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162 terms

Med Term CH 5 (Cardiovascular System)

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angi/o, vas/o, vascul/o
vessel
aort/o
aorta
arteri/o
artery
arther/o
fatty (lipid) paste
arti/o
atrium
cardi/o
heart
coron/o
circle or crown
my/o
muscle
pector/o, steth/o
chest
sphygm/o
pulse
thromb/o
clot
ven/o, phleb/o
vein
varic/o
swollen, twisted vein
ventricul/o
ventricle (belly or pouch)
atrium
upper right or left chamber of the heart
endocardium
membrane lining the cavities of the heart
epicardium
membrane forming the outer layer of the heart
interatrial septum
partition between the right and left atria
interventricular septum
partition between right and left ventricles
myocardium
heart muscle
pericardium
protective sac enclosing the heart composed of 2 layers with fluid between
visceral pericardium
layer closest to the heart (visceral = pertaining to organ)
parietal pericardium
outer layer (parietal = pertaining to wall)
pericardial cavity
fluid-filled cavity between the pericardial layers
ventricle
lower right or left chamber of the heart
heart valves
structures within the heart that open and close with the heartbeat to regulate the oneway flow of blood
aortic valve
heart valve between the left ventricle and the aorta
mitral valve or bicuspid valve
heart valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle
pulmonary semilunar valve
heart valve opening from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery (luna=moon)
tricuspid valve
valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle
valves of the veins
valves located at intervals within the lining of veins, especially in the legs, which constrict with muscle action to move the blood returning to the heart
arteries
vessels that carry blood from the heart to the arterioles
aorta
large artery that is the main trunk of the arterial system branching from the left ventricle
arterioles
small vessels that receive blood from the arteries
capillaries
tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules
venules
small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
veins
vessels that carry blood to the heart from the venules
systemic circulation
circulation of blood through out the body to deliver O2 and nutrients to body tissues
coronary circulation
circulation of blood through the coronary blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle ( O2 and Nutrients to the HEART MUSCLE)
pulmonary circulation
circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein providing exchange of gases
diastole
to expand
period during the cardiac cycle when blood enters the relaxed ventricles from the atria
systole
to contract
period during the cardiac cycle when the heart is in contraction and blood is ejected through the aorta and the pulmonary artery
normotension
normal BP (blood pressure)
hypotension
low BP
hypertension
high BP
Sinoatrial (SA) node
the pacemaker (highly specialized, neurological tissue impeded in the walla of the right atriup;responsible for initiating electrical conduction of the heartbeat, causing the atria to contract and firing conductions of impulses to the AV node)
atrioventricular (AV) node
amplifies the conduction of impulses from the SA node to the bundle of His (neurological fibers) --- neurological tissue at the center of the heart
buncle of His
neurological fibers from the AV node to the right and left bundle branches that fire impulses from the AV node to the Purkinje fibers
Purkinje fibers/network
fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the right and left ventricles causing them to contract
polarization
resting (resting state of a myocardial cell)
depolarization
change of a myocardial cell from a polarized resting state to a state of contraction
repolarization
recharging of the myocardial cell from a contracted state back to a resting state
normal sinus rhythm
regular rhythm of the heart cycle stimulated by the SA node
aneurysm
a widening; a bulging of the wall of heart, aorta, or artery
saccular aneurysm
sac like bulge on one side (ball)
fusiform aneurysm
spindle shaped bulge (football)
dissecting aneurysm
a split or tear of the vessel wall
angina pectoris
chest pain (cause by temporary loss of O2 blood to heart muscle, narrowing of coronary arteries)
arteriosclerosis
thicking loss of elasticity and hardening of arterial walls
atherosclerosis
form of arteriosclerosis due to build up of fatty substances that harden with in the walls of arteries
atheromatous plaque
a swollen area within the lining of an artery caused by the build up of fat (lipids)
claudication
to limp; pain in a limb (calf) while walking after rest-inadequate blood supply
constriction
compression of a part that causes stenosis (narrowing)
diaphoresis
profuse sweating
embolus
a clot carried in the blood stream that obstructs flow of blood when it lodges
heart murmur
an abnormal sound from the heart produced by defects in the chambers or valves
infarct
to stuff (localized area of necrosis-condition of tissue death, caused by ischemia resulting from occlusion of a blood vessel
ischemia
to hold back blood (decrease blood flow to tissue caused by constrictuion of a blood vessel)
perfusion deficit
lack of flow through a blood vessel caused by narrowing
occlusion
plugging; an obstruction or closing off
palpitation
subjective experience of pounding skipping or racing heartbeats
stenosis
condition of narrowing of a part
thrombus
stationary blood clot
vegetation
to grow-abnormal growth of tissue around a valve-may be result of infection
acute coronary syndrome (ACS)
active process of atherosclerotic plaque build up or formation of thrombus/spasm within a coronary artery - causes reduction of blood flow to myocardial tissue.
