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Terms in this set (30)
Populism was a movement to increase _________ political power to pass laws in their interest.
During the _________ _______, the government issued greenbacks, paper money not backed by gold or silver.
This caused _________, a decline in the value of money.
Prices of goods rose.
After the war, the government stopped printing greenbacks, paid off bonds, and stopped minting silver coins.
As the economy grew, deflation occurred. The value of money increased and prices ________.
farmers, Civil War, inflation, fell
Deflation _______ farmers.
Many had to __________ money for seeds and supplies.
Falling prices meant farmers sold their crops for less.
Many farmers joined the ____________.
hurt, borrow, Grange
It organized cooperatives that worked for the benefit off their members. The Grange pressured state legislatures to regulate railroad rates.
Cooperatives __________ crops and kept them off the market to force prices up.
Many Grange cooperatives _________ because they were too small to affect prices.
Railroads and businessmen also refused to deal with them.
In the 1880's, the farmers _____________ formed an organized larger cooperatives, which also failed.
pooled, failed, alliance
Farmers' Alliance members in the _________ formed the People's Party, or the __________.
They nominated candidates for Congress and state offices.
Alliance leaders in the South did not want a ________ party
They wanted to produce a list of demands and vote for candidates that supported them
Part of their strategy was the ____-_________ plan.
west, populists, third, sub-treasury
It asked the government to set up __________________ to store crops and provide farmers with ______ interest loans.
Southern Alliance leaders also called for free coinage of silver, and railroads, and direct election of senators.
That year, the Populists in the West elected representatives.
Alliance members in the South elected Democrats,
Many Southern Democrats did not support the Alliance program once they took office.
warehouses, low, free, support
In 1892, the People's Party held a national convention in Omaha, Nebraska.
Its platform called for coinage of silver and a graduated income tax.
This taxes higher earnings more heavily.
The Democrats and ____________ ____________ won the election.
The difference in their standard of living caused workers to resent the wealthy.
In the late 1800s _____________, a rise in the value of money, also hurt __________ between workers and owners.
Deflation caused companies to cut __________, so workers earned less money for the same work.
Many workers then decided to organize ____________.
deflation, relations, wages, unions
Industries had two kinds of workers
_________ workers had special skills and training
Common laborers had few skills and earned ______ wages
In the 1830s craft workers began to form _________ ________ (an organization of workers with the same trade or skill)
Employers opposed unions, especially ___________ _________, which represented all craft workers and common laborers in the same industry.
craft, low, trade unions, industrial unions
Employers sometimes put those who tried to start union or strike on a ____________
A list of "troublemakers" no company would hire.
Employers could use a ___________ (when employers locked workers out of the property and ___________ to pay them) to break up unions that did form.
If the union called a ________, employers hired replacement workers.
Courts often _______ labor leaders who led strikes.
blacklist, lockout, refuse, strike, fined
In 1873, a recession forced many companies to ______ wages.
In 1877, one railroad cut wages again, and its workers went on strike.
More than ____,________ railroad workers nationwide joined the protest.
Some turned to ___________, and President Hayes eventually ordered the army to open the railroads.
cut, 80,000, violence
Founded in 1869, The Knights of Labor was the first ____________ industrial union.
The Knights supported
___________ pay for women
end of __________ labor.
At first, the Knights preferred _______________, in which a third party helps workers and employers reach agreements.
nationwide, equal, child, arbitration
In 1886, about _____,__________ protesters rallied at Chicago's Haymarket Square.
When police arrived, someone threw a ____________ that killed a police officer.
Violence erupted, and about 100 people, including nearly _______ police officers, were injured in the Haymarket Riot.
No one knew who threw the bomb, but eight men were convicted for it.
One was a member of the Knights of Labor
The union _________ members as a result.
3,000, bomb, 70, lost
Railroad workers formed the industrial American Railway Union (ARU) in 1893.
The ARU unionized workers at the __________ Palace Car Company in Illinois.
The Pullman Company required workers to _______ in the town it built and to buy goods from its stores.
When Pullman cut wages in 1893, workers could not afford their ________ or the store's high prices.
They began a strike.
Other ARU members ____________ to pull Pullman cars.
President Cleveland sent in ____________, and a federal court issued an injunction ordering the strike to end.
Both the strike and the union were ended
rent, refused, troops
Trade unions were more successful in the late 1800s.
In 1886, Samuel Gompers organized the American ______________ of Labor (AFL)
The AFL had three goals:
To get companies to recognize unions and agree to negotiations.
to create closed shops, which hired only union members
Promote an eight-hour workday
By 1900, the AFL was the ___________ union in the country, but most workers were not union members.
After the Civil War, more ____________ began earning wages.
1/3 of them worked as ________ servants.
