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Psyc. Learning Lecture Questions Auburn University
Terms in this set (265)
The philosophy emphasizing the influence of environmental changes on learning and behavior was called
Watson's behaviorism was developed as a reaction to
Hypthetical processes used as mediators between environmental events and behavior are called:
Which of these would be a hypothesized physiological process?
a. Duration of deprivation
c. Cognitive Map
______ behaviorism excludes thoughts and feeling from the study of behavior
The philosophy of behaviorism emphasizes what cause of behavior?
What philosophy emphasized hypothetical physiological processes
What is reciprocal determinism and which philosophy is it an important concept?
Cognition explain/cause behaivor: Social Learning Theory
What is the view on thoughts and feelings according to radical behaviorism?
They are another form of behavior
What area of behavior analysis studies fundamental behavioral processes?
Experimental Analysis of Behavior (EAB)
The environment selected certain physical and behavioral attributes because they were:
When studying conditioning, the primary dependent variable is typically some kind of change in:
Cause and effect between environment and behavior are demonstrated through
If someone is reading in a room and is all alone, the reading is best described as an example of ____ behavior
Aversive stimuli generally will be _____ by organisms
Going to preschool prevents a child from seeing her parents during the day. Therefore, going to preschool is likely a(n) ______ operation for the effectiveness of seeking the parent
Functional relations between events best refers to
The objective and unambiguous description of behavior refers to:
A therapist records the time it takes a child to eat a meal from start to finish. This measure is called
what do functional relations demonstrate?
Causal relation between IV and DV
What are some examples of covert behavior
Thinking, feeling, emotional responses, etc.
What are stimuli that differ in valence and organisms will seek or avoid?
Appetitive and aversive stimuli
What events influence the effectiveness of consequences?
Motivating operations: establishing and abolishing operations
What do spatial and temporal contiguity refer to?
Closeness in space and time, respectively
Response rate is this type of recording method
Interobserver reliability is used to ensure data are recorded____ between observers
Descriptive research involves
____ research assesses functional relations between independent and dependent variables
A(n) _____ design is not an effective experimental design for demonstrating functional relations
_______ designs are single-subject designs that can examine treatment effects successively across different individuals
Why does science need measures?
Collect data for evidence and establish agreed upon criteria for effects
What is interval recording
Recording whether behavior occurred at any time within an observation period
What must observers do if interobserver reliability (IOR, IOA) is too low?
Revise behavioral definitions or provide more training for observers
What is the purpose of single-subject designs?
They assess functional relations within individual participants
What are the benefits of behavioral research with nonhuman animals?
Understand commonalities among species and improve lives of humans and nonhumans
Exprimentla research methods extis to demonstrate
Reflexes are ____ behaviors
Involuntary, elicited, innate, and adaptive
The difference between reflexes and fixed-action patterns is the latter is:
Can be modified by experience
_______ involves the decrease in an elicited behavior with repeated exposure to a stimulus
According to the opponent-process theory, repeated presentation of an emotional stimulus results in:
Growth of the b-process
Learning that occurs between stimuli or events when they occur together reliably is called
What are reflexes?
Relation between a stimulus and a simple involuntary response
Why did learning evolve
Those who could change behavior with experience were more likely to survive/reproduce
When can fixed-action patterns become maladaptive?
Environment changes dramatically and response becomes maladaptive
According to opponent-process theory, why does withdrawal get worse with drug exposure?
The b-process grows and counters the a-process
If an individual expresses a fear of needles, what would sensitization look like
Increase in fear response with additional injections
_____ are the change in behavior due to learning
An inhibitory stimulus influences conditioning by prediciting the:
Absence of unconditioned stimuli
Which of these arrangements between the CS and US could produce inhibitory conditioning?
What is an appropriate control to asses whether pseudoconditioning occurred?
Present the US and US randomly across time and present a novel stimulus
When CSs and USs are presented in time, ______ of the CS best describes the principle governing effective conditioning
An intervention includes extinction of a spider CS. After not encountering a spider for some time, seeing a spider again causes a fear conditioned response. This is an example of which phenomenon?