Unstable angina, pathological events lead to myocardial infraction
arrhythmia/dysrhythmia
irregularity or loss of rhythm of heartbeat
bradycardia
slow heart rate (less than 60beats/min)
tachycardia
fast heart rate (greater than 100 beats/min)
fibrillation
chaotic irregular contractions of the heart
premature ventricular contraction
ventricular contraction preceding the normal impulse initiated by the SA node
bacterial endocarditis
bacterial inflammation that affects the endocardium or heart valves
cardiac tamponade
compression of the heart produced by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac, may cause rupture of blood vessels within heart
cardiomyopathy
heart disease
congenital anomaly of the heart
malformations of the heart present at birth
atrial septal defect (ASD)
an opening in the septum separating the atria
coarctation of the aorta
narrowing of the descending portion of the aorta - limited flow of blood to lower parts of body
patent ducts arteriosus
an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by failure of the fetal ducts arteriosus to close after birth (open heart at birth)
ventricular septal defect
an opening in the septum separating the ventricles
Congestive heart failure/left ventricular failure
failure of the left ventricle to pump an adequate amount of blood to meet demands of the body resulting in a bottleneck of congestion in the lungs that may extend to the veins causing edema in lower portions of the body
cor pulmonale / right venticular failure
enlargement of the right ventricle resulting from chronic disease within the lungs that causes congestion within the pulmonary circulation and resistance of blood flow to the lungs
coronary artery disease
a condition affecting arteries of the heart that reduces the flow of blood to the myocardium
hypertension
high blood pressuree
essential/primary hypertension
no single cause for high bp-risks=smoking obesity cholestorol hereditry
secondary hypertension
high bp because of another disease
mitral valve prolapse
backward flow of blood b/c valve does not close completely
myocardial infraction
heart attack, death of myocardial tissue (infraction) caused by ischemia (loss of blood flow) due to occulation (plugging) of a coronary artery
myocarditis/pericarditis
inflammation of myocardium/pericardium
rheumatic heart disease
damage to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever
sudden cardiac arrest
cessation of cardiac output - result of ventricular fibrillation
deep vein thrombosis
formation of a clot in a deep vein of the body - femoral/iliac veins
phlebitis
inflammation of vein
thrombophlebitis
inflammation of a vein associated with clot formation
varicose veins
abnormally swollen twisted veins with defective valves (legs)
auscultation
listening to body with a stethoscope
gallop
abnormal heart sound-abnormal venticular contraction
electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG)
electrical picture of the heart
stress EKG
during excercise
holter ambulatory monitor
portable electrocardiograph worn that monitors electrical acivity of the heart over 24 hours - periodic abnormalities
intracardiac electrophysiological study
invasive procedure involving placement of a catheter guided electrodes with the heart to evaluate and map electrical conduction of cardiac arrhythmias-intracardiac catheter ablation may treat the arrhythemia
intracardiac catheter ablation
use of radio frequency waves sent through a catheter within the heart to treat arrhythmias by selectively destroying myocardial tissue at sites that generate abnormal electrical pathways
magnetic resonance angiography
magnetic resonance imaging of the heart and blood vessels for evaluation of pathology
nuclear medicine imaging
radioactive isotopes to visualize structures and analyze functions
myocardial radionuclide perfusion scan
scan of heart after radioactive isotope is inserted to see blood flow in heart - coronary artery disease
multiple gated acquisiton scan (MUGA)
nuclear image of the beating heart in motion made as radioactive isotopes are injected in the bloodstream and traced through the hearts chambers-pumping functions of ventricles
positron emission tomography (PET) scan of the heart
specialized nuclear isotopes and computed tomographic techniques to produce perfusion images and to study the cellular metabolism of the heart
radiology
x ray imaging
angiography
process of x ray imaging a blood vessel after injection of contrast medium most commonly after catheter placement
angiogram
record obtained by angiography
coronary angiogram
xray imaging of blood vessels of the heart using catheter to inject contrast
arteriogram
x ray imaging of particular artery
