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Biology cell cycles

Bio 180 Mastering Biology Test from BYU Idaho. Mitosis, Meiosis, Cancer, and Genetics. Unit 4. DAT prep Biology section.
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G2 phase
A nuclear envelope bounds the nucleus.
G2 phase
The nucleus contains one or more nucleoli.
G2 phase
Two centrosomes have formed by the replication of a single centrosome.
G2 phase
In animal cells each centrosome features 2 centrioles.
G2 phase
You cannot see the chromosomes that duplicated during S phase because the chromosomes have not condensed.
Prophase
The chromatin fibers become more tightly coiled and condense into discrete visible chromosomes.
Prophase
Nucleoli disappear.
Prophase
Each of the duplicated chromosomes appear as identical sister chromatids which are joined together at their centromeres.
Prophase
They are joined together along their arms by cohesins (sister chromatid cohesins).
Prometaphase
The nuclear envelope fragments.
Prometaphase
The microtubules extending from each centrosome can now invade the nuclear area.
Prometaphase
Chromosomes become even more condensed.
Prometaphase
Each of the 2 chromatids of each chromosome has a kinetochore (specialized protein structure located at centromere).
Prometaphase
Some microtubules attach to kinetochores and become "kinetochore microtubules".
Prometaphase
Kinetochore microtubules jerk the chromosomes back and forth.
Prometaphase
Non-kinetochore microtubules interact with non-kinetochore microtubules from the opposite pole of the spindle.
Metaphase
Lasts 20 minutes. (longest phase of mitoses).
Metaphase
Centrosomes at opposite poles of the cell.
Metaphase
Chromosomes centromeres line up on a plate (imaginary equidistant line).
Anaphase
Lasts a few minutes (shortest phase of mitosis).
Anaphase
Begins when cohesion proteins cleave.
Anaphase
When the cohesion proteins cleave the 2 sister chromatids separate from each other.
Anaphase
Each chromatid becomes a chromosome.
Anaphase
The daughter chromosomes move towards the cell poles as kinetochore microtubules shorten.
Anaphase
The chromosomes are attached to the kinetochore microtubules at their centromeres so they move center first towards poles.
Anaphase
The cell elongates as the microtubules lengthen.
Anaphase
Ends when the two ends of the cell have equivalent complete collections chromosomes.
Telophase
2 daughter nuclei form in the cell.
Telophase
Nuclear envelopes form from endomembrane system.
Telophase
Nucleoli reappear.
Telophase
Chromosomes become less condensed.
Mitosis is complete (mitosis = the division of the nuclei).
Telophase
The cell membrane started dividing (actually started during telophase).
Cytokinesis
The 2 daughter cells appear
Cytokinesis
In animal cells a cleavage furrow forms pinches off the cells.
Genome
The DNA of the cell.
Somatic
All cells in an animal except reproductive cells.
Animal gamete
Haploid cells
# Chromosomes in somatic
46 chromosomes
# of pairs of chromosomes in somatic
23 pairs
(n)
the number of chromosomes in a gamete. The haploid number.
Chromatin
what chromosomes are made of. DNA and protein combined. The proteins help maintain shape of chromosomes and help control gene activity.
Sister Chromatids
Either of two copies of a duplicated chromosome attached to each other by proteins at the centromere and, sometimes, along the arms. While joined, two of these make up one chromosome; chromatids are eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II.
Centromere
The specialized region of the chromosome where two sister chromatids are most closely attached.
Mitosis
A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells conventionally divided into five stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
Meiosis
A modified type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms consisting of two rounds of cell division but only one round of DNA replication.
Mitosis
conserves chromosome number by allocating replicated chromosomes equally to each of the daughter nuclei.
Meiosis
results in cells with half the number of chromosome sets as the original cell.
Cytokinesis
The division of the cytoplasm.
Cytokinesis
forms two separate daughter cells
Cytokinesis
occurs immediately after mitosis, meiosis I, or meiosis II.
Mitotic spindle
An assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis.
Chromosome
A cellular structure carrying genetic material, found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins. (In bacteria it usually consists of a single circular DNA molecule and associated proteins. It is found in the nucleoid region, which is not membrane bounded.)
Centrosome
Structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells, important during cell division; functions as a microtubule-organizing center. It has two centrioles.
Aster
A radial array of short microtubules that extends from each centrosome toward the plasma membrane in an animal cell undergoing mitosis.
Kinetochore
A structure of proteins attached to the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle.
Metaphase plate
An imaginary plane midway between the two poles of a cell on which the centromeres of all the duplicated chromosomes are located.
Binary fission
A method of asexual reproduction by "division in half." In prokaryotes.
Binary fission
Does not involve mitosis; but in single-celled eukaryotes that undergo this, mitosis is part of the process.
Mitotic M phase
The phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis.
Interphase
The period in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing.
Interphase
Accounts for 90% of the cell cycle
Interphase
cellular metabolic activity is high, chromosomes and organelles are duplicated, and cell size may increase.
G1 phase
The first gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle
G1 phase
consists of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins.
S phase
The synthesis phase of the cell cycle
S phase
the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated.
G2 phase
The second gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle
G2 phase
Consists of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs.
Mitotic phase
M phase. Mitosis divides the cell.
Mitosis phases
Prophase, Prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase/cytokinesis
Prophase
chromatin condenses, the mitotic spindle begins to form, and the nucleolus disappears, but the nucleus remains intact.
Prometaphase
Discrete chromosomes consisting of identical sister chromatids appear, the nuclear envelope fragments, and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes.
Metaphase
The spindle is complete and the chromosomes, attached to microtubules at their kinetochores, are all aligned at the metaphase plate.
Anaphase
The chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell.
Telophase
Daughter nuclei are forming and cytokinesis has typically begun.
Diploid cells
(2N) have two complete sets of chromosomes. The body cells (somatic cells) of animals
Haploid cells
have one complete set of chromosomes. In animals, gametes (sperm and eggs).
Homologous chromosomes
are two chromosomes that are the same. This happens because diploid organisms have two of each chromosome. One inherited from the individual's mother and the other one was inherited from the individual's father.
Reproduction
why single-celled organisms divide
reproduction and variation
why multicellular organisms divide
Centromere
where the microtubules used to construct the spindle come from
S phase
phase when a centrosome duplicates
Telophase
Cytokinesis typically occurs during this
G1 phase
Conditions in cell favor degredation of cyclin during this
G1 phase
CDK component of MPF is recycled
S phase
Synthesis of cyclin begins late during this
G2 phase
Synthesis of cyclin did not begin here but continues through here
G2 phase
Cyclin accumulates
MPF
Cyclin combines with CDK to form this
Metaphase
MPF activity peaks during
Cyclin
A cellular protein that plays an important role in regulating the cell cycle. Concentration begins to build up during S phase. And then meets its peek during mitosis—then drops off.
CDK
A protein kinase that is active only when attached to a particular cyclin.
MPF
Maturation-promoting factor
MPF
a protein complex required for a cell to progress from late interphase to mitosis. The active form consists of cyclin and a protein kinase. Activity reaches peak during Mitosis.
MPF
Causes phosphorylation of the nuclear lamina.
Growth factor
A protein that must be present in the extracellular environment (culture medium or animal body) for the growth and normal development of certain types of cells.
Growth factor
A local regulator that acts on nearby cells to stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation.
Density dependent inhibition
The phenomenon observed in normal animal cells that causes them to stop dividing when they come into contact with one another.
PDGF
Platlet derived growth factor.
PDGF
Stimulated during injury to grow tissue back.
Transformation
The conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell.
Transformation
A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
Benign tumor
A mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of its origin.
Malignant tumor
is invasive enough to impair the functions of one or more organs.
Metastasis
The spread of cancer cells to locations distant from their original site.
Genetics
The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation.
Gamete
A haploid reproductive cell, such as an egg or sperm.
Gamete
unites with another one during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
Zygote
Produced when 2 gametes unite during sexual reproduction
Locus
A specific place along the length of a chromosome where a given gene is located.
Karyotype
A display of the chromosome pairs of a cell arranged by size and shape.
Sister chromatids
Either of two copies of a duplicated chromosome attached to each other by proteins at the centromere and, sometimes, along the arms. While joined, two sister chromatids make up one chromosome; chromatids are eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II.
Homologous chromosomes
A pair that have the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. One is inherited from the organism's father, the other from the mother.
Autosomes
A chromosome that is not directly involved in determining sex; not a sex chromosome.
Zygote
The diploid product of the union of haploid gametes during fertilization; a fertilized egg.
Recombinant chromosomes
A chromosome created when crossing over combines the DNA from two parents into a single chromosome.
Checkpoint
A control point in the cell cycle where stop and go-ahead signals can regulate the cycle.
G0
Where the cell is no longer proceeding (unless triggered like if damage occurs)
Cancer
A malignant growth or tumor resulting from such a division of cells
G0
Most cells are here
cell fusion experiments
Showed that the order of events during the cell cycle are dependent upon the presence or absence of activators.
Checkpoint
Internal controls
G2 phase
Checkpoint
G1 phase
Checkpoint
Metaphase
Checkpoint
G1 phase
