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HNRS 2800 final
Terms in this set (151)
Historical sources agree on the role Roderick played in the invasion of 711.
The Umayyad armies conquered the entire Iberian Peninsula.
What was the goal of Tariq and Musa's armies?
How long did it take the Umayyad armies to conquer the Iberian Peninsula?
Which of the following did the Roman Empire bring to the Iberian Peninsula? Select all that apply.
A shared language
Distinctive architectural works
A shared legal system
Where was the capital of the Umayyad caliphate located?
What name is used to refer to the territory on the Iberian Peninsula between 711 and 1492?
Jewish communities built important centers of learning and culture under the Romans.
Who was in the armies that conquered the Iberian Peninsula in 711?
Berbers and Arabs
What religion did the Roman Empire introduce in the second century AD?
Who conquered the Roman Empire in Iberia?
The Visigoths were a small minority of the population of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Visigoths had an absolute monarchy; kingship was strictly dynastic.
What means did the Umayyad armies use to conquer? Select all that apply.
Negotiation with local rulers
Voluntary submission from local leaders
How long did the Visigoths rule the Iberian Peninsula?
After the Umayyad conquest, Christians and Jews were forced to convert to Islam.
What is the closest modern-day equivalent of Isidore of Seville's Etymologiae?
Maps today look quite different from those of the past.
The Battle of Covadonga was the final battle of the Reconquest, marking the complete victory of the northern Christian kingdoms over the Muslim rulers of al-Andalus.
Which of these cities became the capital of Asturias, causing the kingdom as a whole to be renamed?
What were the primary ethnic groups that participated in the 711 conquest?
In addition to Asturias/León, what other Christian, northern kingdom has its origin in this period?
What is the symbol that marks the path on the Camino de Santiago?
Who was the first king of the Kingdom of Asturias?
The rulers of al-Andalus had more political control over their territories than the Visigothic kings had.
What language is the origin of the nickname "Cid"?
The population and borders of al-Andalus remained consistent between 711 and 1492.
The shrine at Santiago de Compostela became a major pilgrimage site for Christians in the early medieval period.
How did King Alfonso I of Asturias strengthen the Christian identity of his kingdom?
He relied on clergy of the Catholic church to recruit new soldiers.
He encouraged Christians and Mozarabs living in al-Andalus to move north.
What was one of the main causes of tension between Berbers and Arabs in early al-Andalus?
Ethnic Arabs received more power and wealth from the conquest than did the Berbers.
What city did 'Abd al-Rahman I choose for the capital of his emirate?
In what general area of the Iberian Peninsula was the Kingdom of Asturias located?
The northern strip of the peninsula
There was a great deal of political stability in early al-Andalus.
What are some of the hallmarks of 'Abd al-Rahman III's rule in al-Andalus?
The court was a vibrant cultural center.
He established his own independent caliphate.
He established an effective bureaucracy to help him govern
What was the capital city of 'Abd al-Rahman III's caliphate?
How long did the Caliphate of Cordoba last after 'Abd al-Rahman's death?
About a century
Squabbles among the taifa kingdoms were almost always religiously motivated.
Which of the following ethnic groups ruled in the taifa kingdoms?
How did the assistance of Christian knights from elsewhere in Europe change the fight between the northern Christian kingdoms and the taifa kingdoms?
Because of their lack of familiarity with non-Christians, they intensified the sense of religious conflict.
Why was the battle at Las Navas de Tolosa important? Mark all that apply.
It united all of the northern Christian kingdoms agaisnt a common enemy.
It was the last major battle between Christian and Muslim forces, leading to the Christians' slow but steady win.
During the period they battled the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, the northern Christian kings were skilled at consolidating their authority, resulting in few but very powerful kingdoms.
What territories did Jaume I of Aragon add to expand his kingdom?
The Balearic Islands
In the time of Alfonso X, literacy was rare, and few people could afford books or writing materials.
What major innovation did Alfonso X introduce in his scriptorium?
