiner's Three Dimensions of Attribution (2010)
Proposed that most of the attributed causes for success or failures can be characterized based on the three dimensions of locus, stability and controllability
Weiner's Locus
the location of the cause - internal or external
Weiner's Stability
how constant the cause is perceived to be - is it possible to change it or is it unchangeable
Weiner's Controllability/responsibility
whether or not the person can control the cause of the behavior
Yerkes-Dodson Law (1908) and its relation to performance
states that performance is optimal at moderate levels of arousal:


NEED MORE ! ! ! ! !
Lowenstein (1994) theory on curiosity
Curiosity can be created when there is a gap in knowledge - it can serve as a motivator for the learner to gather and seek out information when what they have is not sufficient - similar to Piaget's Disequilibrium
Cycle of Anxiety At the beginning
if a student has anxiety even before a class begins they may go into a class with anxiety which in turn interferes with assimilation of the information
Cycle of Anxiety During Learning
anxiety can continue and influence the student while learning. They may become overwhelmed or distracted due to their anxiety
Cycle of Anxiety Testing
often a huge source of anxiety - the student must now demonstrate what they have learned and they are fearful of this situation
The test often has negative results which confirms their anxieties, so new information is acquired with even more anxiety and the cycle continues
3 Possible ways to deal with anxiety
Problem-Focused Solving, Emotional Management
Dealing with anxiety Problem-Focused Solving
target the academic part of the problem itself - i.e. seek extra help with academics, perfect study skills etc.
Dealing with anxiety Emotional Management
focus on ways to decrease the anxiety itself - i.e. use relaxation techniques
Dealing with anxiety Avoidance
stay away from the anxiety - i.e. skipping class, clean before study
Importance of Gaining Cooperation in the Classroom (3 things it provides)
Teachers must manage the classroom and get the students to cooperate - without it there will be chaos
Cooperation allows for the following:
More time for Learning
Access to Learning
Allows Students to Begin to Self-Manage
Cooperation More time for Learning
when students are cooperating - the teacher does not need to spend time gaining their attention. As a results, cooperation literally makes more time available
Cooperation Access to Learning
students need to know how to participate in the various aspects of the classroom - Students require an awareness of participation structures
Cooperation Allows Students to Begin to Self-Manage
Start the process in making students responsible for actions, assignments, responsibilities - ultimately this will lead to success in school rather than being managed
Time Awareness Program and the Five Factors which interfere with Academic Learning Time
Starting the Day
Changing Subjects
Recess and Restroom
Assemblies and Programs
Breaks in Learning Cycle
Importance of NOT letting discipline interrupt flow in classroom
internal and external interruptions can disrupt the flow of the classroom. Planning can keep these to a minimum. More importantly it is necessary to have a procedure for handling interruptions when they do occur
Rules/Procedures as Information
instruction on and practice of routines can increase engaged time - when students know how to hand in papers, or take messages to the office or erase white boards on a regular basis - these then become imbedded into the routine of the classroom and diminish disruption
Some Guidelines for Setting Consequences
Do not wait until a rule is broken before thinking about the consequence

Separate the deed from the doer

Emphasize that students have power to choose their actions

Encourage reflection, self-evaluation, and problem solving

Help students identify and give a rationale for what they could do differently next time
Kounin (1970) Prevention Techniques
offers specific behaviors of teachers which are related to successful classroom management by means of prevention.
Overlapping and Group Focus
Movement Management
Student Social Skills as Prevention
Kounin Withitness
an awareness of what is going on in the classroom and communicating this to students involves the effective use of desists.
Kounin Overlapping and Group Focus
ability to deal with several events simultaneously as well as keep as many students as possible focused on the same task at the same time
Kounin Movement Management
maintaining momentum throughout changes and transitions during the day - the effective teacher keeps the day flowing smoothly
Kounin Student Social Skills as Prevention
teaching students social and emotional skills can help them function better in the classroom, reduce frustration and establish an atmosphere of cooperation
Brain Power (2007) to Reduce Bullying
a program designed to reduce physical aggression in elementary school. It helps aggressive students make the correct attribution to others' behavior.
Example: when someone bumps them or spills their lunch tray - trying to change their mindset so their first assumption is that it was accidental rather than purposeful
Violence in Schools and Prevention
After shootings at Columbine, Red Lake High School in Minnesota, Virginia Tech, Sandy Hook - many schools searched for "solutions".
However, over time, most agree that the best solution is prevention
Create a Non Violent School Environment
not a one-shot "anti-violence" assembly - but rather striving to create a peaceful and nonviolent school environment for the long-term via setting standards of behavior in the classroom, create a culture of belonging etc
Recognize the Warning Signs of Violence and Intervene Early
be aware of possible behaviors and then do something - social skills training, encouragement of pro-social extracurricular activities, etc.
Key is to begin the process before the child begins a long history of antisocial behavior
Problem Ownership and Implications for Solutions
Deciding who owns a problem is not always straightforward. Some general guidelines to use are the following:

Student Owned
Blocks only the student's learning
Only the student is impacted - embarrassed etc.
The student is the only one upset by the problem

Teacher Owned
It interferes with the teacher's role
It affects the teacher's values
It impedes the teacher reaching his/her goals
direct student to appropriate resources who can assist the student in solving the problem
Empathic Listening
actively listening to student - listen not only to words, but listen to intentions, emotions, etc. This is where paraphrasing can help the teacher to judge the accuracy of what he/she perceives to be the problem
Conflict Resolution Styles (5)
Going to a Third Person
handling conflict by getting away from it or ignoring it. This can be useful if the conflict is unimportant or inconsequential
Going to a Third Person
having a neutral person listen to both sides of a conflict and have that person find a solution. This success of this method depends on the unbiased nature of the third party
finding a solution that allows each person to win something. Both people may be disappointed, but both receive satisfaction in getting what they want part of the time
holding out for what a person wants or getting the other person to give in. This is considered a high-risk strategy of conflict resolution
looking at a conflict as a problem and actively searching for a solution with which both parties are happy. The end result may be a compromise, but this is after many solutions are discussed