First restriction point
CDK
phosphorylates proteins
Density dependent inhibition
as cells become more numerous, the proteins from one cell cross membranes and control the division of neighboring cells
Mitotic Spindle
Vinblastine is a drug used to treat cancer. It interferes with the assembly of microtubules; therefore, its effectiveness in treating cancer must be related to.
Cyclin
MPF is shut off when this is destroyed
Somatic
Produced my mitosis in animals
Gametes
Produced by Meiosis in animals
Mitosis
Meiosis 2 behavior is similar to this
Synapsis
The pairing and physical connection of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis.
Chiasma
The X-shaped, microscopically visible region where homologous nonsister chromatids have exchanged genetic material through crossing over during meiosis, the two homologs remaining associated due to sister chromatid cohesion.
Tetrad
A group of four closely associated chromatids of a homologous pair formed by synapsis.
Synaptonemal complex
a protein structure that forms between two pairs of sister chromatids during meiosis and that is thought to mediate chromosome pairing, synapsis, and recombination (crossing-over)
Meiosis I
The first division of a two-stage process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms.
Meiosis I
Results in cells with half the number of chromosome sets as the original cell.
Meiosis II
The second division of a two-stage process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms.
Meiosis II
Results in cells with half the number of chromosome sets as the original cell.
Meiosis II
Results in four daughter cells.
Meiosis II
Chromatids are no longer identical
Character
An observable heritable feature.
Trait
Any detectable variant in a genetic character.
True-breeding
Referring to plants that produce offspring of the same variety when they self-pollinate.
Hybridization
In genetics, the mating, or crossing, of two true-breeding varieties.
P generation
The parent individuals from which offspring are derived in studies of inheritance; "parental."
F1 generation
The first filial, or hybrid, offspring in a series of genetic crosses.
F2 generation
Offspring resulting from interbreeding of the hybrid F1 generation.
Allele
Any of the alternative versions of a gene that produce distinguishable phenotypic effects.
Dominant
An allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype of a heterozygote.
Recessive
An allele whose phenotypic effect is not observed in a heterozygote.
Homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a given gene.
Heterozygous
Having two different alleles for a given gene.
Phenotype
The physical and physiological traits of an organism, which are determined by its genetic makeup.
Genotype
The genetic makeup, or set of alleles, of an organism.
Monohybrid
An organism that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interest.
Monohybrid
All the offspring from a cross between parents homozygous for different alleles are this
Monohybrid
Parents of genotypes AA and aa produce a _________ of genotype Aa.
Dihybrid
An organism that is heterozygous with respect to two genes of interest.
Dihybrid
All the offspring from a cross between parents doubly homozygous for different alleles are ________.
Dihybrid
Parents of genotypes AABB and aabb produce a _________ of genotype AaBb.
Blending hypothesis
The apparent fusion in offspring of distinct, dissimilar characteristics of the parents. these characteristics are usually of a quantitative nature, such as height, and fail to segregate in successive generations. The phenomenon is the result of multiple pairs of genes that have a cumulative effect.
Particulate hypothesis
The offspring retain the individual identity of the genetic material provided by parents
Blending hypothesis
the genetic material provided by each of the two parents is mixed in the offspring, losing its individual identity.
Quantitative Approach
statistical method for predicting gene outcomes in offspring
Law of segregation
Each genetic trait is produced by a pair of alleles which separate during reproduction
The Law of Independent Assortment
Each factor (gene) is distributed randomly and separately from the genes for other characteristics.
homozygous at two loci
A plant with the genotype AABbcc is
Allele
An alternative version of a gene
Four
GgTt pea plants can produce _____ type(s) of gametes.
One
Ggtt plant can produce _____ type(s) of gametes.
1/16
Two organisms with genotype AaBbCcDdEE mate. These loci are all independent. What fraction of the offspring will have the same genotype as the parents?
Dominant
You cross a true-breeding red-flowered snapdragon with a true-breeding white-flowered one. All of the F1 are pink. What does this say about the alleles for the parental traits? Red is incompletely _________.
Epistasis
A type of gene interaction in which one gene alters the phenotypic effects of another gene that is independently inherited.
Chorionic villus
is invasive and allows the chromosomes of the fetus to be examined faster
Amniocentesis
is invasive and allows the chromosomes of the fetus to be examined slower
Pleiotropy
The ability of a single gene to have multiple effects.
Carrier
In genetics, an individual who is heterozygous at a given genetic locus, with one normal allele and one recessive allele.
Carrier
The heterozygote is phenotypically dominant for the character determined by the gene but can pass on the recessive allele to offspring.
Consanguinity
refers to the property of being from the same kinship as another person. In that respect, it is the quality of being descended from the same ancestor as another person.
Amniocentesis
A technique of prenatal diagnosis in which amniotic fluid, obtained by aspiration from a needle inserted into the uterus, is analyzed to detect certain genetic and congenital defects in the fetus.
Co-dominance
Red and white flowers is an example of
Incomplete dominance
Pinks flowers is an example of
Fetoscopy
an endoscopic procedure during pregnancy to allow access to the fetus, the amniotic cavity, the umbilical cord, and the fetal side of the placenta.
1/4
Rhesus factor is inherited in a complete dominance pattern where R is positive and r is negative. Predict the probabilities of all of the following crosses with known blood types. AB positive (IA IB, R, r) crossed to O negative (i i, r r)
Dominant
If an organism heterozygous for both genes is crossed to another heterozygote, what phetotype do you expect to be the most abundant in the F1 generation if red is dominant to white and tall is dominant to dwarf.
Complete dominance
AA and Aa have the same pheotype
Incomplete dominance
AA, Aa, and aa all have different phenotypes
Multiple Alleles
A1, A2, and A3 influence the same trait
Pleiotropy
AA and Aa influence different organ systems in the organism
Epistasis
The first gene controls the expression of the second gene
12/16
In corn, kernel color is affected by 2 unlinked genes. One gene pair determines whether or not pigment precursors are synthesized. No pigment (white) is dominant to pigment. The second gene pair determines the color of pigment only when precursors are made. Purple is dominant to yellow. Two white seeded plants are crossed (both plants heterozygous at both gene pairs). What are the expected white phenotype ratios in the offspring?
3/16
In corn, kernel color is affected by 2 unlinked genes. One gene pair determines whether or not pigment precursors are synthesized. No pigment (white) is dominant to pigment. The second gene pair determines the color of pigment only when precursors are made. Purple is dominant to yellow. Two white seeded plants are crossed (both plants heterozygous at both gene pairs). What are the expected purple phenotype ratios in the offspring?
1/16
In corn, kernel color is affected by 2 unlinked genes. One gene pair determines whether or not pigment precursors are synthesized. No pigment (white) is dominant to pigment. The second gene pair determines the color of pigment only when precursors are made. Purple is dominant to yellow. Two white seeded plants are crossed (both plants heterozygous at both gene pairs). What are the expected yellow phenotype ratios in the offspring?
12/16
2 genes interact to determine seed coat color in a variety of bush beans. At the first gene locus, black is the dominant allele and masks color at the second gene locus. If black color is absent at the first gene locus, then brown is dominant to white at the second gene locus.
Perform a cross between a homozygous dominant (for both genes) black seeded bush bean with a truebreeding white one, indicate the genotype and phenotype of the F1 offspring. Perform a second cross between 2 F1 progeny, listing the genotypes and phenotypes (along with their ratios) of the F2 progeny. What is the ratio of the black phetotypes in F2?
3/16
2 genes interact to determine seed coat color in a variety of bush beans. At the first gene locus, black is the dominant allele and masks color at the second gene locus. If black color is absent at the first gene locus, then brown is dominant to white at the second gene locus.
Perform a cross between a homozygous dominant (for both genes) black seeded bush bean with a truebreeding white one, indicate the genotype and phenotype of the F1 offspring. Perform a second cross between 2 F1 progeny, listing the genotypes and phenotypes (along with their ratios) of the F2 progeny. What is the ratio of the brown phetotypes in F2?
1/16
2 genes interact to determine seed coat color in a variety of bush beans. At the first gene locus, black is the dominant allele and masks color at the second gene locus. If black color is absent at the first gene locus, then brown is dominant to white at the second gene locus.
Perform a cross between a homozygous dominant (for both genes) black seeded bush bean with a truebreeding white one, indicate the genotype and phenotype of the F1 offspring. Perform a second cross between 2 F1 progeny, listing the genotypes and phenotypes (along with their ratios) of the F2 progeny. What is the ratio of the white phetotypes in F2?
Multifactorial
Height is influenced by genetic as well as nongenetic (environmental) factors. Which term best explains the inheritance pattern of this trait?
Polygenic
What term refers to the situation where a single phenotypic trait is determined by the effects of alleles of 2 or more genes?
Chorionic villus
Genetic tests from cells acquired can be performed in several hours
Amniocentesis
requires a few days to a few weeks
Chorionic villus
invasive, but can be performed early in the pregnancy
1/1
In peas, inflated (I) is dominant to constricted (i). What ratio of the offspring seeds will be inflated from the I I X i i cross?
1/2
In peas, inflated (I) is dominant to constricted (i). What ratio of the offspring seeds will be inflated from the I i X i i cross?
3/4
In peas, inflated (I) is dominant to constricted (i). What ratio of the offspring seeds will be inflated from the I i X I i cross?
Gg X gg
According to Mendel, gray seed color is dominant to white seed color. In the following table, use the data presented to determine the genotypes of the parents.

