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Western Civ. 2: Ch. 25/26 Review
Terms in this set (113)
Why did many people turn to extremist politics after World War I?
They were desperate for stability
Why were so many citizens willing to sacrifice their freedoms during the interwar years?
The economic and political disturbances had left people with few options. They were either alienated, impatient, or desperate.
During the Russian Revolution, who supported the White (Menshevik) army?
Monarchists, nobles, liberals, supporters of the provisional government, and anti-Bolshevik dissidents
Who was Leon Trotsky?
Trotsky was the war commissar for the Bolshevik Red Army. He raised and supplied the Red Army.
Describe war communism.
Initially, the Bolsheviks nationalized industry, banking, and railroads. They allowed small-scale private enterprise, both commercial and agricultural. However, as the civil war dragged on, the Bolsheviks turned to war communism. They outlawed private commerce, took grain from the farmers, militarized production, and abolished money.
How did war communism affect urban workers and peasants?
War communism destroyed what was left of the Russian economy, there were rural famines and a lack of consumer goods. Urban workers fled to the countryside, went on strike, or protested.
Describe the costs of the Russian Civil War.
Millions died, famine, decreased production
Were the Bolsheviks able to create a socialist state? Why or why not?
No, the Bolsheviks were unable to create a socialist state. They were forced to control the people.
Describe the NEP of the Bolsheviks.
The NEP was the New Economic Policy. It tried to create a socialist state by allowing private property and free enterprise, while the government-controlled major industries. It had limited success in restoring rural economies but failed to adequately supply the urban population.
How did Stalin gain complete power in the Soviet Union?
Stalin was able to eliminate other party leaders, including Trotsky and Bukharin (NEP leader).
What was the difference between a collective and a state farm? How was collectivization achieved?
The government-owned the state farms and paid wages to the farmers that worked it. Collective farms forced peasants to share their land, equipment, and labor. The produce was then taken by the government.
Describe the effects of collectivization on Soviet agriculture.
Peasants violently resisted collectivization, which the Soviet government put down by force & starvation. Collective farms produced less.
What were the Five Year Plans and name their successes?
The Five Year Plans set ambitious industrial goals for the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union rapidly modernized and urbanized.
What were the negative outcomes of the Five Year Plans?
There was a human toll as political prisoners were used as slave labor. There was an extensive environmental toll as well. The system created structural problems of supply as well.
How did Stalin influence Soviet culture?
Stalin tried to make society more traditional and conservative and killed artistic creativity.
What was the Great Terror? Why would Stalin undertake the Terror?
The Great Terror was Stalin's attempt to purge enemies of the state. The purge included party members, military leaders, intellectuals, and industrial leaders. Over 1 million people were killed and another 1.5 million were imprisoned.
Who were the kulaks?
Kulaks were bourgeois peasants, either they were financially successful farmers or opponents of collectivization.
What was a gulag?
A gulag was a Soviet labor prison. Most were located in Siberia.
In what ways was Italy a divided country after World War I?
Italy was divided north-south, urban-rural, wealthy-poor. Italy also was divided by a corrupt and incompetent political class
What economic problems did Italy face after World War I?
Like many countries, Italy faced unemployment, low wages, inflation, and few opportunities
How would you describe Benito Mussolini?
Right place/right time
How would you describe Mussolini's concept of fascism? Who supported Mussolini's fascist party?
Fascism is a mix of nationalism and socialism. The middle class and landowners supported the fascists because they represented stability.
How did the fascists in Italy gain power?
In 1922, the Italian government faced a crisis. Mussolini and the Fascists negotiated for representation in the coalition. His black shirts marched on Rome and occupied the city. The government resigned and Mussolini was asked to form a new government by the king.
Did Mussolini's Fascist Party improve Italy or Italians lives in the 1920's and 1930's?
Created crony capitalism that benefitted the few more than the average citizen. However, Mussolini built public works projects, implemented a social security system, and encouraged traditional beliefs in family and the church.