1/3 were teachers, ____________ and sales clerks
The final 1/3 were industrial workers, mostly in clothing and food processing factories
Women were paid less than men and could not join most unions.
In 1903, two women founded the Women's _____________ Union League to address women's labor issues.
women, domestic, nurse, trade
What is a political machine?
Organization in which a ___________ or small group commands the support of businesses and government officials who receive rewards for their efforts or __________
Often controlled the outcome of elections and influenced mayors and city council members
Highly __________ (voter fraud, bribery, kickbacks, harassment)
boss, loyalty, corrupt
__________________ Hall - political machine that controlled government officials in New York City
Run by the Democratic Party
Lasted until the _________
Became a highly corrupt organization in mid to late 1800's
Most famous leader was "Boss" William Tweed (1823-1878)
Became a member of many __________ in the city and held political influence over government officials
Arrested in 1877 on tax fraud and extortion charges - died in jail
Tammany, 1960s, boards
Stalwarts and Half-Breeds
Two different division of the _________________ party.
Stalwarts: Believed in political machines and the ____________ system.
Half-Breeds: Believed in Civil Service Reform and ____________ system.
Republican, spoil, merit
The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act of 1883 Reason
____________ ___._______ was elected President in 1880.
He was ________ by, Charles Guiteau, on July 2, 1881 but did not die until September 19th.
Motive for assassination: Guiteau believe he was __________ political favors due to thinking he helped get Garfield elected.
James A. Garfield, shot, owed
The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act of 1883
Named after _______ Senator George Pendleton
Created as a response to the ____________ and influence of political machines
Stipulates that government _________ are to be awarded on the basis of merit (as opposed to political connections)
The law also made it illegal to _______ or demote an employee for political reasons
Required applicants to pass an exam to show they are qualified for the job
Ohio, power, jobs, fire
After __________________, many African Americans were very poor and lived under great ___________.
Most were sharecroppers, or landless farmers.
They worked the land and turned over a large part of their crop to the _______________ to pay for rent and supplies
Reconstruction, hardship, landlord
In 1879, _______________ "Pap" Singleton, who had formerly been enslaved, organized a large migration of African Americans from the rural South to _____________.
They became known as the Exodusters,
Some African Americans joined with the poor white farmers in the Farmers' Alliance.
In 1886, a group formed the Colored Farmers' National Alliance.
Many African Americans joined the _______________ Party in 1891
Benjamin, Kansas, Populist
___________________ feared the coalition of poor whites and African American Populists.
To break it up, Democratic leaders began to appeal to ____________.
They warned southern whites that the Populist Party would bring back "Black Republicans" rule.
They made it sound like the _____________ of the Reconstruction Period.
In addition, election officials found ways to make it difficult for African Americans to __________.
Democrats, racism, return, vote
The _______________ Amendment prohibited states from denying people the right to vote based on race, color , or former servitude, but not based on other grounds.
Soon, states began imposing other voting ________________ that were intended to keep African Americans from voting.
Mississippi charge a $2 poll tax, a sum beyond the _________ of most poor African Americans.
Fifteenth, restrictions, means
It also required that voters be able to __________ and understand the state constitution.
With few schooling opportunities, even those African Americans who could read often _________ the tests.
Other Southern states used similar tactics.
Election officials were ___________ strict in applying the rules to white voters.
read, failed, less
In the South, laws enforced separation of the races, or ___________________.
These laws were called Jim Crow Laws.
Two Supreme Court decisions set the stage for legalized segregation.
In 1883, The Court overturned the Civil Rights act of 1875.
It held the 14th Amendment covered only state actions, so private businesses such as hotels or railroads could _____________ practice segregation.
In Plessy v Ferguson (1896), the court ruled that "separate but equal" facilities were legal.
Separate facilities were often far from equal.
African Americans increasingly faced mob violence or ___________
These executions by mobs occurred executions proper court action.
In 1892,Ida B.Wells, an African American woman from Tennessee, started a campaign against lynching.
She published a book condemning mob violence. Wells called for a ___________ trial for those accused of crimes.
The number of lynching's ________________ in the 1900s due in part to her work.
lynching, fair, decreased
Booker T.Washington was a well-known African American educator.
He believed African Americans should try to achieve ____________ rather than political goals.
In 1895, Washington summed up his views in a speech called the Atlanta Compromise.
He urged African Americans to ___________ the fight for civil rights.
He said they should focus instead on ______________ education to prepare themselves for equal treatment.
economic, delay, vocational
Other African American leaders such as W.E.B. Dubois rejected Washington's ideas.
Dubois believed African Americans could achieve ____________ only by demanding their rights, especially ____________ rights.
Many African Americans continued to work to restore the right to vote and to end _______________________.
equality, voting, discrimination
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