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Neuro Exam 3
Terms in this set (45)
The Dual-route reading model emphasizes both _____ and ______ routes
lexical; non lexical
Connectionist reading models focus on the interactions between _____, _____, and _____
orthography, phonology, and semantics
The key difference between deep and phonological alexia/agraphia is involvement of the _______.
degree of impairment (semantics)
Peripheral alexias all relate to problems in _____
perceiving the written word; reading
Dysgraphic impairments in the graphemic buffer are primarily a deficit in_____
Micrographia in Parkinson's is an example of ______ dysgraphia.
motor nonapraxic (peripheral)
Single-word assessments of dysgraphia might include ____, ____ and _____
written picture naming, writing to dictation and copying
Anagram and copy therapy is a treatment for _____, with a focus on the _____ route
central dysgraphia; lexical spelling
Strengthening phoneme-graphemeassociations works primarily on the ____ route
In studies of visual attention, the particular areas which are sensitive to specific visual features generally fall in line with:
more sensitive to printed words; Dorsal-where (magnocellular-larger form, motion) and ventral- what (parvocellular-colors, form) object based attention
Attention consists of both _____ and ______ pieces
Bistable stimuli such as face/house fusion pictures help inform us on ______ and are processed in ______
objects/or feature based attention; fusiform face area/parahippocampal place area
Baddeley's model of working memory proposes two systems, the _____ and the _____
visual; auditory stimuli
_____ is a cellular process for memory formation, and refers to ______
Long term potentiation; neurons that are active at the same time strengtheing the connection (strengthening the synapse)
The Stroop Task is often used to study
Attention generally serves to ______ sensory processing, resulting in ______ neural signals
Memory types can be broadly divided into ______ (such as _____) and _____ (such as _____)
long term memory (such as declarative and nondeclarative memory); short term memory (such as sensory memory/working memory)
In Alzheimer's Disease, different memory types are affected
short term memory, episodic memory (life events, names of kids), semantic memory (meanings for words), and procedural (skills/patterns)
Many cognitive processes can fall under the umbrella of "executive function". Some examples are
goal-oriented behavior, response inhibition, task switching, and error correction
The _____ plays a major role in executive function, and is thought to direct the ______
anterior cingulate/working memory; supervisory attention system/use and manipulation of information
The primary intervention for comatose or semi-comatose patients is ______.
A newer theoretical approach to stimulation is called ______, with an example being ____.
cognitive rehabilitation approach; restorative/ component training or compensatory training
One key component that is often impaired in TBI is ____, classified into three stages by Crosson and colleagues.
Language deficits in TBI are often ____ cognitive deficits, and are thus best treated by addressing ____.
secondary to; the underlying cognitive impairment
Traumatic brain injuries often occur on the inferior surface of the brain due to:
Acceleration injuries are classified into two types: ____, which result in a coup-contracoup damage pattern on the cerebral surface, and _____ which result in shearing and twisting, primarily affecting white matter pathways.
The mildest form of TBI is called ____, and is defined by _____.
a concussion; physiologic injury to the brain without evidence of structural alteration
Two of the most important predictors of recovery from TBI are the durations of ____ and ____.
Agitation is a common symptom in TBI, and it might be formally assessed via:
Agitated Behavior Scale
Neuropathology in Parkinson's is largely due to _____ deficits, with the _____ as the primary site of damage.
dopaminergic neuron; basil ganglia and brainstem
A primary motor symptom in Huntington's disease is involuntary writhing movements, called ______.
Two of the main neuropathologies in Alzheimer's disease are _____ and ______.
neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques; or granulovacuolar degeneration
In terms of brain systems affected, Alzheimer's primarily manifests ______.
inferior portion of temporal lobe, medial temporal memory based structures
Vascular dementia is distinguished by the presence of _____ progression of symptoms and evidence of ______ neural damage.
Creutzfeldt-Jakobsyndrome is a rare disorder caused by ____, and transmitted by ______.
invasion of nervous system by prions; prioninfested tissue
Pseudodementia refers to _____, and can be treated by _______.
symptoms of depression can mimic those of dementia; medication and psychotherapy
In the later stages of dementia, the focus of treatment shifts from _____ to _____.
troublesome behaviors/communication/reminiscence; assisting caregivers, through strategies for environmental control and behavioral management
Primary progressive aphasia is generally categorized into three subtypes: ____, ____ and _____.
PPA-G (agrammatic/non-fluent), PPA-L (lopoenic) and PPA-S (semantic)
In terms of brain systems, PPA subtypes tend to affect:
The deficits in semantic dementia are present:
One rare syndrome that can occur with right hemisphere damage is ______, in which patients feel that their loved ones have been replaced by impostors.
The following are common characteristics of right hemisphere damage (RHD), except:
here are the characteristics:
-denial of illness
-constructional impairment -neglect symptoms with copying designs
-topographic impairment- difficulty with reading maps, giving directions
-reduplicative paramnesia- belief in dupicative body parts, people, events
-facial recognition deficits (recognizing/expressing emotion)
-communicative impairments (pragmatic, prosody, comprehension)
Affective deficits following right hemisphere damage can affect both ____ and ____.
comprehension; communication of emotion
Spatial neglect symptoms include the following, except:
the following ARE symptoms of special neglect
-failure to respond to people, sounds and objects to the left of the body's midline
-attending only to the right in self care activities
-failure to move or attend to the left arm and leg
-bumping into walls and doorways on the left
-reading only the right side of printed materials
-displacing writing on the right side of the page
-diminished awareness of physical/cognitive impairments
-disinterest and lack of participation in rehabilitation
One theory for RHD deficits in higher-level aspects of language, such as appreciation of humor, metaphors and idioms is a deficit in _______.
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