He had multiple scribes work on a single text, and they were familiar with the languages that were used to translate.
Why are Alfonso X's 'Siete Partidas' considered important? Select all that apply.
Their influence can be seen in Spain's laws even today.
They're considered one of the most thorough, exhaustive legal doctrines up to that point in history.
What other works are attributed to Alfonso X? Select all that apply.
The Alfonsine Tables
The Cantigas de Santa Maria
Spain's antismitism in the fourteenth century was unique in Europe; other countries allowed Jews to live within their borders peacefully.
How many people did the wave of bubonic plague that hit the Iberian Peninsula in 1348 kill?
Between one-fourth and one-third of the population.
What was a "converso"?
A Jewish person who had converted or any of their descendants
What events marked the end of the Reconquest? Select all that apply.
The expulsion of the Jews from the Iberian Peninsula.
The conquest of the final Muslim-ruled taifa kingdom.
When Queen Isabelle of Castile died, who did she appoint as her heir?
Her daughter, Juana
Which of the following are true of the Holy Brotherhood? Select all that apply
The Catholic Kings brought the institution back to consolidate power.
It reduced the power of the nobility.
The punishments it dealt were often harsh.
Although Ferdinand and Isabelle successfully consolidated political authority, they could not increase their power in religious matters.
What was the original purpose of the Spanish Inquisition?
To investigate suspected heresy among the recently converted.
Why is the Spanish Inquisition sometimes considered its first protonationalist institution?
It was the only institution that had authority throughout the Spanish empire.
Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula were forced to convert or leave after Spain's Jews.
What made the Spanish Inquisition unique?
Its targets were conversos and moriscos.
Why is it difficult to know the extent of so-called "crypto-Judaism"?
If people were practicing a religion in secret, they were unlikely to keep records of it.
The line between "religion" and "culture" was blurred, and it was difficult to determine the intent of observing particular rites or behaviors.
Many Spanish Catholics had different understandings of Catholic religious practices.
Spanish blood purity statutes greatly helped Spanish monarchs obtain more authority.
Following the logic of Spain's blood purity statutes, which of the following would have been considered ancestors who introduced "impure" blood? Select all that apply.
In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Spaniards thought that behaviors were inheritable, but not beliefs.
How did the Inquisition verify claims? Select all that apply.
They searched for the special garments heretics had to wear.
They interviewed friends, neighbors, and family members.
Why was it harder for members of the nobility to feign having "pure" blood?
Their marriages, births, and deaths were well known, which made it harder to conceal converso or morisco family members.
Why weren't the results of an investigation into blood purity reliable? Select all that apply.
People gave bribes to persuade investigators.
People with personal grudges could simply lie or invent false claims.
Blood purity investigators were paid more for a finding of impurity rather than purity.
They could be contradicted by a later investigation that turned up different results.
What was one of the main theological problems the concept of blood purity posed?
It undermined the authority of baptism, which no longer truly converted a person.
One combined effect of the Inquisition and blood purity statutes was to decrease Spain's international reputation.
Ferdinand and Isabella's marriage ensured that their kingdoms were permanently joined under the same crown.
Who ruled in place of Juana the Mad?
Her father, Ferdinand
Why was the marriage of Juana the Mad and Philip the Handsome so important?
Philip belonged to the Habsburg dynasty
Which of the following territories were part of the Holy Roman Empire under Charles V? Select all that apply.
Spain's hew territories in the Americas
Which of the following was a consequence of Charles V's accession to the throne for the Spanish nobility?
How much of his time as ruler did Charles V spend in Spain?
What can the map Europa Regina tell us about perceptions of Spain within Europe?
That Spain was seen as the most powerful European nation
Which of the following shows how Spain's expansion into the Americas was related to its medieval past?
Both efforts hinged on Ferdinand and Isabella's belief in their duty to spread Christianity
What motivated Columbus's exploration? Select all that apply
The possibility of economic gains through trade routes with Asia
What literary model did Amerigo Vespucci follow in his accounts of the Americas?