Parents' phenotype Offspring phenotypes
gray white
a) gray x white 82 78
b) gray x gray 118 39
c) white x white 0 50
d) gray x white 74 0
e) gray x gray 90 0

a) parent =
Gg X Gg
According to Mendel, gray seed color is dominant to white seed color. In the following table, use the data presented to determine the genotypes of the parents.

Parents' phenotype Offspring phenotypes
gray white
a) gray x white 82 78
b) gray x gray 118 39
c) white x white 0 50
d) gray x white 74 0
e) gray x gray 90 0

b) parent =
gg X gg
According to Mendel, gray seed color is dominant to white seed color. In the following table, use the data presented to determine the genotypes of the parents.

Parents' phenotype Offspring phenotypes
gray white
a) gray x white 82 78
b) gray x gray 118 39
c) white x white 0 50
d) gray x white 74 0
e) gray x gray 90 0

c) parent =
GG X gg
According to Mendel, gray seed color is dominant to white seed color. In the following table, use the data presented to determine the genotypes of the parents.

Parents' phenotype Offspring phenotypes
gray white
a) gray x white 82 78
b) gray x gray 118 39
c) white x white 0 50
d) gray x white 74 0
e) gray x gray 90 0

d) parent =
Carrier
has mutation but does not have phenotypic expression
GG X ( GG or Gg )
According to Mendel, gray seed color is dominant to white seed color. In the following table, use the data presented to determine the genotypes of the parents.

