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Chapters 8-10 Biology Test
Terms in this set (131)
Somatic cells reproduce by
Sex cells reproduce by
Each cell undergoing mitosis divides into two complete new cells that are usually __________ to the cell from which they originated.
Meiosis produces cells that have a haploid number of
Human gametes normally have _____ chromosomes.
Cells spend most of their lifetime in
Cell division is a crucial process in the _______________________ of multi-cellular organisms.
growth and development
"Mitosis" is the biological term for the division of the
nucleus and its content
Daughter cells must be exactly like the parent cells in order to
duplicate its chromosomes
In order to duplicate chromosomes, the chromosomes must be ___________ into two identical sets.
In ________ reproduction, the offspring inherit all of their chromosomes from a single parent.
In ______ reproduction, the offspring receives half of the genetic information from one parent and half from the other.
Chromosomes are made out of
The DNA in just one human cell would be _ feet long if it were stretched out.
________ are small protein molecules associated with DNA and important in DNA packing in the eukaryotic chromosome.
A cell must compact its DNA before
it can move to a new cell
Mature muscle cells _____ divide.
The division of the cytoplasm into two cells is called
In animal cells, the cytokinesis process is known as
In plant cells, a __________ forms to separate the cell into two daughter cells.
When cells begin to divide excessively they grow into ______ and can invade other tissues of the body.
A ______ tumor remains at its origin.
A _________ tumor can spread.
The spread of cancer beyond the original site is called
2) Radiation Therapy
three common treatments for cancer
1) Not smoking
2) Adequate exercise
3) Avoiding overexposure to the sun
4) Eating a high-fiber, low fat diet
some things people can do to reduce the risk of cancer
___________________ produces variation among the offspring.
A typical body cell is called a ________ cell.
A _________ is a display of micrographs of the metaphase chromosomes of a cell, arranged by size, and centromere position
In mammals, males have one _ chromosome and one _ chromosome.
Females have two _ chromosomes.
The remaining chromosomes (found in both male and females) are called
A ________ cell is a pair.
A _______ cell is a single.
There are __________ different combinations from the union of a human egg and sperm that exist.
______________ is an accident of meiosis or mitosis in which a pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fails to separate.
Nondisjunction can occur during
meiosis I or II
Down syndrome is caused by
3 number 21 chromosomes
____________ is the longest-running genetic experiment.
________ is the transmission of traits from one generation to the next.
________ is the scientific study of hereditary
A heritable feature that varies among individuals is called a
Each variant of a character is called a
The offspring of two different purebred varieties are called
Cross-fertilization is referred to to as a genetic
_ represents the parental generation
__ represents the hybrid offspring of the parental generation
__ represents the offspring
___ characteristic is studied in a monohybrid cross
_______ are both dominant and recessive
__________ are two identical alleles for a gene
____________ are two different alleles for a gene
_________________ states that a sperm or egg carries only one allele for each inherited character because the two alleles for a character segregate (separate) from each other during the process of gametes.
Law of Separation
_________ is physical appearance
________ is genetic makeup
___ genes are considered in a dihybrid cross
The ratio for phenotype is
The ratio for genotype is
(PP): 2 (Pp): 1 (pp)
Based on the phenotype one ______ determine the genotype
You can determine the genotype by performing a
A family tree representing the occurrence of heritable traits in parents and off-spring across a number of generations is called a
People with recessive disorders are born to parents who are ________ of the recessive allele for the disorder, so they appear to be normal.
_____________ is when a physician uses a needles to extract about 2 teaspoons of the fluid that bathes the developing fetus.
The ___ blood groups are controlled by three alleles of the same gene.
The ABO blood groups have ____ phenotypes.
Type _ blood is the universal donor
Type __ blood is the universal recipient.
___________ occurs when one gene influences several characters
An example of pleiotropy is
_______________________ is the additive effects of two or more genes on a single phenotype character
______ is affected by the environmental factors of nutrition and exercise.
2) Risk of heart disease
some human characters that are affected by both genes and the environment
1) Red-green Color Blindness
3) A type of muscular dystrophy
some examples of sex-linked genes
Adenine (A) always pairs with
Cytosine (C) always pairs with
four people who made significant discoveries
To visualize DNA think of a ___________ then twist it.