Describe Germany's government at the end of the First World War. What was the problem with Germany's provisional government?
The Kaiser abdicated and a provisional government took power. The Social Democrats had the most influence but were forced to violently crush a leftist revolt that killed communist leaders Rosa Luxembourg and Karl Liebknecht. This left the provisional govt with little authority from people on the left or the right.
Who were the Freikorps? What did they represent?
The Freikorps were right-wing nationalists that opposed the anti-provisional government demonstrations and the Weimar government. They used violence in their opposition.
How would you describe the Weimar government? Who supported it?
The Weimar government was a liberal parliamentary democracy- universal suffrage, bill of rights, social entitlements. It's main constituents were socialists, Catholics, and liberals.
Describe the Weimar Republic's economic situation in the 1920's.
The government has real problems because of the war reparations they owed from the Treaty of Versailles. However, inflation, benefits cuts, and the effects of the Great Depression eroded any credibility the government had to find solutions.
How would you describe Hitler's concept of fascism? Who supported Hitler's Nazi party?
A mixture of nationalism, socialism, and racism. The Nazi's drew support from all social classes across all the geographic regions in Germany. So many were desperate for Germany to be restored after the humiliation of the Treaty of Versailles and the struggles of the Depression.
How did the fascists in Germany gain power?
In the early 1930's, the Nazis were gaining a significant number of seats in the Reichstag. In 1933, Hitler was invited to be the Chancellor in Germany.
Who was the SA? Who was the SS? Who was the Gestapo? What was the Night of the Long Knives?
SA- Nazi paramilitary group - brownshirts - used violence to intimidate people into submission
SS - Nazi paramilitary group - black uniforms - elite - enforce racial policies
Gestapo - Secret Police - controlled German population with arrest and incarceration
Night of the Long Knives - SS purged the SA of powerful Nazis who might threaten Hitler's control.
Did Hitler's Nazi Party improve Germany or Germans lives in the 1930's?
Hitler's policies appeared to have improved the German economy and made it the envy of the other European countries.
Describe Nazi racial beliefs and policies.
Social Darwinism and Eugenics Sterilization and Racial Engineering Anti-Semitism
How did the Nazis limit Jewish rights after 1933?
Excluded from certain jobs, boycotts of Jewish businesses, intermarriage prohibitions, identification, exclusion from citizenship rights, violence
What was the Beer Hall Putsch?
Nazi led attempt to overthrow the Bavarian state government in 1923. Hitler was arrested and imprisoned.
What was the importance of Mein Kampf?
Mein Kampf was Hitler's book that outlined his vision of a Nazi future. He blamed Jews and communists for Germany's problems.
What was the Reichstag?
The German parliament
What was Eugenics? How was it used by the Nazis?
Pseudo-science that measured a group's abilities based on observable characteristics of evolution
Hatred of Jews - based on religious, economic, and cultural beliefs
What happened on kristallnacht?
Kristallnacht - the first violence against Jews in Germany
What factors caused the economic crisis of the Great Depression?
Overproduction, poor policy decision, worldwide economic problems, collapse of the stock market
What policies did Great Britain enact to solve the economic crisis of the Depression?
Britain abandoned the gold standard, raised tariff rates
What policies did France enact to solve the economic crisis of the Depression?
Nationalized banks, shortened work weeks, initiated public works projects, price fixing,
What policies did the United States enact to solve the economic crisis of the Depression?
New Deal programs tried to help banks, farmers, workers, industries, and social programs
To what extent were the 3 western powers (GB, F, US) success in stemming the economic crisis?
Although people were given hope, unemployment still was a problem in the US
How did the Great Depression fuel political developments in the 1930's?
People looked to authoritarians to solve the problems.
Who was John Maynard Keynes and can you describe his economic philosophy?
Keynes was an economist who believed that you could stimulate the economy through deficit spending
Describe the lost generation and how its emotions were captured by artists and intellectuals.