Parents' phenotype Offspring phenotypes
gray white
a) gray x white 82 78
b) gray x gray 118 39
c) white x white 0 50
d) gray x white 74 0
e) gray x gray 90 0

e) parent =
Dominant
If a trait manifests itself in each generation it is Autosomal ________
Recessive
If a trait does not manifest itself in each generation in each generation it is Autosomal _______
24/1
Silky feathers in fowl are caused by a gene whose effect is recessive to that for normal feathers. If 96 birds were raised from a cross between heterozygous parents, how many would you expect to have silky feathers?
72/1
Silky feathers in fowl are caused by a gene whose effect is recessive to that for normal feathers. If 96 birds were raised from a cross between heterozygous parents, how many would you expect to have normal feathers?
1/1
brown eyes (B) are dominant to red eyes (b) in fruit flies
A brown-eyed fly lands on your banana. You are curious to know its genotype. You catch this fly and put it in a vial with a red-eyed fly. What ratio of brown-eyed offspring will you find in the vial if the brown-eyed fly was homozygous?
1/2
brown eyes (B) are dominant to red eyes (b) in fruit flies
A brown-eyed fly lands on your banana. You are curious to know its genotype. You catch this fly and put it in a vial with a red-eyed fly. What ratio of red-eyed offspring would you see among the offspring if the brown-eyed fly was heterozygous?
1/2
brown eyes (B) are dominant to red eyes (b) in fruit flies
A brown-eyed fly lands on your banana. You are curious to know its genotype. You catch this fly and put it in a vial with a red-eyed fly. What ratio of brown-eyed offspring would you see among the offspring if the brown-eyed fly was heterozygous?
1/4
In cats, curled ears (E) are dominant to normal ears (e). Black (B) coat color is dominant to normal coat color (b). A normal eared and coat color cat is crossed with a heterozygous curled ear, heterozygous black coat cat. Indicate the ratio of all genotypes produced in the F1 generation.
1/4
In cats, curled ears (E) are dominant to normal ears (e). Black (B) coat color is dominant to normal coat color (b). A normal eared and coat color cat is crossed with a heterozygous curled ear, heterozygous black coat cat. Indicate the ratio of all phenotypes produced in the F1 generation.
9/16
In Drosophila melanogaster, one gene pair affects wing size. Normal wings are dominant over vestigial wings. Another independently assorting gene pair affects body color. Normal tan color body is dominant to ebony body color. A cross is made between a true-breeding fly normal for wings and body color and a fly with vestigial wings and ebony body color. All F1 progeny are normal in appearance. The F1 offspring are crossed to themselves and 512 F2 are produced. In the F2, what ratio of the 512 would you expect to fit into the normal wings with a normal tan body class?
3/16
In Drosophila melanogaster, one gene pair affects wing size. Normal wings are dominant over vestigial wings. Another independently assorting gene pair affects body color. Normal tan color body is dominant to ebony body color. A cross is made between a true-breeding fly normal for wings and body color and a fly with vestigial wings and ebony body color. All F1 progeny are normal in appearance. The F1 offspring are crossed to themselves and 512 F2 are produced. In the F2, what ratio of the 512 would you expect to fit into the vestigial wings, normal tan body class?
3/16
In Drosophila melanogaster, one gene pair affects wing size. Normal wings are dominant over vestigial wings. Another independently assorting gene pair affects body color. Normal tan color body is dominant to ebony body color. A cross is made between a true-breeding fly normal for wings and body color and a fly with vestigial wings and ebony body color. All F1 progeny are normal in appearance. The F1 offspring are crossed to themselves and 512 F2 are produced. In the F2, how many of the 512 would you expect to fit into the normal wings, ebony body class?
1/16
In Drosophila melanogaster, one gene pair affects wing size. Normal wings are dominant over vestigial wings. Another independently assorting gene pair affects body color. Normal tan color body is dominant to ebony body color. A cross is made between a true-breeding fly normal for wings and body color and a fly with vestigial wings and ebony body color. All F1 progeny are normal in appearance. The F1 offspring are crossed to themselves and 512 F2 are produced. In the F2, how many of the 512 would you expect to fit into the vestigial wings, ebony body class?
Heterozygous
In peas, purple flowers are completely dominant to white flowers. What are the genotypes of the parents in the following cross?
purple X purple: produce purple and white flowers.
The purple flowers were purple ________?
Homozygous
In peas, purple flowers are completely dominant to white flowers. What are the genotypes of the parents in the following cross?
purple X white: produce only purple flowers.
The white and purple parent flowers are _____.
Heterozygous
In peas, purple flowers are completely dominant to white flowers. What are the genotypes of the parents in the following cross?
purple X white: produce purple and white flowers. The purple flower parent is? ________
Homozygous
In peas, purple flowers are completely dominant to white flowers. What are the genotypes of the parents in the following cross?
purple X white: produce purple and white flowers. The white flower parent is? ________
3/8
In peas, Tall (T) is dominant to dwarf (t)
Yellow (Y) is dominant to green (y)
Round (R) is dominant to wrinkled (r)
A plant with this genotype, TT Yy Rr, is crossed to one with this genotype, Tt Yy rr.
What percent of the offspring from this cross will have the following phenotype:
tall, yellow, round
1/8
In peas, Tall (T) is dominant to dwarf (t)
Yellow (Y) is dominant to green (y)
Round (R) is dominant to wrinkled (r)
A plant with this genotype, TT Yy Rr, is crossed to one with this genotype, Tt Yy rr.
What percent of the offspring from this cross will have the following phenotype:
tall, green, round
1/8
In peas, Tall (T) is dominant to dwarf (t)
Yellow (Y) is dominant to green (y)
Round (R) is dominant to wrinkled (r)
A plant with this genotype, TT Yy Rr, is crossed to one with this genotype, Tt Yy rr.
What percent of the offspring from this cross will have the following phenotype:
tall, green, wrinkled
0/1
In peas, Tall (T) is dominant to dwarf (t)
Yellow (Y) is dominant to green (y)
Round (R) is dominant to wrinkled (r)
A plant with this genotype, TT Yy Rr, is crossed to one with this genotype, Tt Yy rr.
What percent of the offspring from this cross will have the following phenotype:
dwarf, green, round
1/32
5 different traits were studied in one species of peas. Those traits are as follows:
black stem (R) is dominant to red stem (r), tall plant (D) is dominant to dwarf plant (d), inflated pods (C) are dominant to constricted pods (c), round peas (O) are dominant to oval peas (o), and purple flowers (W) are dominant to white flowers (w). The following cross was made in the F1 generation:
Rr Dd cc Oo Ww X Rr dd Cc oo ww

What is the probability of producing the following genotype, Rr Dd cc Oo ww, from these parents (use the multiplication rule)?
3/64
5 different traits were studied in one species of peas. Those traits are as follows:
black stem (R) is dominant to red stem (r), tall plant (D) is dominant to dwarf plant (d), inflated pods (C) are dominant to constricted pods (c), round peas (O) are dominant to oval peas (o), and purple flowers (W) are dominant to white flowers (w). The following cross was made in the F1 generation:
Rr Dd cc Oo Ww X Rr dd Cc oo ww

What is the probability of obtaining a black stem, dwarf, constricted, oval, purple phenotype from this cross (use the multiplication and sum rules)?
1/1
In four-o'clock flowers, red flower color is incompletely dominant to white flower color, with pink being a heterozygous condition. What ratio of red would you expect among the offspring of the following cross?
a) red X red
1/2
In four-o'clock flowers, red flower color is incompletely dominant to white flower color, with pink being a heterozygous condition. What ratio of red would you expect among the offspring of the following cross?