Which of these is an example of generalization? _____ now results in a fear CR to wasps.
a. EXtinguishing a fear CR to a honey bee
b. Observing a friend run from a wasp
c. A fear Cr from being stung by a wasp
d. A fear CR from being stung by a honey bee
Let's say you experience moderate fear CR in the presence of wasps and get stung very badly by something you did not see. The next time you see a wasp, your fear CR is greater. This is an example of:
What are some variables that influence classical conditioning?
CS-US pairings, CS salience, US intensity, CS-US reliability
What is stimulus generalization during classical conditioning?
A number of similar CSs elicit the same CR
What are the two types of higher-order conditioning?
Second-order conditioning and sensory preconditioning
What causes US revalutation to increase or decrease a CR?
Presenting an increased or decreased US, respectively, in isolation after CS-US training
What phenomena involve an increased CR after extinguishing a CS?
Spontaneous recovery and disinhibition
If you were stung by a wasp and you have a fear Cr int he presence of wasps but not in the presence of hornets, this is an example of:
Overshadowing occurs when one CS produces a great CR than another CS due to differences in
Blocking occurs when on CS produces a greater CR than antoher CS due to differences in
A smoker has feelings of craving to pick up a lighter and smoke a cigarette when seeing a cigarette pack in the car but not while at work. Which stimulus is best described as an occasion setting?
b. Cigarette pack
According to latent inhibition, an explanation of reduced fear conditioning when driving a new car after a car accident with you old car would be:
Extensive exposure to cars without accidents.
What is overshadowing
One CS being more salient than another CS when both paired with a US
What is blocking
Greater experience with one CS than antoher CS predicting the US
What is an occasion setter
A stimulus modulates whether a CS predicts the US
What is latent inhibiton
Previous exposure to a stimulus before pairing with a US
An individual expressing a fear of needles only in the presence of a doctor is an example of:
Which conditioning phenomenon reduces conditioning to another stimulus because the CS has previously been trained with the US?
Accoring to Stimulus Substitution Theory, conditioned responses are
Similar to the UR
According to Preparatory-Response Theory, conditioned responses are
Relevant to survival and reproduction
Stimuli predictive of drug injections such as heroin can produce ____ reponses to inncreasing doses of the drug
According to the Rescorla-Wagner model, ____ changes on a trial-by-trial baes
According to the Rescorla-Wagner model, surprise is defined as
Difference between CS value and maximum US
According to the Rescorla-Wagner Model, increases in CS value are due to ___ conditioning
According the the Rescorla-WAgner Model, the intensity/amount of the US affects the
Asymptote of conditioning
What is the main prediction of Stimulus Substitution Theory
CRs should be similar or identical to URs
What is the main idea behind Preparatory Response Theory
CSs produce CRs to prepare organisms for biologically relevant USs
How can the environment influence overdosing with drugs of abuse?
Environment serves as a CS producing a conditioned compensatory response
According to the Rescorla-Wagner model, what situations produce a lot of surprise?
Initial CS-US and CS-no US presentation
What are three variables that change value according to the Rescorla-Wagner model?
Surprise, CS salience, and CS competition
According to the Rescorla-Wagner model, conditioned stimuli (CSs) produce conditioned responses (CRs) that are:
in competition with other potential CSs
The findings of Watson and Raynor (1920) were important because they demonstrated that specific fears can be a result of
Systematic desensitization is a type of exposure therapy that arranges exposure to
Progressively more feared imaginary stimuli
Counterconditioning can be effective in treating certain problem behaviors because the technique results in new CRs that are _____ problem behavior
Allergic reactions can be the result of
Unconditioned responses and conditioned responses
How did Little Albert's behavior demonstrate stimulus generalizaton
Fear CR to white rat also occured with other white stimuli
What is counterconditioning
Train an existing CS with a new US that produces a new Cr incompatible with the old CR
Which therapies for treating phobias rely on counterconditioning?
Exposure therapies, including systematic desensitization, in vivo desensitization, flooding
How is counterconditioning effective in aversion therapy for problem behaviors?
The CS elicits a new aversive CR that is incompatible with the old pleasurable CR
How can the placebo effect be described by classical conditioning?