An organism's physical traits are the result of the actions of a variety of
__________ proteins make up the body of an organism.
___ specifies the synthesis of proteins, but does not build up the proteins.
___ builds up proteins.
Two stages of protein synthesis are
transcription and translation
Genetic information in DNA is ___________ into RNA and then __________ into polypeptides which then fold in proteins.
In DNA, the four nucleotides are A, T, C, and G. In RNA, the four nucleotides are A, _, C, G. Thymine has been replaced with
The flow of information from gene to protein is based on a _______ code.
______ are a series of three-base words.
The _______ code is the set of rules that convert a nucleotide sequence to RNA to an amino acid sequence.
three stop codons
___ is the is the triplet code for the START codon.
A ________ is a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA, located at the start of a gene, that is the binding site for RNA polymerase and the place where transcription begins.
During the second phase of transcription, the RNA grows, this is called
In the third phase, a sequence of bases on the DNA template signals the end of the gene, this sequence of bases is called the
_______ are internal noncoding regions of the genes.
_______ are coding regions that are expressed in the genes.
The first RNA used in the sequence is _________ RNA or mRNA.
________ RNA (tRNA) converts the three-letter codon of nucleic acids to the amino acid.
The _________ is on a tRNA molecule, a specific sequence of three nucleotides that is complementary to a codon triplet on mRNA.
Ribosomes have its RNA called _________ RNA (rRNA).
The flow of information in eukaryotic cells goes from the DNA to RNA - this occurs in the cell nucleus and is called
RNA is processed in the
mRNA and tRNA meet at the ribosome and initiate the ___________ process.
The second step of translation is __________ - the polypeptide gets longer as amino acids are added to it.
_____________________ are used to control the translation process.
codons and anticodons
The final step in translation is ___________ - a stop codon stops the process and the ribosome releases the completed polypeptide.
Any change in the nucleotide sequence of a cell's DNA is called a
1) Base substitution
2) Nucleotide deletion
3) Nucleotide insertion
three types of mutations
_________________ may or may not affect the protein's function.
___________________ occurs when a nucleotide is deleted and all the codons from that point on are misread. The resulting polypeptide is likely to be completely nonfunctional.
____________________ occurs when an inserted nucleotide disrupts all codons that follow, most likely producing a nonfunctional polypeptide.
Mutations can occur from random errors but they can also be caused by physical and chemical agents called
1) Not smoking
2) Wearing protective clothing and sunscreen to minimize direct exposure to the sun's UV rays
some things that can help avoid mutagens
seven characteristics all living organisms have
Viruses have some the characteristics of life, but they cannot _________ without the help from other organisms.
Viruses are considered "genes in a ___."
Viruses that attack bacteria are called _____________ or phages, for short.
When viruses infect a bacteria, they enter a reproductive cycle called the _____ cycle.
An alternate route to the lytic cycle is called the _________ cycle.
The ___________ is a viral reproductive cycle resulting in the release of new viruses by lysis (breaking open) of the host cell.
In the _______________ new phages are not produced, and the host cell is not killed or lysed unless the viral genome leaves the chromosome.
1) Scarlet Fever
diseases caused by prophage genes
1) Stunted plant growth
2) Diminished crop yields
problems caused by plant viruses
3) Dirty gardening tools
ways that make it easier for a virus to infect a plant
_________________________ is an example of a plant virus.
tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)
2) Common colds
8) Chicken pox
9) Herpes infection
examples of animal viruses.
Genome of the virus that causes mumps is a single molecule of
Viruses ___ remain dormant for periods of times.
3) Emotional stress
some things that can trigger virus production
A __________ is an RNA virus that reproduces by means of a DNA molecule, the reverse of he usual DNA to RNA flow of genetic information
_______ are small circular RNA molecules that infect plants.
______ are an infectious form of protein that can multiply by converting related proteins into more of them.
People in Texas ______ be concerned with West Nile Virus.
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