red X pink
1/2
In four-o'clock flowers, red flower color is incompletely dominant to white flower color, with pink being a heterozygous condition. What ratio of pink would you expect among the offspring of the following cross?

white X pink
1/4
In four-o'clock flowers, red flower color is incompletely dominant to white flower color, with pink being a heterozygous condition. What ratio of white would you expect among the offspring of the following cross?
pink X pink
1/2
In four-o'clock flowers, red flower color is incompletely dominant to white flower color, with pink being a heterozygous condition. What ratio of pink would you expect among the offspring of the following cross?
pink X pink
1/4
In four-o'clock flowers, red flower color is incompletely dominant to white flower color, with pink being a heterozygous condition. What ratio of red would you expect among the offspring of the following cross?
pink X pink
3/8
In peas, Tall (T) is dominant to dwarf (t)
Yellow (Y) is dominant to green (y)
Round (R) is dominant to wrinkled (r)
A plant with this genotype, TT Yy Rr, is crossed to one with this genotype, Tt Yy rr.
What percent of the offspring from this cross will have the following phenotype:
tall, yellow, round
1/8
In peas, Tall (T) is dominant to dwarf (t)
Yellow (Y) is dominant to green (y)
Round (R) is dominant to wrinkled (r)
A plant with this genotype, TT Yy Rr, is crossed to one with this genotype, Tt Yy rr.
What percent of the offspring from this cross will have the following phenotype:

tall, green, round
1/8
In peas, Tall (T) is dominant to dwarf (t)
Yellow (Y) is dominant to green (y)
Round (R) is dominant to wrinkled (r)
A plant with this genotype, TT Yy Rr, is crossed to one with this genotype, Tt Yy rr.
What percent of the offspring from this cross will have the following phenotype:

tall, green, wrinkled
0/1
In peas, Tall (T) is dominant to dwarf (t)
Yellow (Y) is dominant to green (y)
Round (R) is dominant to wrinkled (r)
A plant with this genotype, TT Yy Rr, is crossed to one with this genotype, Tt Yy rr.
What percent of the offspring from this cross will have the following phenotype:

dwarf, green, round
3/64
5 different traits were studied in one species of peas. Those traits are as follows:
black stem (R) is dominant to red stem (r), tall plant (D) is dominant to dwarf plant (d), inflated pods (C) are dominant to constricted pods (c), round peas (O) are dominant to oval peas (o), and purple flowers (W) are dominant to white flowers (w). The following cross was made in the F1 generation:
Rr Dd cc Oo Ww X Rr dd Cc oo ww

What is the probability of obtaining a black stem, dwarf, constricted, oval, purple phenotype from this cross (use the multiplication and sum rules)?
1/32
5 different traits were studied in one species of peas. Those traits are as follows:
black stem (R) is dominant to red stem (r), tall plant (D) is dominant to dwarf plant (d), inflated pods (C) are dominant to constricted pods (c), round peas (O) are dominant to oval peas (o), and purple flowers (W) are dominant to white flowers (w). The following cross was made in the F1 generation:
Rr Dd cc Oo Ww X Rr dd Cc oo ww
What is the probability of producing the following genotype, Rr Dd cc Oo ww, from these parents (use the multiplication rule)?
1/1
In four-o'clock flowers, red flower color is incompletely dominant to white flower color, with pink being a heterozygous condition. What ratios would you expect among the offspring of the following crosses?
red X red
1/2
In four-o'clock flowers, red flower color is incompletely dominant to white flower color, with pink being a heterozygous condition. What ratios would you expect among the offspring of the following crosses?

red X pink
1/2
In four-o'clock flowers, red flower color is incompletely dominant to white flower color, with pink being a heterozygous condition. What ratios would you expect among the offspring of the following crosses?

white X pink
1/2
In four-o'clock flowers, red flower color is incompletely dominant to white flower color, with pink being a heterozygous condition. What ratios of pink would you expect among the offspring of the following crosses?

pink X pink
1/4
In four-o'clock flowers, red flower color is incompletely dominant to white flower color, with pink being a heterozygous condition. What ratios of red would you expect among the offspring of the following crosses?

pink X pink
1/4
In four-o'clock flowers, red flower color is incompletely dominant to white flower color, with pink being a heterozygous condition. What ratios of white would you expect among the offspring of the following crosses?

pink X pink
N
Blood typing can be used to exclude the paternity of a child. One gene, MN, is inherited in a codominant pattern (both M and N are dominant and appear as proteins on the blood cell surface). If a woman with N type blood gives birth to a baby with MN type blood, what type of blood would the father have to have in order to be excluded as the parent of this child?
1/1
Multiple Alleles, problem A
In guinea pigs, one of the genes that affect coat color has a number of different alleles. Homozygous combinations produce the following phenotypes:
CbCb = black
CsCs = sepia
CcCc = cream
CaCa = albino
Assuming that these alleles show complete dominance in this order, Cb>Cs>Cc>Ca, what is the expected ratio of black offspring in the following cross?
homozygous black X homozygous sepia
1/1
Multiple Alleles, problem A
In guinea pigs, one of the genes that affect coat color has a number of different alleles. Homozygous combinations produce the following phenotypes:
CbCb = black
CsCs = sepia
CcCc = cream
CaCa = albino
Assuming that these alleles show complete dominance in this order, Cb>Cs>Cc>Ca, what is the expected ration of sepia offspring in the following cross?

homozygous sepia X homozygous cream
1/1
Multiple Alleles, problem A
In guinea pigs, one of the genes that affect coat color has a number of different alleles. Homozygous combinations produce the following phenotypes:
CbCb = black
CsCs = sepia
CcCc = cream
CaCa = albino
Assuming that these alleles show complete dominance in this order, Cb>Cs>Cc>Ca, what is the expected ration of cream offspring in the following cross?

homozygous sepia X homozygous cream
3/4
Multiple Alleles, problem A
In guinea pigs, one of the genes that affect coat color has a number of different alleles. Homozygous combinations produce the following phenotypes:
CbCb = black
CsCs = sepia
CcCc = cream
CaCa = albino
Assuming that these alleles show complete dominance in this order, Cb>Cs>Cc>Ca, what are the expected phenotypes of offspring of the following crosses?

a self-cross of the progeny of homozygous black X homozygous sepia

What ratio black?
1/4
Multiple Alleles, problem A
In guinea pigs, one of the genes that affect coat color has a number of different alleles. Homozygous combinations produce the following phenotypes:
CbCb = black
CsCs = sepia
CcCc = cream
CaCa = albino
Assuming that these alleles show complete dominance in this order, Cb>Cs>Cc>Ca, what are the expected phenotypes of offspring of the following crosses?