aortogram
xray image of aorta
venogram
xray image of vein
cardiac catheterization
putting a catheter (narrow tube) through vein or artery into the heart to withdraw samples of blood to measure pressures within the heart chambers or vessels and to inject contrast media for fluoroscopic radiography and cine film imaging of the chambers of the heart and coronary arteries
left heart catheterization
xray imaging of the left ventricular cavity and coronary arteries
right heart catheterization
measurement of o2 saturated and pressure readings of the right side of the heart
ventriculogram
xray image of the ventricles
stroke volume
measurement of the amount of blood ejected from a ventricle in one contraction
cardiac output
measurement of the amount of blood ejected per minute from either ventricle of the heart
ejection fraction
measurement of the volume percentage of left ventricular contents ejected with each contraction
computed tomographic angiography
specialized noninvasive 3D computed tomographic scan of the heart and circulation of the bloodvessels
sonography
sonographic imaging (ultrasound)
echocardiography (stress)
recording sound waves through the heart to evaluate structure and motion (physical excercise)
transesophageal echocardiogram
echocardiogram of the heart after placement of an ultrasonic transducer at the end of an endoscope inside the esophagus
doppler sonography
presence of deep vein thrombosis or carotid insuffiency
coronary artery bypass graft
grafting a portion of a blood vessel retrieved from another part of the body to bypass an occuluded coronary artery
anastomosis
opening the joining of 2 blood vessels to allow flow from one to ther other
endarterectomy
surgical removal of the lining of an artery to clear a blockage caused by a clot or athersclerotic plaque buildup
valve replacement
place artificial valves (tissue valve or mechanical valve)
valvuloplasty
surgical repair of a defective heart valve
percutaneous coronary intervention
placing catheter
angioscopy
use of a flexible fiberoptic angioscope assess a lesion
vascular endoscopy
guided through specific blood vessel to visually assess a lesion and to select mode of therapy
atherectomy
excision of fatty lipid
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
a method for treatment the narrowing of a coronary artery by inserting a specialized catheter with a baloon attachments and inflating the baloon to dialate and open the narrowed portion of the vessel and restore blood flow to the myocardium-stent
intravascular stent placement
implantation of a device used to reinforce the wall of a vessel and assure its patency most often used to treat stenosis or dissection (split in vessel wall)
defibrillation
termination of ventricular fibrillation by delivering an electrical stimulus to the heart
cardioversion
restoration of a fast or irregular heart rate to a normal rhythem (pharmaceutical means or delivery of electrical energy)
implantable cardioverter defibrillator
implanted battery operated device with rate sensing leads-initiates an electrical stimulus as needed to stop ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia
paremaker
used to treat bradycardia
angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor)
drug that surpresses the conversion of angiotension in the blood by the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) used to treat hypertension
antianginal
drug that dialates coronary arteries restoring o2 to the tissues to relieve the pain of angina pectoris
antiarrhythmic
drug that dounteracts cardiac arrhythmia
anticoagulant
drug that prevents clotting of the blood commonly sued in treatment of thrombophlebitis and myocardial infraction
antihypertensive
drug that lowers bp
beta-adrenergic blocking agents / beta blockers
inhibt responses causing slowing of electrical conduction and heart rate and lowering of the pressure within the walls of the vessels.
calcium channel blockers
agents that inhibit entry of calcium ions into heart muscle cells causing a showing of the heart rate a lessening of the demand for oxygen and nutrients and relaxing of the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels to cause dialation used to prevent or treat angina pectoris
cardiotonic
drug that increases the force of myocardial contractions in the heart
diuretic
drug that increases the secretion of urine, treats hypertension
hypolipidemic
drug that reduces serum fat and cholestrol
thrombolytic agents
drugs used to dissolve blood clots
vasoconstrictor
drug that causes a narrowing of the blood vessels decreasing blood flow
vasodilator
drug that causes dilation of the blood vessels thus increasing blood flow