Biology Chapter 8 test: Photosynthesis
Terms in this set (47)
a pigment that absorbs all wavelengths in the color spectrum except green, it reflects green, heaviest pigment, in the chloroplasts in the thylakoid membrane
part of the plant cell where the photosynthesis occurs
need light to occur, also use water, are the first part of photosynthesis
don't need light to occur, also use carbon dioxide and products from the light dependent reactions, is the second part of photosynthesis
part of the light dependent reactions, is the second part to occur, makes NADPH by having NADP+ molecules pick up high energy electrons and hydrogen molecules, has longer light wavelengths than PSII
first part of light dependent reactions, uses light energy to energize an electron that pumps hydrogen atoms from the split water from the stroma into the thylakoid and back through the ATP synthase pump to turn ADP+P into ATP.
part of the chloroplasts that absorb the light in the thylakoid membrane
photons from sunlight are needed to start photosynthesis
absorbs everything but red colors, another pigment, lighter than chlorophyll
where light dependent reactions occur, a membrane
stacks of thylakoid membranes
the fluid portion inside the chloroplasts
4 differences between light INDEPENDENT and light DEPENDENT reactions
independent=doesnt require light, makes glucose, uses CO2, takes place in the stroma
dependent=requires light, makes ATP and NADPH and O2, takes place in the grana, uses water (splits it)
difference between ATP energy storage and GLUCOSE energy storage
they both store energy in chemical bonds, however..
glucose=long term storage between carbon and hydrogen bonds
ATP=short term storage between phosphate groups, and also has less energy
high energy electrons
moves through the ETC from Photosystem II to Photosystem 1, original electron comes from splitting water and then is energized by the photon of light, allows ATP to be created by pumping H+ ions, is reenergized and then is carried by NADPH the glucose and gives it the high energy in the sugar
An electron carrier involved in photosynthesis. Light drives electrons from chlorophyll to NADP+, forming NADPH, which provides the high-energy electrons for the reduction of carbon dioxide to sugar in the Calvin cycle.
a carrier molecule that accepts and holds 2 high energy electrons and hydrogen atoms, converting NADP+ into NADPH, trapping sunlight energy in it's chemical form
stores energy by reforming bonds between phosphate groups creating ATP, ATP gives energy to propel the actions needed to execute photosynthesis, but doesn't really end up in the glucose at the end- ADP+P=ATP
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work and stores energy in cells
electron transport chains
series of electron carrier protons that shuttle high energy electrons during ATP generating reactions, or during NADPH generating reactions
products of light dependent reactions
NADPH, ATP, O2
products of light independent reactions
Glucose (high energy sugars)
reactants of light dependent reactions
light energy, water
reactants of light independent reactions
ATP, NADPH, CO2
similarities between photosystem 1 and photosystem 2
both take place in the thylakoids
both are photosystems
both use light energy
both use electron transport chains
both have cholorphyll
photosynthesis equation (numbers)
6CO2+6H2O (light and chlorophyll)>>C6H12O6+6O2
photosynthesis equation (words)
carbon dioxide and water in the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight yields glucose and oxygen
difference in graphs of temperature, light intensity, and water for plants
(see notes and practice drawing each graph)
discovered by melvin calvin, is the light independent reactions, takes place in the stroma. see notes for the process and memorize diagram
product of photosynthesis
high energy sugars, GLUCOSE!!!! (which the plants use for food energy and structure)
why do plants need energy?
for their cells to carry out active transport, and also maintain 8 characteristics of life (obtain and use energy)
what is ATP made of? ADP?
ATP=adenine, 5 carbon sugar called ribose, and 3 phosphate groups
ADP=2 phosphate groups (contains energy, but not as much as ATP), is like a rechargeable battery
ATP gives energy for what functions in a plant cell?
active transport (sodium potassium pumps), movement (cilia and flagella), Growth (synthesis of proteins), Response to Environment (response to chemical signs)
also used for light dependent reactions to create glucose
energy travels to earth in what form?
light, or photons. sunlight is a mixture of different wavelengths
how do we see wavelengths of light?
as a color spectrum ROY G BIV
where does photosynthesis occur?
the light independent reactions occur in the stroma, where the light dependent reactions occur in the thylakoids or grana. overall they take place in the chloroplasts
what are the parts of the chloroplast?
thylakoid or grana (stacks of thylakoids), stroma, inner membrane, outer membrane
what is the purpose of enzymes in photosynthesis? FINISHHHH
enzymes split the water into 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom
how do chloroplasts keep from losing energy in the form of heat?
they capture the energy in the photosystems in the form of high energy electrons
how does light intensity affect plants?
high light intensity=increased rate of photosynthesis, however at a certain level of light intensity it maxes out
how does water availability affect plants?
water=essential for photosynthesis, a decreased amount of water can cause photosynthesis to slow or even stop, and damage plant tissue
how does temperature affect plants?
..., More then 95 % of plants on the earth are this. A plant that changes C02 into a three carbon compound (3-phosphoglycerate) before entering the Calvin cycle for photosynthesis. (Rice Wheat, Soybeans)
A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism, an adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions. Carbon dioxide entering open stomata DURING THE NIGHT is converted into organic acid by trapping it in the leaves, which give out CO2 for the Calvin cycle during the day, when stomata are closed and are tightly sealed to prevent water loss. it takes the carbon dioxide away from the oxygen in the air. ex( pineapple desert cacti, and ice plants)
has a closed stomata, the enzyme that grabs carbon dioxide for this plant also can mistakenly grab oxygen, to prevent this from happening the C4 plant uses "Pep" to get the carbon dioxide instead of oxygen, does the calvin cycle in "bundle and sheath" cells ex(corn, sugar, sorghum)
what are the reactants and products of each stage of photosynthesis according to the equation?
light dep: brings in water (reactants), makes oxygen (product)
light ind.: brings in carbon dioxide (reactants), makes glucose (products)
what conditions are needed for photosynthesis?
light and chlorophyll are needed (above and below arrows)