Final Exam Review

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According to the theories of biological aging, what is involved in the aging process?
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Terms in this set (108)
molecules or atoms that possess an unpaired electron
-oxygen-free radicals: high fat, food additives, and preservatives contribute by causing harmful chemical reactions. Damages cells irreparably and damages cell membrane
-antioxidants: inhibit formation of free radicals. Foods high in vitamins C, E and beta carotene are high in antioxidants. May lead to slightly longer life and lower rates of heart disease.
Erikson's Integrity vs. Despair-
Integrity- the sense that one has lived a useful life, one must come to terms with:
-who a person is and has been
-how his/her life has been lived
-the opportunities gained and lost
-coming to terms with death
-reminiscence: way of communicating to younger individuals
Despair- failure to achieve ego integrity can lead to hopelessness because of too little time to make meaningful changes before death
Self-acceptance achievement- is reflective and philosophically rooted
Heart- strongest muscle in the body
-weakens with age, exercise strengthens (normal aging)
-viral/bacterial causes= endocarditis
-Arteriosclerosis- thickening/hardening, less elasticity=hypertension
-Atherosclerosis- fatty plaque deposits, increases risk of heart attack and stroke
-skin and subcutaneous tissue thins
-nails thicken
-lentigines- age spots
-loss of elasticity
-osteoporosis continues
-decreased progression with exercise and Ca+ intake
-Arthritis- most common chronic condition of older adults
-Osteoarthritis- age related degeneration of joints
-rheumatoid- inflamed joints
Motor function: reduction in stamina, dexterity and balance, associated with a higher risk of falls. Fine motor control issues
Sexuality: decreases in sexual activity continue in late adulthood
-low testosterone, low sperm count, less tone in erection
-less vaginal atrophy and dryness due to menopause
-medications or pain may affect sexual activity
-stereotypes that portray old age as asexual
Are falls common in the elderly? Explain why.Yes, the elderly have a loss of balance.What is the most common chronic condition seen in older adults?ARTHRITISWhat are the risk factors for elder abuse in the United States?Risk factors: -dementia or mental illness (#1 cause) -mental illness or alcoholism in abuser -financial dependency in abuser or financial stress -caregiver burden and social isolation TYPES OF ABUSE: -physical -social -psychological -financial exploitation -neglectWhich of the following is not a risk factor associated with elder abuse?`1Immunizations for adults over 65**decreased immune responses, increased susceptibility to communicable disease -Tdap 10 years -influenza yearly -pneumococcal -Herpes Zoster (Shingles)Name the age-related changes to the auditory system that affect older adults. What is tinnitus?-increased presbycusis, gradual, summates later in life -men more likely to lose high frequency discrimination -more men have tinnitus (ringing in the ears) -increased ear wax -bone calcification -nerve degeneration -may increase difficult with word discriminationGenerally, where do adults over age 65 in the U.S. prefer to reside?At home or in a relative's home.Describe the vision changes that often occur after age 65.-increased presbyopia (farsightedness) due to hardening of lens -blood-flow decrease, reduced field of vision, and blind spot on retina -nighttime difficulty- pupils not widening or narrowing as quickly, decreased light accommodation -lens thickening -cataracts and glaucoma -macular degenerationOther sense changes in adults over 65Touch: -loss of sensitivity to touch and temperature -reverse Proximodistal growth pattern -risk of burns Smell: -men have more loss than women -environmental component, correlates with greater exposure to pollutants Taste: -less saliva -taste buds less reactive -things taste blandWhich group of retirees respond most poorly to retirement?What are the major brain changes that occur during the older adult years?