Pills serve as CSs for a drug of effect (US), resulting in CRs to pills without drug effects
______ is a procedure underlying treatments for both problem behavior and anxiety
Behavior that is a function of its consequences is called
Thorndike studied animal learning to understand
Free-operant behavior is described as
Selection by consequences suggests there are ____ operant behavior
Evolutionary processes at the level of
Operant classes of behavior imply that some behaviors
Produce similar consequences
Events that increase the probability of behavior (strengthen) because of their presentation are called:
Describe Thorndike's Law of Effect
Consequence stamp in or out stimulus-response learning
What is free-operant behavior
Organisms could repeatedly engage in responses producing consequences
What components are neceassary for any instace of operant behavior?
Response produces consequence; increased probability of response; discriminative stimuli
What is an operant class?
Responses that have the same effect, i.e., produces similar consequences
What is meant by functional definitions of behavioral principles?
They are defined by the effect on behavior
If a teacher calls on you in class, the request to speak is a ___ stimulus for your speaking
If a teacher calls on you in class and you run out of the room, this is an example of
Which of these is an example of negative punishment when contingent upon a behavior?
a. Removing a toy
b. Extra work
c. Unwanted attention
Letter a is closes but none spectify what happened to behavior
After a student answers a question in class, which of these deliveries of praise would likely be the most effective reinforcer?
a. At the end of the day
b. During recess
c. After class
Which of these would most likely meet the definition of a generalized conditioned reinforcer?
a. Access to a toy
c. Snack food
d. Extra leisure time
A boss gives an employee a pay bonus for excellent work. This is an example of a/an _____ reinforcer.
All of the above
What is the difference betwee escape and avoidance?
Escape terminates and avoidance prevents the aversive stimulus
Why can the use of punishment be negatively reinforcing
Its use can escape or avoid aversive stimuli
What effect does adding a signal/event have on delayed reinforcement?
Mitigates the response-rate decreases produced by delayed reinforcers
What is the difference between primary and secondary reinforcers?
Primary reinforcers serve as USs and secondary reinforcers serve as CSs
How is shaping defined?
Differential reinforcement of successive approximations to a target behavior
When a child cries the parents typically reprimands the child. Because crying often is follwed by a reprimand, crying increases. This is an example of:
Schedules of reinforcement refer to _______
Pauses on fixed-ration schedules are due to
the upcoming ratio
Fixed-interval scheules deliver reinforcers after a specific:
a. amount of time
b. number of responses
c. Pause from responding
d. rate of responding
None of these, it's the first repsonse after a specific amount of time
What are schedules of reinforcement?
Rules defining the response requirement to receive reinforcement
What is the difference between continuous and intermittent reinforcement
CRF- one response per reinforcer; INtermittent- any other requirement
What are the four basic/simple schedules of reinforcement?
Fixed ration, variable ration, fixed interval, variable interval
How is noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) different from other schedules
reinforcers are delivered responses independently; do not require behavior
What are complex schedules?
They arrange reinforcers based on more than one simple schedule; multiple criteria
What is the pattern of responding on a fixed-interval schedule?
Drive reduction theory suggests reinforcers:
Serve to influence biological processes
Premack's theory suggests reinforcers
Are more probable responses
According to Premack's theory, responses that can serve as reinforcers are determined:
During an unconstrained baseline
According to Premack's theory, individuals who spend most of their unconstrained free time exercising would____ decrease levels of exercising if they were required to cook afterward
Which approach suggests any behavior can be a reinforcer if held below its unconstrained baseline level?
Response deprivation theory
What are reinforcers according to Drive Reduction Theory?
Events that serve to decrease biological drives
Waht is the problem with Drive Reduction Theory
One can always come up with new rives to explain almost anything
What are reinforcers according to Premack's Theory
More probable behavior reinforce less probable behavior
What are reinforcers considered in more traditional accounts of reinforcement?
Events or stimuli delivered contingent upon behavior
Why is it a problem for Premack's Theory that responses can fluctuate over time?
Complicates the ability to determine what behavior will serve as a reinforcer
Premack's theory changed the way behavioral scientists conceptualized reinforcers by suggesting they:
Are more probable repsonses
Extinction of operant behavior occurs when
The reinforcer no longer follows the response
The partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) states that _____ schedules produce persistent responding during extinction
Increases in responding with extinction bursts indicate:
The process of extinction is underway
When arranging differntial reinforcement when treating problem behavior, it is necessary that the alternative source of reinforcement is:
Arranged contingent upon a different behavior
Resurgence of a problem behavior can occur when
Eliminating the alternative source of reinforcement
Spontenous recovery can occur when:
Providing time off from an extinction contigency
What is the proceure for extinction of operant behavior?
