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Terms in this set (542)

Domestic- one country, one culture. This one is getting harder and harder to find! As globalization has made it easier for people to travel and even join organizations virtually, more cultures are integrating. The best example of this would be a small family business, where only the family members or others who are from the same community work.
Multicultural - one country, many different cultures Most organizations operating in the US are multicultural. The Ohio State University is a great example! It is in one place and the "business" is all done in Columbus, yet our organization members are from many places and cultures.
Multinational- one nationality, does business across many nations McDonald's is known for being an American icon, but it does business in many different countries. It uses its menu and appearance to create divergence, or constructing meaning in different cultural settings, rather than expecting everyone to adhere to one definition of McDonald's.
International- two or more countries with different cultures. The national interests may be apparent through the people, environment, or interests. This recent article (Links to an external site.) tells the story of a factory in Dayton, OH that was experiencing issues due to the cultural differences within the international business. It is not just the national interests, but the cultures within the organization that demonstrate two or more countries. This story was turned into the Academy Award winning documentary "American Factory" that is streaming now on Netflix.
Global- Does not identify with a particular country. The Red Cross is an independent relief organization that helps people in the event of a crisis. This links to the American Red Cross siteLinks to an external site., but there are Red Cross organizations all over the world.
Domestic- one country, one culture. This one is getting harder and harder to find! As globalization has made it easier for people to travel and even join organizations virtually, more cultures are integrating. The best example of this would be a small family business, where only the family members or others who are from the same community work.
Multicultural - one country, many different cultures Most organizations operating in the US are multicultural. The Ohio State University is a great example! It is in one place and the "business" is all done in Columbus, yet our organization members are from many places and cultures.
Multinational- one nationality, does business across many nations McDonald's is known for being an American icon, but it does business in many different countries. It uses its menu and appearance to create divergence, or constructing meaning in different cultural settings, rather than expecting everyone to adhere to one definition of McDonald's.
International- two or more countries with different cultures. The national interests may be apparent through the people, environment, or interests. This recent article (Links to an external site.) tells the story of a factory in Dayton, OH that was experiencing issues due to the cultural differences within the international business. It is not just the national interests, but the cultures within the organization that demonstrate two or more countries. This story was turned into the Academy Award winning documentary "American Factory" that is streaming now on Netflix.
Global- Does not identify with a particular country. The Red Cross is an independent relief organization that helps people in the event of a crisis. This links to the American Red Cross siteLinks to an external site., but there are Red Cross organizations all over the world.
1. What does a critical scholar study?
a. Critical scholars study the imbalances of power and structures within society
b. Critical approaches take the radical frame of reference
c. Critical scholars aim to give oppressed groups power and visibility

2. Ideology
a. "The set of ideas and beliefs of a group or political party"
b. Shapes how we see the world, forms our attitudes and beliefs
c. Rules out other possibilities

3. Deep structure
a. Critical approaches look for power differences not just on the surface, but within a "deep structure"
b. Two Types of Deep Structures
i. Control of production
1. Control over modes of production=power over the basic structure of the org.
2. Control over means of production = to have power over the process of the organization
ii. Control of Discourse
1. The process of communication which creates power
2. Language is powerful, what is said and how it is said is important in establishing relationships and the hierarchy
4. Dialectic of control
a. The idea that these oppressed people have some control over the way they speak and participate and can help themselves
b. Types of resistance include strikes, public complains and even smaller acts of defiance

5. Concertive control
a. Explores how to take a critical approach on how workers can "police themselves"
b. Often in team based or less traditional organizations
c. Barker found these can be even more difficult on workers than traditional organizations
d. Three basic ideas:
i. Types of Control
1. Control is transferred from management to workers
a. Simple control
i. Direct and authoritarian
b. Technological control
i. Technology and technological processes
c. Bureaucratic control
i. Hierarchy and rational-legal processes
d. *Concertive control*
i. Control is transferred from management to workers
ii. Identification
1. The individual finds something within themselves that relates to the organization
2. The individual sees themselves as a part if the organization and begins to define themselves and take on the issues of the organization
iii. Discipline
1. In organizations, rewards and punishments are doled out
2. When individuals have identified and " bought in", they will believe in adhering to the organization's values and rules. Breaking the rules will warrant discipline