-loss of gray matter -slower synapses -loss of dendritic density -slower reaction time -short term memory loss -cognitive decline **well educated or cognitively stimulated elders display less atrophy of cerebral cortex.Describe the theories of successful aging and be able to identify key characteristics.Successful Aging Paradigm: -good physical health -cognitive ability retention -continuing: social engagement and productivity -life satisfactionWhat can older adults do to reduce their risk of mortality and lower their risk of diseases such as diabetes and arthritis?Diet, exercise, lifestyle, visits to the doctorWhat is Alzheimer's disease? Know key characteristics of the disorder. Can it be cured?Alzheimer's Disease- VERY SEVERE FORM OF DEMENTIA -early stages become evident very slowly -subtle memory difficulties, repetitive conversation, disorientation in unfamiliar settings -memory for recent events begins to go -memories for long-ago events and well-rehearsed procedures are last to go -eventually may fail to recognize family members, forget names of common objects, forget how to do routine activities -CANNOT BE CURED NOR REVERSED -can be difficult to diagnose due to memory problem complaints with populationWhat is Alzheimer's disease? Know key characteristics of the disorder. Can it be cured? Continued...PATHOLOGY: neurofibrillary tangles and plaque deposits -declines in ability to communicate -inability to control eating habits -difficulty processing information about other's emotions -displays of anger and inappropriate outbursts increase -depression -genetic factors appear in some but not all individual -age of onset highly variable: 44 to 67 -wide variations in severity of behavioral effects of the diseaseWhat is Alzheimer's disease? Know key characteristics of the disorder. Can it be cured? Continued...Dementia: may appear after multiple small strokes, irreversible, multi-infarct dementia -incidence in 2-8% of adults greater than 65, rises rapidly among those in 70s and 80s -causes: depression, cardiovascular disease, metabolic disturbances, anemia, B12 deficiency, Parkinson's disease, head trauma, drug trauma, drug intoxication, alcohol abuse, hypothermia -symptom, not a disease, may be reversible depending upon causeWhat age related changes may impact the dietary preferences of an older adult?-may lose feelings of satiety, so they over eat -may experience loneliness and not eat -risk of weight loss, malnutrition, and anemia -may become rigid about meal times and food selection to compensateWhat is the term used for living in a non-institutional environment to which appropriate modifications have been made for the elderly individual?Aging in place- modifying private residence responsive to changing needs, hiring home health aid, changing normal environment is preferable to moving into an institution. -6% men and 16% women live in homes of relatives, 4% living in nursing homes TYPES OF LIVING: independent, assisted, skilled, continuity careHow are sleep patterns typically affected by age?-typically awake more frequently at night -show decreases in REM sleep (dream state) -wake early in morning, go to bed early as night, napping for accumulationDescribe religious coping in older adults. Consider the cultural impacts as well.Fowler's Spiritual Theory Stage 4: Individuation-Reflexive- -skeptical, compare religious standards, searching -espouse a belief system and may question beliefs if life has turned out differently than expected. Religious Coping: tendency to turn to religion and institutions in times of stress or trouble. Life stressors: -chronic illness -death of loved one -declining sensory abilities -may be a primary means of coping and socialization -African Americans and women may use more -low-income elders often rely on religion b/c it is considered a resource with those who have little social power BENEFITS: less worrying, associations between religious faith and physical/mental health, positive effect on elders thoughts about their life, more likely to comply with medical adviceWhat is the life expectancy of African and White Americans before and after 75?Before age 75, white people are expected to live longer, but after 75, the life expectancy is the same.What is the difference between instrumental activities of daily living and activities of daily living? Which of the following terms applies to intellectually demanding tasks such as managing finances and paying bills**Older adults maintain higher performance by concentrating on strengths Activity theory: -psychologically and physically healthiest response to old age is to maintain greatest possible level of activity and involvement in greatest number of roles Active adults: greatest satisfaction with life and self -healthiest -highest morale -some socially isolated elders are content if they have an all-consuming hobby Activities of daily living (ADLs)- bathing, toileting, feeding Instrumental activities of daily living- more intellectually challenging like paying bills, reading, drivingWhat factor has been linked to minimized atrophy of the cerebral cortex of the brain?Education and cognitive stimulationWhat is the name of the theory that indicates that aging is a result of species-specific genes?Genetically programmed senescence theoryWhat is continuity theory?Continuity Theory: maintain consistency