a self-cross of the progeny of homozygous black X homozygous sepia

What ratio sepia?
3/4
Multiple Alleles, problem A
In guinea pigs, one of the genes that affect coat color has a number of different alleles. Homozygous combinations produce the following phenotypes:
CbCb = black
CsCs = sepia
CcCc = cream
CaCa = albino
Assuming that these alleles show complete dominance in this order, Cb>Cs>Cc>Ca, what are the expected phenotypes of offspring of the following crosses?

a self-cross of the progeny of homozygous sepia X homozygous cream

What is the ratio of sepia?
1/4
Multiple Alleles, problem A
In guinea pigs, one of the genes that affect coat color has a number of different alleles. Homozygous combinations produce the following phenotypes:
CbCb = black
CsCs = sepia
CcCc = cream
CaCa = albino
Assuming that these alleles show complete dominance in this order, Cb>Cs>Cc>Ca, what are the expected phenotypes of offspring of the following crosses?

a self-cross of the progeny of homozygous sepia X homozygous cream

What is the ratio of cream?
3/4
Multiple Alleles, problem A
In guinea pigs, one of the genes that affect coat color has a number of different alleles. Homozygous combinations produce the following phenotypes:
CbCb = black
CsCs = sepia
CcCc = cream
CaCa = albino
Assuming that these alleles show complete dominance in this order, Cb>Cs>Cc>Ca, what are the expected phenotypes of offspring of the following crosses?

a self-cross of the progeny of homozygous black X homozygous cream

what is the ratio of black?
1/4
Multiple Alleles, problem A
In guinea pigs, one of the genes that affect coat color has a number of different alleles. Homozygous combinations produce the following phenotypes:
CbCb = black
CsCs = sepia
CcCc = cream
CaCa = albino
Assuming that these alleles show complete dominance in this order, Cb>Cs>Cc>Ca, what are the expected phenotypes of offspring of the following crosses?

a self-cross of the progeny of homozygous black X homozygous cream

what is the ratio of cream?
ash red, brown X ash red, brown OR ash red, white
In pigeons, feather color is influenced by a gene consisting of multiple alleles, the alleles show dominance in the following order: ash red > blue > brown > white. Determine the genotypes of the parents of the following crosses:
ash red X ash red produces ash red and brown
blue, white X brown, white
In pigeons, feather color is influenced by a gene consisting of multiple alleles, the alleles show dominance in the following order: ash red > blue > brown > white. Determine the genotypes of the parents of the following crosses:
blue X brown produces blue, brown, and white
ash red, blue X brown, brown OR brown, white
In pigeons, feather color is influenced by a gene consisting of multiple alleles, the alleles show dominance in the following order: ash red > blue > brown > white. Determine the genotypes of the parents of the following crosses:

ash red X brown produces ash red and blue
brown, white X brown, white
In pigeons, feather color is influenced by a gene consisting of multiple alleles, the alleles show dominance in the following order: ash red > blue > brown > white. Determine the genotypes of the parents of the following crosses:

brown X brown produces brown and white
12/16
In corn, kernel color is affected by 2 unlinked genes. One gene pair determines whether or not pigment precursors are synthesized. No pigment (white) is dominant to pigment. The second gene pair determines the color of pigment only when precursors are made. Purple is dominant to yellow. Two white seeded plants are crossed (both plants heterozygous at both gene pairs). What are the expected white ratio phenotypes in the offspring?
1/16
In corn, kernel color is affected by 2 unlinked genes. One gene pair determines whether or not pigment precursors are synthesized. No pigment (white) is dominant to pigment. The second gene pair determines the color of pigment only when precursors are made. Purple is dominant to yellow. Two white seeded plants are crossed (both plants heterozygous at both gene pairs). What are the expected yellow ratio phenotypes in the offspring?
3/16
In corn, kernel color is affected by 2 unlinked genes. One gene pair determines whether or not pigment precursors are synthesized. No pigment (white) is dominant to pigment. The second gene pair determines the color of pigment only when precursors are made. Purple is dominant to yellow. Two white seeded plants are crossed (both plants heterozygous at both gene pairs). What are the expected purple ratio phenotypes in the offspring?
12/16
2 genes interact to determine seed coat color in a variety of bush beans. At the first gene locus, black is the dominant allele and masks color at the second gene locus. If black color is absent at the first gene locus, then brown is dominant to white at the second gene locus.
Perform a cross between a homozygous dominant (for both genes) black seeded bush bean with a truebreeding white one, indicate the genotype and phenotype of the F1 offspring. Perform a second cross between 2 F1 progeny, listing the genotypes and phenotypes (along with their ratios) of the F2 progeny.

What is the ratio of black?
3/16
2 genes interact to determine seed coat color in a variety of bush beans. At the first gene locus, black is the dominant allele and masks color at the second gene locus. If black color is absent at the first gene locus, then brown is dominant to white at the second gene locus.
Perform a cross between a homozygous dominant (for both genes) black seeded bush bean with a truebreeding white one, indicate the genotype and phenotype of the F1 offspring. Perform a second cross between 2 F1 progeny, listing the genotypes and phenotypes (along with their ratios) of the F2 progeny.

What is the ratio of brown?
1/16
2 genes interact to determine seed coat color in a variety of bush beans. At the first gene locus, black is the dominant allele and masks color at the second gene locus. If black color is absent at the first gene locus, then brown is dominant to white at the second gene locus.
Perform a cross between a homozygous dominant (for both genes) black seeded bush bean with a truebreeding white one, indicate the genotype and phenotype of the F1 offspring. Perform a second cross between 2 F1 progeny, listing the genotypes and phenotypes (along with their ratios) of the F2 progeny.