Reinforcer no longer presented following a response
What is the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE)?
Intermittently reinforced behavior is more resistant to extinction than CRF
What are some side effects of extinction?
Variability, extinction bursts, emotional/aggressive behavior, depression, resurgence
Why is it advantageous to use differential reinnforcement with extinction?
Facilitate extinctions effects and eliminate emotional side effects
What is the difference between resurgence and spontaneous recovery?
Resurgence: eliminate alternative reinforcement; Spontaneous recovery: time off from EXT
Extinction of operant behavior occurs when:
The reinforcer no longer follows the response
Experience with stimuli that signal the presence and absence of reinforcement is called:
The data showing greater decrease in responding as stimuli become more different from the training stimulus is called
Peak shift refers to response patterns in which responding:
Occurs at maximum levels away from the Sd opposide of S delta
Errorless discrimination learning refers to response patterns in which responding:
Does not occur to the S delta due to fading it in over time
How does discrimination training affect stimulus generalization?
More discrimination trianing reduces stimulus generalization
What does generalizaiton gradient tell us about stimulu generatlization
Levels of generalization and discrimination
What are two explanations for peak shift?
Learn relations among stimuli and addition of excitation and inhibition
Why can behavioral contrast be problematic for behavioral clinicians?
Eliminating reinforcers in one situation could increase problem behavior in another
How does errorless discrimination training reduce negative emotional behavior?
Fade in S delta for short duration so no error responses occur to S delta
The partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) states that ____ schedules produces persistent responding during extinction.
The combination of classical and operant conditioning interact to produce avoidance behavior refers to the
Which of these is NOT a problem with the Two-Process Theory of Avoidance?
a. Avoidance can occur with no over signs of fear
b. Avoidance proceeds more rapidly with more salient CSs
c. Avoidance can occur in the absence of overt CSs
Avoidance proceeds more rapidly with more salient CSs
What is a common variable maintaing both phobias and obsessive-compulsive disorder?
Avoidance of CSs
What are the two types of negative reinforcement?
Escape (terminate) and avoidance (prevent)
What is the avoidance paradox?
How can the nonoccurance of an event maintain avoidance?
What processes are involved in the two-process theory of avoidance?
Classical and operant conditioning
What are the problems with two-process theory of avoidance?
NoNo overt signs of fear; Avoidance becomes more likely without fear; Occurs in the absence of CSs
What are the common procedures involved in treating phobias and OCD?
Prevent avoidance of CSs; Extinguish CRs
The Avoidance Paradox refers to the question of how
one can avoid the nonoccurence of an event
Which of these is a positive punishment procedure?
d. Response Cost
Being sore after exercise would be best described as a/an ____ punisher?
Instrinsic and primary
Which of these is NOT a problem with punishent?
a. Elicits aggression
b. Discriminate source of punisher
c. Evokes avoidance behaviors
d. Results in other acceptable behavior
Which of these makes punishment less effective?
a. Immediate delivery of punishers
b. Introducing punishers gradually
c. More consistent reinforcer deliveries
d. Availability of choice
Conditioned Suppression Theory suggest punishment has its effect by:
CRs interfere with target behavior
What are the differnt types of punishers?
Intrinsic, extrinsic, primary, conditioned, and generalized conditioned
What are some of the ethical issues involved in using punishment clinically?
No acceptable behavior, aggression, discriminated, avoidance, imitation, overused
What are ways to make punishment more effective?
Introduce suddently, intense, immediately contingent, consistently, along with a choice
What is the avoidance theory of punishment?
Other operant responses are negatively reinforced by removing punishers
How does learned helplessness come about?
Exposure to repeated and predictable but unaboidable aversive events
Which of these makes punishment MORE effective?
a. Immediate delivery of punishers
b. Introducing intense punishers
c. More consistent reinforcer deliveries
d. Availability of a choice
All of them
_______ schedules are used to examine choice from more than one schedule of reinforcement
The matching law states that choice matches the
Proportion of reinforcers
A greater preference for one response over the other across all changes in reinforcment proportions indicates
How does the generalized matching law simplify the interpretation of deviations from matching?