in activities that were interesting and challenging in earlier yearsWhat is disengagement theory?Disengagement Theory: -shrinkage of life space-interact with fewer others and fill fewer social roles -increasing individuality-much less governed by strict rules or expectations -acceptance of these changes-actively disengage from roles and relationships; turn more inward and away from interactions with othersWhat is the most common reason that people retire early? likely to retire the earliest?Reasons for retirement: health family composition and considerations finances work characteristics: level of enjoyment, employers concern over new skill acquisition -income: typically reduced, Medicare, social security, savings, public assistance -timing of retirement: varies widely across individuals, most older adults plan on working part-time, multi-phase process, full-time work to full-time retirementWhat is the most common reason for depression among older adults?Depression- older adults at greater risk (greater in women) -more common among less educated adults -inadequate income and social support -emotional loss of significant others, spouse, friends, family -persistent health concerns: STRONGEST RISK FACTORS, the more disabling the conditions, the more depressive symptoms **older white men have the greatest risk for suicide, risk factors include: loss of economic status may trouble men more, death of spouse plays a role for men, declining health **idea that they are a burden to others, especially if health is poorFor most adults, which of the following is the most significant meaning of death?LOSS of opportunities and family/friend relationships is the most significant meaning of deathHow does an adolescent typically view death?Adolescent- understand on abstract level, death is inevitable, skewed notions of own mortality, overestimation that something won't happen to themDescribe Kübler-Ross' stages of grief.Based on clinical observations, not research focused. Model represents successive stages, not culturally sensitive, stages might not be in order or happen Modified model: Shock**- initial paralysis at hearing the bad news Denial- trying to avoid the inevitable Anger- frustrated outpouring of bottle up emotion Bargaining- seeking in vain for a way out Depression- final realization of the inevitable Testing**- seeking realistic solutions Acceptance- finally finding the way forwardDescribe the philosophy of hospice care?Hospice care- last of life's transitions, alternative form of terminal care -emphasizes a "good death" and "death with dignity" -family and patient have more control over process -more likely to have the death occur at home but can also occur in a homelike setting PHILOSOPHY: death viewed as normal -offers choice for dying individual -provides a sense of control over the conditions of one's death -families and patient encouraged to prepare for death -family should be involved in care -control of care should be in the hands of the patient and family -medical care should be palliative rather than curativeWhat is a living will?directives regarding end of life care. Direct healthcare professionals about wishes for feeding tubes, or invasive measures to prolong lifeDuring which age group do children begin to understand the permanence of death?Young children- feels loss emotionally, change in routines Preschooler- knows someone is gone, no understanding of finality, correlates with lack of understanding about death (thinks it can be reversed) School ager- universality of death, understands permanence and some biological aspects Adolescent- understand on abstract level, death is inevitable, skewed notions of own mortality, overestimation that something won't happen to them Early adult- perceive death as a loss of opportunities and family relationships, personal experience with death makes some young adults more realistic about mortality, more traumatic for older adults, more likely to have suicidal thoughts od they experienced a loss of a loved one in an accident, suicide or homicide Middle/late adult- deeper understanding of death. Roles and relationships change, time until death paradigm shift, preoccupation with past may lead to increased fears or anxiety about death, **middle aged adults are more fearful of death, elderly think and discuss death more than any age (this is positive)What is pathological grief?depression-like symptoms following death of loved one lasting longer than 2 months. Grief lasting longer than 6 months can lead to long-term depression and physical ailments such as cancer and heart disease. Problems may last 2-3 years after death. CULTURAL PRACTICES DICTATE HOW LONG GRIEF SHOULD LAST.What is unique invulnerability?Unique invulnerability- perception