WWI had created a society that lost faith in its institutions
Describe the artistic styles of cubism, expressionism, and dadaism.
Cubism - view objects from multiple perspectives and using basic geometric forms
Expressionism - view objects subjectively using radical distortion to effect an emotional response
Dadaism - rejected logic, reason, and aesthetics to produce nonsense and irrationality
How would you describe popular culture? What were examples of popular culture?
Popular culture - attitudes and artistic attributes of the common person
Media, music, art, dance
What were the uses and effects of radio and advertising on the masses?
Consumerism and advertising
How were Hollywood movies received in Europe?
4 causes of WW2
Treaty of Versailles
Failure to create peace and security after WWI -failure of the League of Nations, emptiness of (Kellogg-Briand Pact)
Why was appeasement viewed with legitimacy in the West?
People hoped to avoid war since WWI had been so devastating.
Many thought Germany had been mistreated and had legitimate grievances.
Hoped to use the nationalists to stop the spread of communism.
Your book mentions two conclusions that Hitler drew from the Spanish Civil War, name them.
Britain and France did not want to get involved in a war
The Allied powers would not be very good at coordinating resistance to the Nazis
Why did Hitler remove Germany from the League of Nations in 1933?
The League represented the Treaty of Versailles and the humiliation that Germany had faced. The League was a failing entity at protecting weaker nations.
What were Hitler's stated goals for Germany?
Hitler's stated goals for Germany were to restore Germany's status in Europe and to unify Germans ethnically. Hitler also planned to expand eastwards to achieve Lebensraum, or "living space" for Germany.
What steps did Hitler take in the late 1930s to shift the balance of power in Germany's favor?
The steps Hitler took were he reoccupied the Rhineland, annexed Austria, and invaded, conquered, and annexed what was left of Czechoslovakia after a conference in Munich. Hitler wanted to unite all the Germans under his Reich.
How did Hitler manipulate the German people into following his radical policies?
Hitler used the weariness of the war and international tolerance as his base manipulation point. With these factors, Hitler proposed the idea of reclaiming the power of the world by playing with the German's emotions of shame and betrayal. Doing so, Hitler removed Germany from the League of Nations, built Germany's army back up (defying the Treaty of Versailles), and stated his goals were ultimate power and a unified Germany. He was able to successfully gain the German's trust in his policies which helped him complete his goals.
Why was the German occupation of the Rhineland significant?
The occupation of the Rhineland by the Germans was important because it gave Germany an upper hand against Britain and France. Germany had some of its most important industrial centers there. If left unprotected, France could destroy them.
The militarization of the Rhineland showed the rest of Europe that Hitler was not going to follow their rules. It was ultimately a test of waters by Hitler and showed him that he would be able to get away with his future plans of invading other nations.
Why did Hitler annexed Austria?
Hitler annexed Austria because his end goal was to have a unified state of all Germans. Since Austrians were Germans, he wanted to annex it. In addition, he felt that he could annex Austria without much resistance because of the appeasement policy of the rest of Europe.
Why did the British prime minister, Neville Chamberlain, agree to Hitler's terms regarding the Sudetenland?
He believed that if Hitler occupied Sudetenland, allowing all Germans to be unified in one state, Germany would cease further invasions.
Why was Hitler successful in Czechoslovakia?
When the Czechs put up resistance to the terms of the Munich Accords, Hitler invaded the country and made it part of Germany. He knew the British and French would not do anything to risk war.
What convinced opinions outside of Germany that appeasement was futile?
When others saw that Germany invaded Czechoslovakia, others outside of Germany were convinced that appeasement was futile.
Why did Russia sign a nonaggression pact with the Nazis?
After not being invited to the Munich conference, Stalin began to fear that France and Britain were untrustworthy allies. Stalin's believed Western democracies would make a deal with Germany that would hurt Russia. Seeking security, Stalin made a deal with the Nazis, where he was promised territory in Poland, Finland, the Baltic states, and Bessarabia if he signed a nonaggression pact.