Deviation can be described with a straight line
How does melioration provide an explanation for matching behavior?
Operant behavior is proposed to be attracted to most immediately reinforcing event
What are some dimensions of reinforcers/behaviors that influence choice?
Effort, appetitiveness, aversiveness, time, dynamics, rate, schedules
What is stated by the matching law?
Proportion of responses match the proportion of reinforcers
What are the deviations from the matching law?
Bias, undermatching, and overmatching
How are the deviations from matching expressed using the generalized matching law?
Changes in slope (undermatching and overmatching) and y-intercept (bias)
What are some suboptimal behavior patterns resulting from melioration?
Easily obtained and immediate reinforcers attract behavior but value easily reduced
Suboptimal patterns of behavior are predictued to result form:
Skinner viewed self-control and impulsivity as choosing between:
Controlling and controlled responses
Contiguity between behavior and consequences increases the likelihood of suboptimal choices because
Smaller sooner rewards are preferred to larger-later rewards and smaller-sooner punishers are deferred for larger-later punishers
The Ainslie-Rachlin Model of self-control proposes that changes in value over time can produce
Reversals in preference
_____ is one example of a "state" variable that could influence delay discounting
Repeated choices between SSR and LLR
Have cumulative effects
What are approaches Skinnner offered to increase self-control
Restraint, deprives/satiate, do someting else, self-reinforce/-punish
How do delays influece choice between reinforcers and between punishers?
SSR>LLR, delayed gratification; SSP<LLP, procrastination
Why do preference reversals happen according to the Ainslie-Rachlin model?
Delays reduce reward value; value of SSR briefly exceeds value of LLR
What are trait versus state variables in delay discouting?
Traits are more static personality variables; States are situational variables
What are some approaches to reduce the likelihood of preference reversals?
Raise value of LLR, lower value of SSR, reduce rate of LLR-value decrease, precommitment
Why do preference reversals occur between smaller-sooner rewards and larger-later rewards according to the Anslie-Rachlin model?
Reward value decreases with time
Why are contagious behavior and stimulus enhancement both considered rudimentary forms of social behavior?
Presence of a model and no learning occurs
In the simpler instance of vicarious emotional conditioning, what role does the model's fear play in eliciting a fear CR?
Which of these is NOT a factor that influences whether a performance of imitation occurs after it has been aquired?
a. Consequences of hte model's behavior
b. Consequences for performing the behavior
c. Skill level of the individual serving as the model
d. History of consequences for performing the behavior
Generalized imitation occurs:
in the absence of reinforcement
What two events are wtiness during social learning?
Model's behavior and consequences for behavior
What are two rudimentary forms of social behavior?
Contagious behaviors and stimulus enhancement
What are two ways in which vicarious emotional conditioning is learned?
First-order classical conditioning and higher-order conditioning
According to generalized imitation, how do novel instances of imitation occur?
Generalization from previously reinforced instances of imitation
How do consequences for the model's behavior influence imitation in obseervers?
Imitation increases with reinforcement and decreases with punishment of model's behavior
Training a number of exemplars with reinforcement of imitation results in novel instances of imitation occurring called:
Stating a rule specifies:
A behavior-environment relation
According to rule-goverend behavior, a map is a:
The extent to which we follow rules depends on:
a. Reinforcement for following rules
b. Punishment for following rules
c. Reinforcement for not following rules
d. Punishment for not following rules
All of the above
A teenager is learning to play guitar with help from an instructor and during individual practice times while alone. The instructor provides a lesson book and provides verbal guidance about changin cords and notes while playing. Contingency-goverened behavior in this example is most likely to occur from:
What are rules?
Verbal discriminative stimuli specifying environment-behavior relations
What different forms/stimuli can rules be presented?
Instructions, commands, maps/diagrams, advice
What is a disadvantage of following rules?
Rule-following can be persistent and become inefficient when environments change
What is contingency-goverened behavior
Nonsocial, direct exposure to contingencies
What is say-do correspondence with regard to rules?