that one is less vulnerable to death or illness than the average personWhich mode of death would be likely to cause the most intense grief response?Accidents, suicide, homicide Hospitals, decedents home, nursing homeWhat is numbness?lack of emotions in response to grief, accompanied by shock and denial to the deathReview information related to assisted suicide.dying with physician prescribed lethal drug, patient administers drug Legality: 34 states criminalize assisted suicide -3 states abolished criminalization (Ohio) -Oregon and Washington permit legally -legal in Netherlands, Belgium and SwitzerlandWhich age group how the greatest fear of dying?Middle adults have the greatest fear of dyingWhich form of death has occurred in circumstances where rescue is still possible even though there is no evidence of brain function, the heart has stopped, and breathing has stopped?Clinical death- heart arrests the first few minutes when no breathing, heart or brain function is seen; may be possible to revive (CPR) Brain death- reflexes to stimuli or brain wave electrical activity cease, occurs 8-10 minutes after clinical death. Organ harvesting as option if removed without delay Social death- not a physical death; treated by family/friends as if were dead; walk away from individual, close eyes, or act as if person is not thereWhat is Bowlby's Attachment Theory? Be able to apply information.intense grief is likely to occur at the loss of any person to whom one is attached -quality of attachment related to grief Four stages of grief: Numbness Yearning Disorganization and despair reorganizationAccording to research by Greer, which groups had the longest survival rates from a terminal illness?**attitudes and behavioral choices can influence the course of a terminal disease -denial (positive avoidance) -fighting spirit -stoic acceptance -helplessness/hopelessness -anxious preoccupationWhat functions are fulfilled by death rituals such as funerals?Rituals mark a person passing from life into death. It brings family members together, funerals establish shared milestones for families, and help families manage grief by giving a specific set of soles to play.Describe characteristics of an individual who is at greater risk for prolonged grief or the development of long-term grief related problems.Adolescents- more risk of prolonged grief, grieve longer than adults for lost siblings, belief of prevention=guiltWhat is Crisis Resolution?ending of the conflict with a positive outcomeDescribe the different parenting types (i.e. permissive, etc.)Authoritative- considered most effective and beneficial. High nurturance, high control Authoritarian- high control, low nurturance Neglectful- low nurturance, low control Permissive- high nurturance, low control. Indulgent style of parentingWhat is Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development?distance between actual development level and potential development levelWhat is classical conditioning theory?learning process leading us to gain a new behavior via the process of associationWhat is the most critical period for the development of organs and negative effects from teratogens during pregnancy?Weeks 3-8 is a common site of action for teratogen because the eyes, heart, limbs, ears, teeth/palate developWhat is the bioecological theory?conceptualized ecological systems that impact a child's development.Describe Albert Bandura's theory regarding learning.behavior is learned from the environment through the process of observation. It suggests that people learn from one another through imitation, observation and modelingWhat is maturation?Maturation- process of development in which an individual reaches full functionality.What is a genotype? Phenotype? Karyotype?Genotype- unique genetic blueprint of each individual Phenotype- physical appearance based off of genotype Karyotype- number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organWhat is the difference between fraternal and identical twins? Describe characteristics of fraternal twins (gender, etc.)Fraternal twins- 2 different zygotes, different genes, different placenta Identical twins- same zygote, sharing same genes and same DNAWhat is the primary developmental process occurring in the brain during infancy?Midbrain and medulla are developed at birth and help with vital functions, elimination, sleeping. The cortex is responsible for perception, thinking and body movement, but requires maturation over time.What is the leading cause of death of infants between 1 month and 1 year of age in the U.S.?Sudden Infant Death SyndromeDescribe normal language development in an infant?0-3 months- shows receptive language ability by turning to sounds and recognizing voices 2-3 