What is the ratio of white?
Multifactorial
Height is influenced by genetic as well as nongenetic (environmental) factors. Which term best explains the inheritance pattern of this trait?
Polygenic inheritance
What term refers to the situation where a single phenotypic trait is determined by the effects of alleles of 2 or more genes?
Polygenic inheritance
quantitative characters show a continuum and not just either-or variation
Norm of reaction
explains how genotype is not associated with a single phenotype but rather with a range of phenotypic possibilities
Pedigree Analysis
allows us to investigate the family history of a particular trait
Pedigree Analysis
determine if a heritable trait is dominant or recessive
Pedigree Analysis
determine the probability that a child will be born with a particular genotype and phenotype
Recessive
Is not associated with the phenotype more often and occur equally in males and females with Inherited Disorders that are ______
Recessively Inherited Disorders
The trait only appears in homozygous recessive individuals
Recessive
homozygous dominant and heterozygous individuals do not show the trait of with Inherited Disorders that are ______
Recessive
heterozygous individuals are called carriers because they carry one copy of the mutation but do not show a mutant trait from with Inherited Disorders that are ______
Recessive
2 carrier parents have a 25% probability of having an affected child with Inherited Disorders that are ______
Recessive
if both parents are affected, then there is a 100% probability that their children will be affected with Inherited Disorders that are ______
Recessive
some _________ Inherited disorder diseases are found more often in specific human populations
Recessive
with _________ Inherited disorders consanguineous marriages lead to its preponderance in some population but not in others
Recessive
sickle cell anemia is an example of _________ Inherited disorder in African-Americans
Recessive
cystic fibrosis is an example of __________ Inherited disorder in Caucasians of Northern European descent
Recessive
Tay-Sachs disease is an example of ________ Inherited disorders among the Ashkenazi (Eastern European) Jews.
Dominant
these _______ inherited disorders occur equally in males and females and are more phenotype associated in offspring
Dominant
With _____ inherited disorders the trait appears in homozygous dominant, but more often in heterozygous individuals
Dominant
homozygous affected individuals are more severely affected than heterozygous affected individuals in ________ inherited disorders
Dominant
In ________ inherited disorders the trait appears in every generation, and it is easy to detect from which parent the affected offspring received the trait
Dominant
In _________ inherited disorders a heterozygous affected parent has a 50% chance of having an affected child
Dominant
In _________ Inherited disorders a homozygous affected parent has a 100% chance of having an affected child
Dominant
In _________ inherited disorders 2 heterozygous parents have a 25% chance of having unaffected offspring
Dominant
In ________ Inherited disorders associated with the trait that is more commonly more phenotypic if both parents are affected, they can have unaffected offspring if the parents are heterozygous.
Dominant
In _______ inherited disorders the unaffected individuals do not pass on the mutation and cannot have affected children
Dominant
in rare instances of _______ inherited disorders, spontaneous mutations can occur where an affected child does not have affected parents
Dominant
_______ inherited disorder traits are not usually found in higher incidences in one human population compared to another
Recessive
_______ inherited disorder traits are usually found in higher incidences in one human population compared to another
Multifactorial
Because so little is known about the susceptibility genes of _________ inherited disorders, our best prevention is to control our environmental risk factors
Probability rules
Multiplication rule is used to determine overall probability
Multifactorial
With _______ inherited disorders heterozygous testing for recessive disorders can determine who is at greater risk of having an affected child.
Multifactorial
With ______ inherited disorders carriers show no symptoms of disease, but there is also the risk of stigmatizing those who are unaffected carriers because they have the potential of having affected children.
Amniocentesis
Genetic and Chemical tests are performed on the collected cells.
Amniocentesis
performed at 14-16 weeks of pregnancy cells extracted from the amniotic fluid
Amniocentesis
so few cells are collected that the cells must be grown in a Petri dish for 2 weeks until enough have divided for tests to be performed
Chorionic Villus
performed at 8-19 weeks of pregnancy
Chorionic Villus
enough tissue is taken from the placenta collected that tests can be done immediately
Fetoscopy
fiber optic scope is used to view internal organs
Newborn Screening
Tests performed on the baby's blood 24-48 hours after birth.
Meiosis I
crossing over occurs during prophase
Meiosis I
separates homologous chromosomes during anaphase
Meiosis I
creates 2 non homologous daughter cells through cytokinesis
Meiosis II
no crossing over because no homologous pairs
Meiosis II
separates chromatids during anaphase
Meiosis II
creates a final number of 4 cells during cytokinesis
Meiosis I
At the end of cytokinesis of ________, both of the resulting daughter cells are haploid (definitely not diploid).
Meiosis I
After cytokinesis of ________, the chromosomes are still double-stranded. The homologous pairs have already been separated
Meiosis I
For _________In humans, the original cell had 23 pairs of chromosomes, and the cells at the end of __________ have 23 chromosomes (not pairs), each of which still have two sister chromatids.
Meiosis II
At the end of cytokinesis for________, there are a total of four daughter cells, each of which is diploid.
Meiosis II
At the end of cytokinesis for ________, the sister chromatids have separated from each other and the gametes each have 23 chromosomes, each of which has one chromatid.
heterozygous
If there is an autosomal recessive allele and the child has the allele phenoptype but the parents do not-- what would the parents be?
homozygous recessive
If there is an autosomal recessive allele and the child has the allele phenoptype but the parents do not-- what would the child be?
Chromosomal theory of inheritance
Genes reside at specific locations on chromosomes
Chromosomal theory of inheritance
Chromosomes segregate during meiosis
Chromosomal theory of inheritance
Genes exist in pairs in diploid cells
Chromosomal theory of inheritance
Fertilization restores 2 copies of each gene in diploid organisms
hemizygous
a person has one copy of the chromosome and it is on the x or the y chromosome.
y linked inheritance
If the father has it, all of the sons will have it
y linked inheritance
If the father has it, none of the daughters will have it.
y linked inheritance
If the grandfather had it, his daughters would not have it, and the grandfather's daughters sons will not have it.
y linked inheritance
If the grandfather had it, his sons will all l have it, and his grandsons will all have it
Dominant
If it is ________ X linked allele The daughter that is homozygous _______would have the allele and be phenotypic. In this case she should also have the allele is she were heterozygous as well.
Dominant
If it is _______ X linked allele The daughter that is heterozygous would have a phenotype of the ________ X linked allele, but would carry an allele that is not associated with the X linked allele as well.
Recessive
If it is ______ X linked allele The daughter that is heterozygous would be a carrier of the allele but not be phenotypic.
Dominant
If it is ________X linked allele The daughter that is homozygous recessive would be unaffected and would not be a carrier.
Recessive
If it is _______X linked allele The daughter that is homozygous dominant would be unaffected and would not be a carrier.
Recessive
If it is _______X linked allele The daughter that is homozygous recessive would have the phenotype of the allele.
Recessive
If it is ______X linked allele The daughter that is heterozygous would be unaffected and would be a carrier.
Dominant
If it is a _______X linked allele. The son that is heterozygous would be phenotypic.
Dominant
If it is a _________X linked allele. The son that inherited the recessive allele would not be phenotypic.
Males have only 1 copy of the X chromosome
Males are more often affected by X-linked recessive traits than females because
Recessive
A homozygous ________X-linked allele is rare.
1
Hemophilia is a X linked recessive. A female is a carrier. She mates with a male who has normal blood clotting. A homozygous dominant female would be non-phenotype, non carrier
1
Hemophilia is a X linked recessive. A female is a carrier. She mates with a male who has normal blood clotting. A heterozygous female would be non-phenotype but carrier
1
Hemophilia is a X linked recessive. A female is a carrier. She mates with a male who has normal blood clotting. A homozygous recessive female is not a possible outcome
1
Hemophilia is a X linked recessive. A female is a carrier. She mates with a male who has normal blood clotting. A homozygous dominant male would not carry it or show it. ultimately the males had a chance of 50% normal, 50% hemophilia chance
1
Hemophilia is a X linked recessive. A female is a carrier. She mates with a male who has normal blood clotting. A homozygous recessive male would carry it and would show it. ultimately the males had a chance of 50% normal, 50% hemophilia chance
XAB, XaB, XAb, Xab
A female with this genotype XAXaBb, will produce which of the following gametes?
1
XR = red eye color
Xr = white eye color
M = normal wing length
m = miniature wing length

What would you get if you crossed a female with red eyes and normal wings and XRxrMm genes with a male with white eyes and normal wings and
XrYMm genes?