Why was Poland so quick to be conquered?
The main reason was because of the switch of tactics that were used to take over Poland, Germany focused on the Blitzkrieg tactic and the Polish were not used to fast-paced fighting which in turn resulted in the Polish getting conquered in four weeks
What finally led to Britain and France declaring war on Germany?
Britain and France declared war in September 1939 after Germany sent troops into Poland. This came after years of attempted appeasement that ultimately resulted in failure.
What were Churchill's strengths and weaknesses?
Churchill's strengths were in speaking and personal diplomacy, while his weaknesses were his arrogance and sharp temper.
Do you think Winston Churchill taking office was a major turning point in the war? Why or why not?
Yes. He had good qualities such as experience, courage, communicative skills, and perseverance that helped him motivate the British to keep fighting and not give up.
What was the "Phony War"?
The Phony War occurred in the winter of 1940 after Germany and the Soviets invaded Poland and the Soviets invaded Finland. During the Phony War, there was anxious non-activity in Western Europe.
Where did the war finally emerge?
Scandinavia. Denmark and Norway were conquered, mainly to gain control of important mineral resources and the heavy water facility that would be useful in making a nuclear bomb. The Norwegian leader who worked with the Nazis was named Quisling. His name becomes synonymous with being a traitor.
How were the Dutch able to hold out against the Germans, and what happened afterward?
Germany swept across the Scandinavian countries destroying everything in their path. The Dutch Marines were able to hold Hitler and his forces back. Hitler was furious and ordered the bombing of the cities. This caused great fear throughout Europe.
Why do you or do you not think when Hitler bombed the city of Rotterdam, that it was a citizen-focused bombing? Why or why not?
While the goal of the Rotterdam bombings was political and meant to make the Dutch military surrender, the bombing resulted in devastating fires that destroyed citizen's homes. The aftermath of the bombing left Dutch forces unable to retaliate and forced them to give in to Hitler's commands. It left citizens and the Dutch government vulnerable to further attacks and possible overtaking.
What happened at Dunkirk?
Hitler refused to order an attack on the British and French troops trapped at Dunkirk. The pause allowed enough time for British vessels, both large and small to evacuate hundreds of thousands of troops.
What happened in France? What is Vichy France?
The Germans were able to capture Paris and the French surrendered. The Germans didn't have to occupy all of France. The free part of France collaborated with the Nazis and came to be called Vichy France. During and after the war, those who had collaborated with the Nazis were hated.
What happened during the Battle of Britain?
Nazi Germany keeps bombing England. They first started with bombing military things but then decided to bomb civilians. Germany wanted to break the will of the English people.
Why did the Soviet Union and Britain invade Iran?
They invaded Iran because they did not want Germany to gain control of Iran's oil.
Why were the British convoys in Africa so important to the war effort?
The convoys were so important in North Africa due to the fact that those convoys contained a lot of weapons, food, and raw materials. Also, they were a big help in keeping the Germans from Iran due to the fact that Iran had a major supply of oil.
Describe the expansion of Japan in the Pacific.
Japan expanded into the mainland in Korea, Manchuria, the Chinese coast, and southeast Asia. Japan expanded into the Pacific island chains like Indonesia, the Philippines, and Polynesia
Why was the United States a threat to Japan?
The US was large economic and naval power with several military bases across the Pacific
Before the Pearl Harbor attack, what policy did the US pursue to help England and weaken Japan?
An embargo tried to help the British keep trade routes from their Pacific open and contain Japan
Why did Japan attack Pearl Harbor?
Japan wanted to destroy the US Pacific fleet that would allow them to consolidate their gains in the Pacific
What were the results of the Pearl Harbor attack?
Most US ships were damaged and nearly 3000 US military personnel were killed. However, all of the US carriers were out to sea. Within 6 months the entire Pacific fleet was operational with the exception of 2 ships that had been permanently sunk
What were the results of the Japanese attack on the Philippines?