months- cooing, responds to talking with smiling and cooingAt what age would you expect an infant to sit by himself without support?7-9 months sits and crawlsHabituationGetting used to a stimuli. A decline in attention that occurs because a stimulus that has become familiar. Example: infant pays attention to a toy for a while but once used to the toy, infant looks away.DishabituationResponding to a somewhat familiar stimulus as if it were new; showing renewed interest due to object being recognized as 'different' in some way from the original object.Primary circular reactionsSimple repetitive actions organized around baby's own body (example - may accidentally suck his thumb, like it and repeat).Secondary circular reactionsRepetition of action to trigger reaction outside of body (example - baby coos and Mom responds by smiling so baby coos again).MyleinizationCreation of sheaths around the axons which insulate them from one another and improve conductivity of neurons= better/faster communication- need fatty acids (poor nutrition= less myelinization) Cephalocaudal & Proximodistal development Most rapid during first 2 years. Reticular Formation (attention/focus/priority information sorting) incomplete until 20's; focus on tasks improve with age.Gross motor for a 2 year old-Runs -Kicks ball -Stairs (2 footed)Fine motor for a two year old-7 block tower -Turns doorknob -Scribbles -Unbuttons, puts on coat -Turns pages of book -Unscrews lid on jarWhat is solitary play?Solitary play- play alone (any age)Parallel play?Parallel play- play side by side with different toys (14-18 months)Associative playAssociative play- short social interactions, imitate the other (18 mon-3 year)Cooperative playCooperative play- play together, assign roles (3+ years)What is the leading cause of death in a middle childhood?-Unintended accident is #1 cause of death -Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)- injury that results in diminished brain function such as loss of consciousness, confusion or drowsinessWhat is seriation?sequences in order by gradientDuring the 4 to 8 years old time period, what happens to the physical and verbal aggression of a child?The physical aggression decreases, but the verbal aggression increasesWhat is automaticity?recall information from long-term without use of short term, concentrate on "big picture"What is transitivitydeduces new relationship from sets of earlier onesWhat is decentration?thinking that takes multiple variables into account (sorting by color AND shapeWhat is reversibility?understands that both physical actions and mental operations can be reversedWhat are the most significant health risks during middle childhood?Asthma- chronic lung disease, reactivity of airway to irritants Obesity- excessive weight gain, BMI for age, has genetic and environmental influencesConsider educational issues during the middle childhood stage of development (IQ, issues related to school failure, comparison related to other countries).-Critics suggest that portfolios of childrens school work is a better indicator of learning. -Misclassification of minority students -Teachers teach to the test instead of educating interests Girls- slightly better on verbal tasks Boys- slightly better on numerical reasoning *US is significantly behind industrialized nation peers in math and science *children in poverty struggle moreWhat is the adolescent period?Adolescence- time of transition between childhood and adulthoodWhat are primary sexual characteristics?Females- primary- ovaries, uterus, breasts, vagina develop Males- primary- penis and testesWhat are secondary sexual characteristics?Females- pubic hair, higher voice, height Males- pubic and facial hair, lower voiceDescribe the sensation-seeking behaviors of adolescents. What are the behaviors most always associated with?Reckless driving, drug use, unprotected sexual behaviorWhat is the Tanner Scale? What is it used for?Stages of pubertal development used to describe physical change. Female (breast development) Stage 1 - some elevation of the nipple Stage 2- breast bud stage, elevation of breast and nipple, areolar diameter increases Stage 3- breast and areola both enlarge and elevated more, but no separation of contours Stage 4 - areola and nipple form a secondary mound projecting about the contour of the breast Stage 5- mature stage nipple projects with areola recessed to the general contour of the breast Male (genital development) Stage 1 - testes, scrotum, penis all same size as childhood Stage 2- scrotum and testes slightly enlarged. Scrotum reddens little to no enlargement of penis Stage 3- penis slightly enlarged in length. Testes and scrotum enlarged. FIRST EJACULATION Stage 4 - penis enlarged with growth in breadth in