Females
1 XRXr MM
2XRXr Mm
1 XRXrmm
1 XrXr MM
2 XrXr Mm
1 XrXrmm
as a whole = --/16, if just males or females --/4

Males
1 XRY MM
2XRY Mm
1 XRY mm
1 XrY MM
2 XrY Mm
1 XrY mm
as a whole = --/16, if just males or females --/4


Females, males
3 red eyed, normal winged
1 red eyed mini winged
3 white eye normal wing
1 white eye mini wing
1
XR = red eye color
Xr = white eye color
M = normal wing length
m = miniature wing length

What would you get if you crossed a female with red eyes and normal wings and XRxrMm genes with a male with white eyes and normal wings and
XrYMm genes?
inactivation
Even though the female has 2 X chromosomes only one of those X genes is expressing proteins. The other x is barred in. This is called x _______. Men and women therefore have the same amount of gene expression.
Cytokinesis, Mitosis
Cell division of somatic cells consists of:
S phase
During this phase the DNA is replicated but is still dispersed as chromatin.
Prophase
Mitotic spindle beings to form
Metaphase
Mitotic spindle fully formed
Chromosome
During anaphase, the sister chromatids that are separated are now called
Motor proteins
Walk the daughter chromosomes along the spindle microtubules
microtubules
At the site of the cleavage furrow _______ contracts
vesicles
In plant cells cytokinesis begins with the formation of:
plate
In plant cells when vesicles fuse they form a ____
parental cell wall
The plant cell plate's contents join the _________.
plant
The ______ cells plate's contents join the parental cell wall.
plate's contents
In plants what joins the parental cell wall?
Prometaphase
Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores during _____.
homologous
During prophase a _______ pair of chromosomes consists of 2 chromosomes and 4 chromatids.
yes
Consider an animal cell in which motor proteins in the kinetochores normally pull the chromosomes along the kinetochore microtubules during mitosis.

Suppose, however, that during metaphase, this cell was treated with an inhibitor that blocks the function of the motor proteins in the kinetochore, but allows the kinetochore to remain attached to the spindle. The inhibitor has no effect on any other mitotic process, including the function of the nonkinetochore microtubules.
If the animal cell has been treated with the inhibitor:

Will this cell elongate during mitosis? (yes or no?)
yes
Consider an animal cell in which motor proteins in the kinetochores normally pull the chromosomes along the kinetochore microtubules during mitosis.

Suppose, however, that during metaphase, this cell was treated with an inhibitor that blocks the function of the motor proteins in the kinetochore, but allows the kinetochore to remain attached to the spindle. The inhibitor has no effect on any other mitotic process, including the function of the nonkinetochore microtubules.
If the animal cell has been treated with the inhibitor:
Will the sister chromatids separate from each other? (yes or no?)
no
Consider an animal cell in which motor proteins in the kinetochores normally pull the chromosomes along the kinetochore microtubules during mitosis.

Suppose, however, that during metaphase, this cell was treated with an inhibitor that blocks the function of the motor proteins in the kinetochore, but allows the kinetochore to remain attached to the spindle. The inhibitor has no effect on any other mitotic process, including the function of the nonkinetochore microtubules.
If the animal cell has been treated with the inhibitor:
Will the chromosomes move to the poles of the cell? (yes or no?)
Meiosis II
_____ enables each parent to contribute one set of chromosomes-- half the total-- to each diploid offspring.
Interphase
During the _________ prior to meiosis, chromosomes replicate.
Meiosis I
During the interphase prior to _______, chromosomes replicate, homologous chromosomes pair up, and each pair separates, producing two haploid cells with their sister chromatids still joined.
homologous chromosomes
During the interphase prior to meiosis, chromosomes replicate. Unlike mitosis, where each chromosome is on its own, in meiosis I __________ pair up.
Haploid
in meiosis I homologous chromosomes pair up, and each pair separates, producing two _______cells with their sister chromatids still joined.
Meiosis II
In _____ sister chromatids separate and four haploid cells are formed. Note that each has half the chromosomes of the parent cell. These cells differ genetically from each other and from the cells of the parents.
Diploid
The sporophyte is the _____, multicellular stage of the plant that produces haploid spores by meiosis.
Sporophyte
In alternation of generations, the diploid stage of a plant that follows fertilization is the _____.
Synapsis
Which of the following occurs during meiosis but not during mitosis?
Crossing over
the exchange of homologous portions of nonsister chromatids
Meiosis
Genetic variation occurs when chromosomes are shuffled in _____ and fertilization
linked genes
Genes located close enough together on a chromosome that they tend to be inherited together.
genetic recombination
General term for the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
Recombinant
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the parents; also refers to the phenotype itself.
nondisjunction
An error in meiosis or mitosis in which members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to separate properly from each other.
aneuploidy
A chromosomal aberration in which one or more chromosomes are present in extra copies or are deficient in number.
monosomic
Referring to a cell that has only one copy of a particular chromosome instead of the normal two.
trisomic
Referring to a diploid cell that has three copies of a particular chromosome instead of the normal two.
deletion
(1) A deficiency in a chromosome resulting from the loss of a fragment through breakage. (2) A mutational loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene.
duplication
An aberration in chromosome structure due to fusion with a fragment from a homologous chromosome, such that a portion of a chromosome is duplicated.
inversion
An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from reattachment of a chromosomal fragment in a reverse orientation to the chromosome from which it originated.
translocation
(1) An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from attachment of a chromosomal fragment to a nonhomologous chromosome.
Down syndrome
A human genetic disease caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21; characterized by mental retardation and heart and respiratory defects.
Genomic imprinting
A phenomenon in which expression of an allele in offspring depends on whether the allele is inherited from the male or female parent. Does not have to be on a X or Y chromosome.
Polyploidy
Failure of cytokinesis to occur after mitosis/meiosis would be ______.
aneuploidy
Failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during anaphase I of meiosis would be _____.
aneuploidy
Failure of DNA to replicate during S phase is ______.
aneuploidy
Failure of sister chromatids to separate during anaphse II of meiosis is _______.
21
The shortest chromosome ____
1
The longest chromosome ____
Paternal
The maternal chromosome is bigger than the _____ chromosome
male
If a Y chromosome is present it is a _______
Chromosomal mutation
deletion
Chromosomal mutation
duplication of a chromosomal piece
Chromosomal mutation
translocation of a chromosomal piece
Chromosomal mutation
inversion of chromosomal piece
deletion
missing chromosome piece
deletion
non-reciprocal translocation leads to
reciprocal translocation
where a piece of chromosome is moved to another place
turner syndrome
Only 1 X chromosome and no Y chromosome
Klinefelter syndrome
the presence of an additional X in a male
Chromosomal abnormality
female with 3 X chromosomes
Genomic imprinting
explains cases in which the gender of the parent from whom an allele is inherited affects the expression of that allele