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Physics Chapter 14: Satellite Motion
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Terms in this set (34)
A stone thrown fast enough to go a horizontal
distance of 8 kilometers during the time (1 second) it
takes to fall 5 meters, will ___________________.
orbit Earth.
satellite
a projectile moving fast enough to fall
continually around Earth rather than into it.
Throw a stone at any speed and one second later it will
have fallen ______ below where it would have been
without gravity.
5 m
In the curvature of Earth, the surface drops a vertical
distance of nearly 5 meters for every _______________
tangent to its surface.
8000 meters
The orbital speed for close orbit about Earth is 8 km/s.
• That is an impressive _______________ (or 18,000 mi/h).
• At that speed, atmospheric friction would burn an
object to a crisp.
• A satellite must stay ___________________ or more above
Earth's surface—to keep from burning due to the
friction.
8 km/s.; 29,000 km/h; 150 kilometers
A satellite in circular orbit around Earth is always
moving ___________________ to gravity and parallel to
Earth's surface at constant speed.
perpendicular
The satellite is always moving at a right angle (perpendicular)
to the force of gravity.
• It doesn't move in the direction of gravity, which would
________________________.
• It doesn't move in a direction against gravity, which
would ____________________.
• No change in speed occurs—only a change in direction.
increase its speed; decrease its speed.
For a satellite close to Earth, the time for a complete
orbit around Earth, its period, is about __________________.
For higher altitudes, the orbital speed is less and the period is _______________.
90 minutes; longer.
The moon is farther away, and has a 27.3-day period.
Moon's circular orbit period
The International Space Station (ISS) orbits at
___________________ above Earth's surface.
360 kilometers
A satellite in orbit around Earth traces an oval-
shaped path called an ______________.
ellipse
ellipse
closed path taken by a point that
moves in such a way that the sum of its distances from
two fixed points is constant.
foci
two fixed points in an ellipse
The sum of the KE and PE of a satellite is _____________
at all points along an orbit.
constant (The PE of the satellite is the same everywhere in orbit.
By the law of conservation of energy, the KE is also
constant, so the speed is constant in any circular orbit.)
apogee
the point in a satellite's orbit farthest
from the center of Earth.
perigee
the point in a satellite's orbit closest
to the center of Earth.
PE is greatest when
satellite is at the apogee (point furthest from earth)
and least when the satellite is at the perigee. (point closest to the center of earth)
change in KE formula
(this component of force(apogee/perigee) × (distance moved) = change in KE.
Kepler's first law states that
the path of each
planet around the sun is an ellipse with the
sun at one focus.
Kepler's second law states that
each planet
moves so that an imaginary line drawn from
the sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas
of space in equal time intervals.
Kepler's third law states that
the square of the
orbital period of a planet is directly
proportional to the cube of the average
distance of the planet from the sun.
Kepler's laws of planetary
motion
three important
discoveries about planetary
motion made by the
German astronomer
Johannes Kepler.
Kepler was the first to coin the word _______________.
satellite
Kepler's third law formula
the square of any
planet's period (T) is directly
proportional to the cube of its
average orbital radius (r).
t^2/r^3
If we give a payload any more energy than
62 MJ/kg at the surface of Earth or, equivalently,
any greater speed than 11.2 km/s, then,
neglecting air resistance, the payload will escape
from Earth __________________
never to return.
To achieve orbit, the payload must be launched
_____________________ at 8 km/s once above air resistance.
horizontally
Neglecting air resistance, fire anything at any speed greater
than 11.2 km/s, and it will leave Earth, going more and more
slowly, but ___________________________.
never stopping
To put a payload infinitely far from Earth's surface
requires at least _________ of energy per kilogram of load.
• A KE per unit mass of 62 MJ/kg corresponds to a speed
of 11.2 km/s.
62 MJ
The escape speed is the __________________ necessary for an object to escape permanently from a gravitational field.
minimum speed
The escape speed from the sun is 620 km/s at the _________________.
surface of the sun.
Even at a distance equaling that of Earth's orbit, the escape speed from the sun is _____________.
42.2 km/s.
The first probe to escape the solar system was launched
from Earth in 1972 with a speed of only 15 km/s.
The escape was accomplished by directing the probe into
the path of Jupiter.
It was whipped about by Jupiter's great gravitational field, ______________________________________>
picking up speed in the process.
Pioneer 10 (launches 1972) passed the orbit of Pluto in _________.
1984.
we could escape Earth at any sustained speed
greater than zero, given ____________________.
enough time.
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