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By 1835 a temperance movement "________" alcohol was in full swing.

Volstead Act and Ratification

The effort to "keep a devil out of the mouth of America" culminated in the ________ and _______ of the 18th Amendment to the Constitution

67 to 270 billion

Total retail amount spent yearly on alcohol beverages in the US has remained fairly constant at about (how much money)


Alcohol has _____ in the past two decades by about 15%


_____ million people are abusing or are addicted to alcohol and need treatment.

Children and adolescents

1 to 3 million ______ and _____ are thought to be abusing or addicted to alcohol


____ million age 12 and up abuse drugs so much that they need treatment.

1 in 13

About ____ in ____ people at some time in their life will have such a problem with a controlled substance they are dependent on it.

Society and cultural

_____ and _____ background of an individual seem to have a great deal to do with what kinds of pharmacological and extrapharmacological effects will occur with use of addictive substances.


The mental and emotional state of the user, including expectations, intelligence, personality, feelings, and so on.


The social and physical enviroment of the user at the time of the use. It can be defined as the immediate suroundings.

Set and Settings

____ and ____ define which situations are considered appropriate for drug use and which are not.


T/F Alcohol automatically releases inhibitions


MacAndrew and Edgerton found that people would not automatically lose their inhibitions and violate norms due to ingestion of alcohol unless the particular _____ permitted it.


The number one abused substance?


Alcohol has the longevity, legacy and legislative attempts to control or promote than any other drug... This is called?


There are only limited conditions under which one can go to jail for posession of alcohol.... This is called

Widespread use

Alcohol is easy to come by... This is called?

Indirect financial costs

____ due to job absenteeism and firings; family violence and divorce; hospital care, law enforcement, judicial and correctional activities related to alcoholism are most likely greater than any other public health issue.

Psychological Costs

The mental health costs are astounding with alcohol abuse.

Physical Costs

The pernicious effects of alcoholism cuts a wide physiological path through its victims.


Alcohol abuse contributes to a majority of __________ in society.


The lifetime risk of ______ among alcoholics is appx. 15%.


Alcohol is a "legal" ______


Alcohol is considered a _______, it can be combined with other drugs.

clear cut, treatment

There is no single, _______ model or _____ approach based theory or research that holds sway over another

Final Common Pathway

Doweiko uses the term _________ to advise that each of the theories of drug addiction contains an element of truth and efficacy.

Behavioral Learning Model

Drinking is caused and maintained by the association of alcohol intake with positive rewarding experiences.

Biopsychosocial Models

This method does not give equal relevance to biological, social, and psychological aspects of addiction.

Cognitive Method

This method operates on the assumption that thoughts or beliefs are the primary causative factors in substance abuse.

Disease Model

In this model, drug use is seen as an aberrant condition afflicting otherwise healthy people, and exposure to the drug is seen as leading to physiological addiction.

Alcohol Anonymous

The Disease Model if the foundation for what program

Gateway Model

This method proposes an orderly progression from one drug to another and paricularly applies to young people as they move heavier and heavier drug use.

Genetic Predisposition

This method proposes an inherited and transmitted predisposition to become a substance abuser.

Lifestyle Model

In the view of this model, the rewards of living in an altered state of consciousness outweigh all other costs of a destructive , drug dependent life.

Moral Model

In this model addiction is seen as a consequence of personal choice.

Peer-cluster Model

This model links drug use to small groups of people.

Prescriptive Model

This model suggests that alcoholism begins in self- prescription and physician prescription of alcohol and other drugs as tranquilizing agents to relieve acute or chronic pain symptoms.

Problem behavior Model

This theory states that the more problematic the behavior of the individual, the more likely the individual is to come into contact with people, places, and instances where drugs are available.

Psychoanalytic model

This model posits that certain pathological personality traits established early in childhood predispose the individual to alcoholism.

Psychosocial Model

This model proposes that a constellation of factors involving an individual's personality, enviroment, and behavior are interrelated and organized so as to develop a dynamic state designated as problem behavior proneness.

Sanctioned Use Model

This model believes the overperscription of "feel better" pills gives an "ok" to other "feel better" addictions.

Stress coping Model

This model sees drugs as a substitute for effective behavioral and cognitive coping skills when the individual is placed under stress.


The chronic, recurrent misuse of chemicals.


Physically, chemical addiction is a celluar change that occurs with the increased use of most depressant drugs.

Addictive behavior

A more preferred term, at least by many psychologists, to indicate abuse, dependency, and so forth.


A highly complex condition characterized by preoccupation with alcohol and loss of control over its consumption.

Chemical Dependent

Any person who has a dependence on drugs such that the substance governs his or her life to the extent that it severely impairs the ability to function psychologically and physically.


Based on the chemical dependent's need for care to survive and the caretaker's need to control the addict's behavior.


A cluster of cognitive,behavioral, and physiological symptoms indicating that the individual continues use of the substance despite major problems.


Any person who knowingly practices specific behaviors that allow the chemical dependent to continue the abuse.


The degree to which one is accustomed to taking a certain drug.


Use of a chemical with some adverse physical, psycholoical, social, or legal consequence


A return to uncontrolled drinking


An episode of drinking following a period of abstinence


The biological ability of the body to transform and excrete the chemical from the body .


The intake of a chemical substance into the body with the goal of somehow altering one's state of consciousness


The production of physical and psychological symptoms by the body on cessation or reduction in use of the drug.

Disease of Denial

Alcoholism is often called the "_________"


The venting of hostility on a person or object, neither of which deserves it.


Alcoholics use this to escape from a variety of threatening circumstances and emotions.


Alcoholics often attribute motives within themselves to significant others.


Alcoholics make all kinds of excuses to support their addiction.


Alcoholics speak in generalizations or theoretical terms in an impersonal manner and thereby remove themselves from hurtful feelings.


Alcoholics play down the seriousness of the situation.

Reaction Formation

This occurs as a defense against perceived threat and is one of the most harmful defense mechanisms because it distances dependents from their true feelings.


This behavior is intended to manipulate, control and get one's way.


Alcoholics deal with threatening and hurtful events by burying them in unconscious memory.


Alcoholism is typically a ____ disease. (gender)

Silent Sufferer

This person achieves pathological satisfication by being a martyr to the cause of maintaining the relationship.


Condems the drug use and appears to fight the addiction vigorously to save the addict.


subsidizes and attempts to control the chemical dependent by doing drugs with the chemical dependent or giving money for drugs.


the stereotypical troubled child of an alcoholic family

The Hero

This is the little adult who takes care of the alcoholic, the spouse and the other children

The Lost Child

This child follows directions, handles whatever has to be handled, and adjusts to the circumstances, however dysfunctional they are.

The Family Mascot

This child placates and comforts everybody in the family and makes them feel good.


A very serious medical process depending on how badly addicted the alcoholic is.


The first ____ days following discharge from treatment are a period of special vulnerability


a direct confrontation by those close to the addict.


A person may appear to be cured, only to _____ later into a drug episode more severe than before.

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