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Synapses: Synaptic Transmission, EPSP, IPSP, EPP
Terms in this set (33)
A ___ is where a neuron communicates to the next target; it plays a major role in all of the operations of the nervous system.
There are two major types of synapses:
Information flows in one direction from the ___ neuron to the ___ neuron or ___.
presynaptic; postsynaptic; target cell
Electrical synapses are also called ___.
Cells are said to be "___" in electrical synapses, and their channels are called ___.
The flow of ions in electrical synapses is from ___ to ___. ___ synapses are electrical synapses, they have very fast ___.
cytoplasm to cytoplasm; dendrodendritic; transmission
Gap junctions facilitate the coupling of electrical signals from cell to cell, often resulting in ___ behavior.
Each hemichannel, or ___, is made up of six identical protein subunits called ___.
Basic steps of chemical synaptic transmission:
1. ___ synthesis
2. Load neurotransmitter into ___.
3. Vesicles fuse to ___ terminal.
4. NT spills into ___.
5. Binds to ___.
6. Biochemical/electrical response elicited in ___ cell.
7. Removal of ___ from synaptic cleft.
2. synaptic vesicles
4. synaptic cleft
5. postsynaptic receptors
small molecule neurotransmitters
amino acids, monoamines, acetylcholine
excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters (2)
glutamate and aspartate
Inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitters (2)
GABA and glycine
Amine neurotransmitters (5)
Catecholamines NT (3)
Imidazole amine NT
purine NT (2)
Neuropeptide neurotransmitters (4)
___ is an asymmetrical, excitatory chemical synapse that is clustered on the soma and near axon hillock.
Gray's Type I
___ is a symmetrical, inhibitory chemical synapse.
Gray's Type II
Steps in chemical synaptic transmission
1. An action potential invades and ___ the presynaptic terminal.
2. ___ of the presynaptic terminal causes ___ influx to presynaptic terminal through the voltage-gated ___ channels.
3. ___ causes synaptic vesicles to fuse --> ___ --> ___ release.
4. ___ binds to postsynaptic receptor-coupled ion channels --> permeability of the postsynaptic membrane to various ions changed, causing channels to ___ or ___.
5. ___ flows across the membrane. This then leads to ___ or ___ of the postsynaptic membrane.
6. ___ removed from the synaptic cleft.
2. depolarization; Ca2+; Ca2+
3. Ca2+; exocytosis; neurotransmitter
4. neurotransmitter; open; close
5. current; depolarization; hyperpolarization
___ is the process by which vesicles release their contents.
___ are transmitter-gated ion channels.
The ___ is a chemical synapse in the PNS.
What happens to the "extra" released neurotransmitter that does not reach the postsynaptic site? (5)
1. diffusion (away from the synapse
2. reuptake (re-enters presynaptic axons terminal through reuptake receptors)
3. enzymatic destruction (in presynaptic terminal cytosol or synaptic cleft)
(AChe cleaves ACh to inactive site)
5. uptake by glia cells
Types of postsynaptic responses (3)
EPSP (excitatory postsynaptic potential)
IPSP (inhibitory postsynaptic potential)
EPP (end plate potential)
EPSP is associated with an influx of ___ through transmitter-gated ion channels.
IPSP is associated with an influx of ___ through transmitter-gated ion channels.
End plate potentials (EPPs) only take place at the ___.
Integration by a postsynaptic neuron of inputs (EPSPs and IPSPs) from multiple sources.
Summation by a postsynaptic cell of input (EPSPs or IPSPs) from a single source over time.
criteria used for identifying neurotransmitters (4)
1. synthesized in neuron by enzymes
2. released in sufficient quantity to elicit a response in target cell
3. mechanism exists for removal or inactivation for the NT from synaptic cleft
4. should mimic action of endogenously released NT when administered exogenously
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