Using Information Technologies: Chapter 10
Terms in this set (39)
a collection of related components that interact to perform a task in order to accomplish a goal.
an information specialist who performs systems analysis, design, and implementation.
systems analysis and design
a six-phase problem-solving procedure for examining an information system and improving it.
systems development life cycle (SDLC)
the step-by-step process that many organizations follow during systems analysis and design.
preliminary investigation (Phase 1)
to conduct a preliminary analysis, propose alternative solutions, describe costs and benefits, and submit a preliminary plan with recommendations.
Four Steps of First Phase
1. conduct the preliminary analysis, 2. propose alternative solutions, 3. describe the costs and benefits, 4. submit a preliminary plan.
systems analysis (Phase 2)
to gather data, analyze the data, and write a report.
analytical tools such as charts, tables, and diagrams used by systems analysts to present graphic, or pictorial, representations of a system.
CASE (computer-aided software engineering) tools
computer automated means of designing and changing systems.
system design (Phase 3)
to do a preliminary design and then a detail design and to write a report.
refers to using workstations, CASE tools, and other software applications to build working models of systems components so that they can be quickly tested and evaluated.
a limited working system, or part of one, developed to test design concepts.
system development (Phase 4)
the system analyst or others in the organization develop or acquire the software, acquire the hardware, and then test the system.
system implementation (Phase 5)
consists of converting the hardware, software, and files to the new system and training the users.
system maintenance (Phase 6)
adjusts and improves the system by having system audits and periodic evaluations and by making changes based on new conditions.
a list of instructions that the computer must follow to process data into information.
a five step process for creating that list of instructions (sometimes called software engineering).
problem clarification (definition)
consists of six mini-steps⎯clarifying program objectives and users, outputs, inputs, and processing tasks; studying the feasibility of the program; and documenting the analysis.
a formula of set of steps for solving a particular problem.
data flow diagram
graphically show the way data flows through a system.
the performance of individual parts is examined, using test (made-up or sample) data.
the parts are linked together and test data is used to see if the parts work together. The system is tested with erroneous data and massive amounts of data to see if the system can be made to fail ("crash").
a processing step of a program. Each is made up of logically related program statements.
hierarchy chart (structure chart)
illustrates the overall purpose of the program, by identifying all the modules needed to achieve that purpose and the relationships among them.
a method of designing a program using normal human-language statements to describe the logic and the processing flow.
graphically presents the detailed series of steps (algorithms, or logic flow) needed to solve a programming problem.
a structure that controls the logical sequence in which computer program instructions are executed. In structured program design three control structures are used to form the logic of a program: sequence, selections, and iteration (or loop).
consists of translating the logic requirements from pseudocode or flowcharts into a programming language.
is a set of rules that tells the computer what operations to do.
the rules of the programming language.
involves running various tests and then running real-world data to make sure the program works.
reading through, or checking, the program to make sure that it's free of errors and that the logic works.
means to detect, locate, and remove all errors in a computer program.
caused by typographical errors and incorrect use of the programming language.
caused by incorrect use of control structures.
low-level programming language that allows a programmer to write a program using abbreviations or more easily remembered words instead of numbers.
a type of system software that translates a program written in a second-, third-, or higher-generation language into machine language.
assembler (assembler program)
a program that translates the assembly-language program into machine language.
high-level (procedural/object-oriented) language
resembles some human language such as English
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