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PMBOK 4th Ed
Terms in this set (89)
A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result.
A calendar of working days or shifts that establishes those dates on which schedule activities are worked and nonworking days that determine those dates on which schedule activities are idle. Typically defines holidays, weekends, and shift hours. See also resource calendar.
A document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project, and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.
Project Communications Management
Project Communications Management includes the processes required to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, distribution, storage, retrieval, and ultimate disposition of project information.
Project Cost Management
Project Cost Management includes the processes involved in estimating, budgeting, and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget.
Project Human Resource Management
Project Human Resource Management includes the processes that organize and manage the project team.
Launching a process that can result in the authorization of a new project.
Project Integration Management
Project Integration Management includes the processes and activities needed to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process Groups.
Project Life Cycle
A collection of generally sequential project phases whose name and number are determined by the control needs of the organization or organizations involved in the project. A life cycle can be documented with a methodology.
The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements.
Project Management Body of Knowledge
An inclusive term that describes the sum of knowledge within the profession of project management. As with other professions, such as law, medicine, and accounting, the body of knowledge rests with the practitioners and academics that apply and advance it. The complete project management body of knowledge includes proven traditional practices that are widely applied and innovative practices that are emerging in the profession. The body of knowledge includes both published and unpublished materials. This body of knowledge is constantly evolving. PMI's PMBOJ<® Guide identifies that subset of the project management body of knowledge that is generally recognized as good practice.
Project Management Information System (PMIS)
An information system consisting of the tools and techniques used to gather, integrate, and disseminate the outputs of project management processes. It is used to support all aspects of the project from initiating through closing, and can include both manual and automated systems.
Project Management Knowledge Area
An identified area of project management defined by its knowledge requirements and described in terms of its component processes, practices, inputs, outputs, tools, and techniques.
Project Management Office (PMO)
An organizational body or entity assigned various responsibilities related to the centralized and coordinated management of those projects under its domain. The responsibilities of a PMO can range from providing project management support functions to actually being responsible for the direct management of a project.
Project Management Plan
A formal, approved document that defines how the project is executed, monitored, and controlled. It may be a summary or detailed and may be composed of one or more subsidiary management plans and other planning documents.
Project Management Process Group
A logical grouping of project management inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs. The Project Management Process Groups include initiating processes, planning processes, executing processes, monitoring and controlling processes, and closing processes. Project Management Process Groups are not project phases.
Project Management System
The aggregation of the processes, tools, techniques, methodologies, resources, and procedures to manage a project.
Project Management Team
The members of the projectteam who are directly involved in project management activities. On some smaller projects, the project management team may include virtually all of the project team members.
Project Manager (PM)
The person assigned by the performing organization to achieve the project objectives.
Project Organization Chart
A document that graphically depicts the project team members and their interrelationships for a specific project.
A collection of logically related project activities, usually culminating in the completion of a major deliverable. Project phases are mainly completed sequentially, but can overlap in some project situations. A project phase is a component of a project life cycle. A project phase is not a Project Management Process Group.
Project Procurement Management
Project Procurement Management includes the processes to purchase or acquire the products, services, or results needed from outside the project team to perform the work.
Project Quality Management
Project Quality Management includes the processes and activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.
Project Risk Management
Project Risk Management includes the processes concerned with conducting risk management planning, identification, analysis, responses, and monitoring and control on a project.
The planned dates for performing schedule activities and the planned dates for meeting schedule milestones.
Project Schedule Network Diagram
Any schematic display of the logical relationships among the project schedule activities. Always drawn from left to right to reflect project work chronology.
The work that must be performed to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions.
Project Scope Management
Project Scope Management includes the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully.
Project Scope Statement
The narrative description of the project scope, including major deliverables, project assumptions, project constraints, and a description of work, that provides a documented basis for making future project decisions and for confirming or developing a common understanding of project scope among the stakeholders.
Project Team Directory
A documented list of project team members, their project roles, and communication information.
Project Time Management
Project Time Management includes the processes required to manage the timely completion of a project.
Any organizational structure in which the project manager has full authority to assign priorities, apply resources, and direct the work of persons assigned to the project.
An estimating technique that uses a statistical relationship between historical data and other variables (e.g., square footage in construction, lines of code in software development) to calculate an estimate for activity parameters, such as scope, cost, budget, and duration. An example for the cost parameter is multiplying the planned quantity of work to be performed by the historical cost per unit to obtain the estimated cost.
A histogram, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that shows how many results were generated by each identified cause.
The merging or joining of parallel schedule network paths into the same node in a project schedule network diagram. Path convergence is characterized by a schedule activity with more than one predecessor activity.
Extending or generating parallel schedule network paths from the same node in a project schedule network diagram. Path divergence is characterized by a schedule activity with more than one successor activity.
An estimate, expressed as a percent, of the amount of work that has been completed on an activity or a work breakdown structure component.
Perform Integrated Change Control
The process of reviewing all change requests, approving changes, and managing changes to the deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents, and project management plan.
Performance Measurement Baseline
An approved integrated scope-schedule-cost plan for the project work against which project execution is compared to measure and manage performance. Technical and quality parameters may also be included.
Documents and presentations that provide organized and summarized work performance information, earned value management parameters and calculations, and analyses of project work progress and status.
The enterprise whose personnel are most directly involved in doing the work of the project.
Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
The process of prioritizing risks for further analysis or action by assessing and combining their probability of occurrence and impact.
Perform Quality Assurance
The process of auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used.
Perform Quality Control
The process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes.
Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
The process of numerically analyzing the effect of identified risks on overall project objectives.
See project phase.
The process of determining project stakeholder information needs and defining a communication approach.
The process of documenting project purchasing decisions, specifying the approach, and identifying potential sellers.
The process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and product, and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance.
Plan Risk Management
The process of defining how to conduct risk management activities for a project.
Plan Risk Responses
The process of developing options and actions to enhance opportunities and to reduce threats to project objectives.
Planned Value (PV)
The authorized budget assigned to the scheduled work to be accomplished for a schedule activity or work breakdown structure component. Also referred to as the budgeted cost of work scheduled (BeWS).
A work breakdown structure component below the control account with known work content but without detailed schedule activities. See also control account.
Those processes performed to establish the total scope of the effort, define and refine the objectives, and develop the course of action required to attain those objectives.
A schedule activity that has low total float. The concept of near-critical is equally applicable to a schedule activity or schedule network path. The limit below which total float is considered near critical is subject to expert judgment and varies from project to project.
See project schedule network diagram.
See schedule network analysis.
The collection of schedule activity dependencies that makes up a project schedule network diagram.
Any continuous series of schedule activities connected with logical relationships in a project schedule network diagram.
One of the defining points of a schedule network; a junction point joined to some or all of the other dependency lines.
Something toward which work is to be directed, a strategic position to be attained, or a purpose to be achieved, a result to be obtained, a product to be produced, or a service to be performed.
A condition or situation favorable to the project, a positive set of circumstances, a positive set of events, a risk that will have a positive impact on project objectives, or a possibility for positive changes. Contrast with threat.
Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS)
A hierarchically organized depiction of the project organization arranged so as to relate the work packages to the performing organizational units.
Organizational Process Assets
Any or all process related assets, from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that are or can be used to influence the project's success. These process assets include formal and informal plans, policies, procedures, and guidelines. The process assets also include the organizations' knowledge bases such as lessons learned and historical information.
A product, result, or service generated by a process. May be an input to a successor process.
A modification of a logical relationship that directs a delay in the successor activity. For example, in a finish-to-start dependency with a ten-day lag, the successor activity cannot start until ten days after the predecessor activity has finished. See also lead.
Late Finish Date (LF)
In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time that a schedule activity may be completed based upon the schedule network logic, the project completion date, and any constraints assigned to the schedule activities without violating a schedule constraint or delaying the project completion date. The late finish dates are determined during the backward pass calculation of the project schedule network.
Late Start Date (LS)
In the critical path method, the latest possible point in time that a schedule activity may begin based upon the schedule network logic, the project completion date, and any constraints assigned to the schedule activities without violating a schedule constraint or delaying the project completion date. The late start dates are determined during the backward pass calculation of the project schedule network.
A modification of a logical relationship that allows an acceleration of the successor activity. For example, in a finish-to-start dependency with a ten-day lead, the successor activity can start ten days before the predecessor activity has finished. A negative lead is equivalent to a positive lag. See also lag.
The learning gained from the process of performing the project. Lessons learned may be identified at any point. Also considered a project record, to be included in the lessons learned knowledge base.
Lessons Learned Knowledge Base
A store of historical information and lessons learned about both the outcomes of previous project selection decisions and previous project performance.
See resource leveling.
See project life cycle.
A document used to record and describe or denote selected items identified during execution of a process or activity. Usually used with a modifier, such as issue, quality control, action, or defect.
A dependency between two project schedule activities, or between a project schedule activity and a schedule milestone. The four possible types of logical relationships are: Finish-to-Start; Finish-toFinish; Start-to-Start; and Start-to-Finish. See also precedence relationship.
Manage Project Team
The process of tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and managing changes to optimize project performance.
Manage Stakeholder Expectations
The process of communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their needs and addressing issues as they occur.
A summary-level project schedule that identifies the major deliverables and work breakdown structure components and key schedule milestones. See also milestone schedule.
The aggregate of things used by an organization in any undertaking, such as equipment, apparatus, tools, machinery, gear, material, and supplies.
Any organizational structure in which the project manager shares responsibility with the functional managers for assigning priorities and for directing the work of persons assigned to the project.
A system of practices, techniques, procedures, and rules used by those who work in a discipline.
A significant point or event in the project.
A summary-level schedule that identifies the major schedule milestones. See also master schedule.
Collect project performance data with respect to a plan, produce performance measures, and report and disseminate performance information.
Monitor and Control Project Work
The process of tracking, reviewing, and regulating the progress to meet the performance objectives defined in the project management plan.
Monitor and Control Risks
The process of implementing risk response plans, tracking identified risks, monitoring residual risks, identifying new risks, and evaluating risk process throughout the project.
Monitoring and Controlling Processes
Those processes required to track, review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project, identify any areas in which changes to the plan are required, and initiate the corresponding changes.
Monte Carlo Analysis
A technique that computes or iterates, the project cost or project schedule many times using input values selected at random from probability distributions of possible costs or durations, to calculate a distribution of possible total project cost or completion dates.
Monte Carlo Simulation
A process which generates hundreds or thousands of probable performance outcomes based on probability distributions for cost and schedule on individual tasks. The outcomes are then used to generate a probability distribution for the project as a whole.
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