Ovid's classical model
Where in the Americas were the earliest Spanish settlements?
Around the Caribbean
Which of the following rhetorical strategies did many early chroniclers of the Americas use?
They connected the new territories to something readers would be familiar with
What was the primary basis of the Spanish claim to lands in the Americas?
The Pope's grant of lands as specified in the Treaty of Tordesillas
How many Spaniards were with Cortés when he arrived in Tenochtitlán for the first time?
According to Bernal Díaz del Castillo, who was the second-most important figure in the conquest of Mexico?
What is the more correct name for the group we often refer to as the Aztecs?
The Mexica came to power in central Mexico through largely peaceful means, such as successful alliances and trade.
What was the likely the main motivation of Francisco Hernández de Córdoba's failed 1517 expedition to the Yucatan?
Seeking indigenous slaves
Why did the Spanish refer to the civilization they encountered on the Yucatan Peninsula as "the Great Cairo"?
It was a way to make what they saw seem familiar
Who served as translators in these expeditions? Check all that apply.
Captured Indigenous people
Shipwrecked Spaniards who learned the language
Enslaved women gifted to the Spanish
All of the Spanish expeditions to the Yucatán were successful and led to the expansion of Spanish control in the Americas.
How did Cortés convince the Totonacs do help him fight the Mexica?
He didn't: he tricked them into it
Which of the following may explain Montezuma's (alleged) knowledge of the Spanish before their arrival? Select all that apply.
Such claims may represent an assertion of Mexica agency in a process over which they had little control
The Mexica had received items from a Spanish shipwreck some years prior
Which of the following best describes the encomienda system?
A quasi-feudal system of slavery that involved forced labor and tribute payments
In what context had the encomienda system been used before it became widespread in the Americas?
During the Reconquista in newly Christian-ruled territories
What were the two principle causes of the mass deaths of Indigenous peoples in the Americas after the arrival of the Spanish?
The spread of European diseases
Violence and labor exploitation
What percentage of the Indigenous population of the Caribbean died within the first thirty years of European contact?
What was one of the most common justifications for Spanish violence against the Indigenous?
Rumors of a potential rebellion
What did the Cholula and Alvarado massacres have in common? Select all that apply.
The Indigenous were unarmed
The Spanish cited rumors of a rebellion as a cause
Bartolomé de las Casas's vocal opposition to the treatment of the Indigenous Americans began upon his arrival there in 1502.
According to Las Casas, what was Spain's primary mission in the Amercias?
Where was Las Casas's famously failed settlement?
Las Casas believed that individual religious instruction was more effective than mass baptisms.
What was the ultimate outcome of the New Laws of 1542?
Very little real change in Spanish practices in the Americas
Who of the following was one of the major sources Las Casas and Ginés de Sepúlveda drew on in the Valladolid Debate?
Las Casas believed that the Pope had the right to grant lands and territories to Spain.
What modern-day countries correspond to the territory of the Inca Empire at its height? Select all that apply,
Those living in the Inca Empire worshiped many gods, who appeared in many different guises.
How did the Inca address the religions of groups they incorporated into their empire?
They allowed that group's religious practices to continue.
Which of the following did the Inca Empire
A monetary system
Innovations the Incas did have
A system of food storage
A system for taking the census
What major event was going on in the Inca Empire around the time the Spanish arrived?
A contested succession battle
What prompted Francisco Pizarro's expeditions westward?
He'd heard reports of large quantities of gold
How many men were with Pizarro when he arrived in Cajamarca?
Fewer than 200
When Pizarro arrived in Cajamarca, Atahualpa considered the Spanish the primary threat facing his empire.
How did Atahualpa respond to Pizarro's demand that the Inca Empire be incorporated into the Spanish Empire?
He dismissed the idea outright.
How did the Inca Emperor Atahualpa die?