glans, scrotum enlarged and skin is darker Stage 5- genital achieve adult size and shapeWhat factor can help to reduce an adolescent's engagement in risky behavior?What is primary agingPrimary aging (senescence)- age related biological changes that are universal and inevitable. (ex: gray hair, wrinkles)What is secondary agingSecondary aging- related to environment, health/disease that are usually preventable. Related to social class, obesity, lifestyleDescribe Social Role Theory in early adulthood?Eagly & Wood Social role Theory- sex differences are a result of gender roles imposed by society and culture.Describe family roles in the United States?Women move in and out of the labor market at least 1x - Bear and rear children - Career interruption - Work & family in sequence - Most mothers today manage job and family (career or economic necessity) Women's career mobility - Discrimination - Unequal Pay - Glass CeilingDescribe physical changes associated with early adulthood.- Early adults have better physical skills than older adults, and changes are balanced between physical demand and physical capacity. Declines begin at this stage. - Heart/Lung- maximum oxygen uptake, declines 1%/ year every year after age 35 - Muscular/Skeletal- strength/mass peaks mid 20-30s. Women have weaker bones at mid 30, and loss at 50. - Reproductive- female fertility peaks around 25, menopause in 50sMale fertility declines but remains in 40s - Immune- decline of T cells in Thymus, increased susceptibility to disease (declines in adolescence) Vision-declines in mid 40s Hearing- declines in 50-60 years Smell- around 40 years Skin- wrinkles appear at 40 Hair/Weight- varyHealthy lifestyle behaviors such as diet and exercise are associated with?-less depression -less chronic illness -higher immune functionDescribe Duvall's Stages of Family Development?-Families with teenagers (oldest child 13-20 years) -families as launching centers (1st to last child leaves home) -middle-age parents (empty nest to retirement)What is role conflict?tension between two incompatible roles (ex: a boss having to fire an employee that is also a close friend) calls for different behaviors or their separate demands add up to more hours than are available in a dayCaregiver burden- lack of ability to care for elderly parents, social clock timing, physical health: depression and decreased marital satisfaction, physical illness and lowered immune system function. Quality of caregiver's social relationships helps moderate effects of caregiver burden.During middle adult stage what happens to the metabolic rate?Does chronic illness increase or decrease-30% decrease in basal metabolic rate over adulthood period -increase in sedentary lifestyle unless conscious about exercise -need 7.5% reduction in caloric intake per decade to prevent fat deposition -increase in chronic illnessWhat happens to marital satisfaction?Marriage satisfaction- peaks before birth; declines after birth and increases again once the children leave. -division of labor affects satisfaction due to 24/7 tasks and couple adjustmentSingle parents - have higher burden rearing child, more loss of satisfaction if pregnancy was unplanned or not by choice.ISSUES --infertility/childlessness-personal expectations-transition to parenthood -postpartum depression - can last a few weeks up to a year. More likely: unplanned/anxious pregnancy, unsupportive partner, pre-existing depression, major life stressors, difficult infant temperament -family relationships -contact with family/friends changes, influenced by proximity (stronger network=stronger support), may be source of stress-friends - contact/context changes, women have more close friends, men have instrumental friendsWhat happens with role strain/role transitions?Role strain- stress that occurs when a person lacks resources or qualities to fulfill a role (ex: a mom making breakfast while thinking about dressing her children for school) Role conflict- tension between two incompatible roles (ex: a boss having to fire an employee that is also a close friend) calls for different behaviors or their separate demands add up to more hours than are available in a dayConsider the family developmental patterns associated with being a grandparent.- Remote relationship See grandchildren infrequently Little direct influence on their development Most common reason cited is physical distance - Companionate relationship Warm, pleasurable relationships Glad they no longer have day-to-day responsibilities Frequent often weekly contact; participate together in day-to-day activities. - Involved relationships Everyday participants in rearing their grandchildren Living in multi-generational housing Nearly full-time care More common in poor families