Many US troops resisted valiantly but eventually were captured. The Japanese force-marched the soldiers to prison camps where they were worked and abused
What was the Doolittle Raid?
The US made a daring bombing raid on Tokyo just 2 months after Pearl Harbor
What was the importance of the Battle of the Coral Sea?
The US fleet prevented the Japanese from landing an invasion force on Australia
What was the importance of the Battle of Midway?
The US was trying to build an air and naval base on Midway which would allow the US to attack the Japanese mainland. The Japanese attack was thwarted and their 4 largest aircraft carriers were sunk, reducing Japan's naval capabilities.
What was island hopping? Name 2 islands where fighting occurred.
The US attempted to liberate important islands from the Japanese. Important islands contained resources, military bases, communications centers. Guadalcanal, Tarawa, Peleliu, Guam, the Philippines, Iwo Jima, Okinawa
In June 1941, the Germans finally invaded which country?
How would you describe the total war of World War II?
All aspects of society were pressed into service for the war. The major targets of bombing campaigns were industrial centers.
Did the military target civilians?
Yes, they tried to break the will of civilians to support the war
In June 1941, the Germans invaded which country?
How did the war in Russia go?
By the end of 1942, the Germans reached their greatest extent...They sieged Leningrad in the north, Moscow in the east, and Stalingrad in the south
Despite the heavy defeats, how were the Russians able to continue the fight?
The Russians moved their industrial production the Ural Mountain region. Brutal winters combined with the vast territory they occupied weakened the Germans.
Why was the battle of Stalingrad so important?
There was brutal urban fighting in Stalingrad and when the 1942-1943 winter settled in the German army became isolated. Eventually the German army at Stalingrad was forced to surrender to the Russians. This turned the tide of the war in favor of the Russians.
What happened at the battle of Kursk?
This was a major tank battle that wiped out the German tank divisions
By 1944, what was happening on the Eastern Front?
Russian armies were sweeping through eastern Europe liberating countries from German control
When the Germans invaded Russia, what did Stalin want the US England to do?
Stalin wanted the Allies to open a second front that would force the Germans to split their army.
Did the Allies open a second front?
Yes, but it was a limited campaign in North Africa, followed by an invasion of Italy. It didn't really relieve the pressure on the Russians.
When was a true second front opened?
In June 1944, the DDay invasion finally opened a true threat to Germany and forced them to split their army
By July the Allies liberated what city?
By October the Allies had reached the border of which country?
Why couldn't the Allies invade Germany in late 1944?
Their supply lines were unstable and unable to support an advance into Germany
What happened in December 1944?
The Germans made one last-ditch attempt to break the Allied lines in an attack called the battle of the Bulge. The Germans were trying to reach the Dutch ports at Rotterdam and Amsterdam to take the Allied supplies and prevent the advance into Germany.
Why is it called the battle of the Bulge?
The Allied lines bent, but never broke.
When did the Allies invade Germany?
In April 1945 the Allies finally invaded Germany. Most Germans wanted to be captured by the Americans or British rather than the Russians. Bad things happened to people who were captured by the Russians.
When did Germany surrender?
On April 30, 1945, Hitler committed suicide. Military leaders took control of the German government and hoped to make a deal with the Allies, but the Allies demanded unconditional surrender. Germany surrendered on May 8, 1945.
What was the Manhattan Project? Who was in charge of it?
Robert Oppenheimer. By the end of 1944, the Japanese fleet had been completely destroyed and the last of the island hopping campaign had ended. The last island captured was Okinawa.
When the Soviets joined the fighting against Japan, where were they fighting?
Manchuria and Korea
Did the US firebomb Japan?
What happened after Japan refused to surrender unconditionally?
The US dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima. 3 days later, we dropped an atomic bomb on Nagasaki
Why did Truman choose to use atomic weapons?
It would save countless lives by ending the war without having to invade Japan.
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