The extend to which one follows self-instructions; influence self-instructions
Rules are verbal _____ specifying relations between behavior and environmental events
_____ refers to the innate tendency to learn certain realtions more easily than others
Preparedness with stimuli can result in learning with _____ conditioning, which is unlikely with arbitrary stimuli
Which of these findings demonstrates preparedness in taste-aversion learning?
Preparedness in operant conditioning is demonstrated by:
Certain responses learned with specific consequences
Instinctive drift demonstrates that:
conditioned response result from operant conditioning
What is preparedness
Innate tendency to learn certain relations more easily than others
What evidence suggests preparedness in classical conditioning?
More effective and backward conditioning with evolutionarily relevant CS
What effects make taste aversion unique as a conditioning phenomenon?
Learning with long CS-US delays, specific CS aspects, and one-trail conditioning
What evidennce suggests preparedness in operant conditioning?
Certain reinforcers increase some responses but not others
What is instinctive drift?
Fixed-action patterns as CRs that interfere with (and are byproducts of) operant conditioning
Preparedness refers to the:
Innate tendency to learn certain relations more easily than others
Sign-tracking is a form of
Responses during negative automaintenance can be considered a type of:
Adjunctive behavior is a type of
Adjunctive behavior as a ____ might have evolutionary relevance
Which of these is necessary to produce activity anorexia?
a. Extended exposure ot wheel running
b. Restricted food
c. Restricted food and wheel running
d. Free food access and wheel running
According to behavior systems, classical and operant conditioning occur due to
local fit between behavior and environment
What is sign-tracking
CRs that approach as CS before appraoching an eppetitive US
Why is negative automaintenance another form of 'misbehavior'?
The CR of keypacking interferes wiht the operant behavior of omitting the keypeck
When does adjunctive behavior appear?
during pausing with periodic reinforcer delivery; reinforcer deprivationl optimal intervals
How does adjunctive behavior potentially have evolutionary relevance?
Flexibilty by increasing range of behavior during nonreinforcement; perserverence
How are classical and operant conditioning related according to Behavior Systems Theory?
They lie on a contiuum in relation to important events
Instinctive drift and adjuctive behavior are similar because they both demonstrate
Operant contingencies inducing other behavior
Which of Tinbergen's four questions are questions of how environmental events influence classical and operant conditioning?
What feature allows for the study of memory with delayed matching to sample (DMTS)?
Delays between sample and comparisons
What demonstrated preparedness in learning in black-capped chickadees with a delayed matching to sample (DMTS) task?
Bias for the location of the comparison
Some nonhumans appear to be able to detect quantity but accuracy declines with
larger numbers and smaller differences in number
Ringtail lemurs out performed mongoose lemur in tests of transitive inference as a result of differences in
If an organism modifies tools differently under specific situations, they:
Learned functional aspects of tools
What are Tinbergen's four types of questions?
Mechanistic, developmental; survival value, evolutionary/phylogenetic
What procedure is used to study memory and forgetting in many nonhumans?
Delayed Matching to Sample (DMTS)
What finding demonstrated preparedness between chickadees and juncos?
Chickaees' bias for location in a DMTS task
What is transitive inference?
if one learns A>B and B>C, one can infer A>C
What are two ways to demonstrate functional tool use?
Modify tools or use different tools depending on the situation
Researchers studying commparative cognition are primarily interested in understanding preparedness in different species by examinin tasks that reveal similarities and differences in
General learning processes
What is meant by self-awareness?
Self discriminated as separate from others
Preparedness in engaging patterns of behavior described as cooperation and deception depend on:
Some forms of communication differ from the use of language because communication includes
Syntax in language refers to
Certain rules that define different languages
What appraoch used rigid syntax to facilitate language learning in primates?
Artifical Symbolic Language
What is a benefit of self-awareness?
Ability to behave socially in response to others' experiences
What types of social arragnement appear to facilitate performace on the 'rope task'?
Cooperative social structures
Why is communication not necessariy the same as language?
Fixed-action patterns; language is a type of communication but not vice versa
How is language definned from the perspective of it being verbal operant behavior?
Interchangeable roles between speaker and listner
Is there evidence that nonhuman primates use language?
Yes, but it's more rudimentary; show symbolic referencing but limited grammar and function
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