The Spanish executed him after a sham trial
Francisco Pizarro was held in high regard in Spain and was considered a hero similar to Cortés.
How did Pizarro die?
He was murdered in squabbles among the Spanish
What do we know about Guaman Poma's background?
He descended from Inca nobility, specifically Huascar.
Guaman Poma's chronicle was enormously popular in Spain and helped shape popular images of Peru.
To whom is Guaman Poma's First New Chronicle and Good Government addressed?
The king of Spain
When did the Spanish Civil War take place?
In what ways did the Spanish Civil War and WWII overlap? Select all that apply.
Many of the military technologies used in WWII were developed during the Spanish Civil War.
Many of the ideological issues were the same in both conflicts.
How did the Spanish refer to what, here in the US, is known as the Spanish American War?
The Crisis of 1898
What were some of the most pressing social problems Spain faced at the start of the twentieth century? Select all that apply.
Extreme income inequality
Lack of industrialization
Low literacy rates
What major political event occurred in 1923?
A military coup led by General Primo de Rivera
All of the reforms enacted by the 1931 constitution enjoyed broad popular support.
Which of the following political affiliations made up the Popular Front? Select all that apply.
In the lead-up to the Spanish Civil War, members of all major political affiliations engaged in political violence.
What countries did leaders of the party CEDA look to for political inspiration?
Italy and Germany
Which of the following was the catalyst for the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War?
The murder of José Castillo, a member of the Republican-controlled Assault Guards
When did the Spanish Civil War take place?
Why did the government of the Second Spanish Republic anticipate that other countries would intervene in their defense?
They expected other Western democracies would defend a democratically elected government
Why did Great Britain choose a non-interventionist policy? Select all that apply.
Conservative business owners wanted feared the Republic would harm their economic interests
They wanted to avoid another world war
Liberal government officials were skeptical of parts of the Popular Front coalition
Why did France choose a non-interventionist policy? Select all that apply.
Great Britain had indicated they would not assist France if Germany or Italy attacked them
They feared a civil war within France
Which of the following was one of the major negative outcomes of the United States' non-interventionist approach to the Spanish Civil War?
It created a false equivalency between the two competing Spanish governments
All of the major European powers that signed the non-intervention pact faithfully observed it.
How did Mussolini observe the appearance of neutrality while assisting the Nationalist rebels?
He euphemistically referred to the Italian troops he sent as "volunteers"
Which countries did openly support the Spanish Republic? Select all that apply.
The Soviet Union
What was the major link among volunteers in the International Brigades?
Shared political ideology
What role did photographs of the Spanish Civil War play in the international arena? Select all that apply.
They garnered sympathy and encouraged volunteers to go to Spain
They created a new genre of photography—war/conflict photography
They showed how uneven the conflict was
What does the term "Red Terror" refer to?
Violence perpetrated by the allies of the Spanish Republic during the Civil War
Who did the Red Terror target? Select all that apply.
Members and symbols of the Catholic Church
Members of the nobility
How many people died as a result of the Red Terror?
What were some of the main causes of death in the White Terror? Select all that apply.
Spanish refugees who fled to France often faced hostile, inhumane treatment.
How many Spanish refugees entered France following the Civil War?
What was "La nueve"?
A military unit of Spanish refugees that helped liberate Paris in WWII
Which of the following countries welcomed Spanish refugees? Select all that apply.
How did Francisco Franco and his party, the Falange, frame the Spanish Civil War?
As a battle between Spain and "outsiders" like Russian communists, Jews, and Freemasons
Which of the following were prohibited in Spain under Franco? Select all that apply.
Women opening bank accounts
The use of regional languages like Galician, Catalan, and Basque
Participation in other political parties
The 2007 Historical Memory Law aimed to prohibit discussions of the Civil War and Franco's dictatorship to avoid polemical political discussions.
How did Spain aim to boost its economy in the 1960s?
What does "20N" aim to celebrate?
Franco's dictatorship and his party, the Falange
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