Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
my version of WSET 3 Advanced Sommelier Program
Advanced Sommelier Program from The Wine and Spirits Education Trust. Information paraphrased from the Wine and Spirits: Understanding Style and Quality Textbook.
Terms in this set (721)
Name the 6 Principal Districts in Bordeaux
Entre Deux Mers
A "rustic" wine
is one that can be described as hearty, earthy or rough-edged. The opposite of a rustic wine would be one that's refined, elegant or smooth. "Rustic" is also a good way to describe tannins that have a chewy or coarse texture.
What are the 2 primary grape varieties used in Red Wines from Libourne?
Name the 4 APPEARANCE Categories for Tasting
Clarity - Intenisty - Color - Other Observations
Name the 4 NOSE Categories for Tasting
Condition - Intensity - Aroma Characteristics - Development
Name the 8 PALATE Categories for Tasting
Other Observations - Finish
Name the 2 CONCLUSION Categories for Tasting
Level of Readiness for Drinking/Potential for Aging
Name the 5 PREMIERS CRUS Red Producers in Bordeaux
Chateau Margeaux (Maurgaux)
Chateau Lafite-Rothschild (Pauillac)
Chateau Latour (Pauillac)
Chateau Mouton-Rothschild (Pauillac)
Chateau Haut-Brion (Pessac-Leognan, Graves)
Name the 1 red Premiers Cru Chateau outside Medoc
Name the 7 AOC sub-regions of Haut-Medoc
Moulis en Medoc
What is the typical soil of Left Bank Bordeaux?
Gravelly, Excellent Drainage, Heat Retaining Stone
What is the typical soil of Right Bank Bordeaux?
Clay Soils, poor drainage, limited heat retention
What are the main aspects of wine STRUCTURE?
Fish oil used in fining wine
White Wine Fermentation Temperature
Helps maintain Fruit Characteristics
Red Wine Fermentation Temperature
Service Temp for Medium/Full-bodied Whites, Oaked Whites
Lightly Chilled 10-13ºC
Service Temp for Light-Medium Bodied White
Service Temp for Sweet Wines
Well Chilled 6-8ºC
Service Temp for Sparkling Wines
Well Chilled 6-8ºC
Service Temp for Light Bodied Red
Lightly Chilled 13ºC
Service Temp for Full Bodied Red
Room Temperature 15-18ºC
What is the species of grape used in Wine?
What are the 3 species of grapes used in root stock.
What are the 4 price categories?
<$10 - Inexpensive
$10-$20 - Mid Priced
$20-$40 - High Priced
>$40 - Premium
What is the appropriate wine storage temp?
10º-15ºC, or 55ºF
What is Diurnal Range?
Temperature difference between day and night.
What are the two main acids in Wine?
Malic - Becomes Lactic through Malolactic fermentation
What 5 factors effect wine style?
What is Bloom?
The waxy film around the grape that contains natural yeast
What aspects does skin impart on wine?
What aspects does Pulp impart on wine?
What is Chaptalization?
Adding of sugars to grape must.
What is Enrichment?
Adding concentrated grape must.
What is acidification?
Addition of synthetic acid to wine.
What are 5 synthetic adjustments wine makers use on wine?
What is the most important yeast in wine making?
What are lees?
Left over lees and sediments
More Free Run Juice...
Makes for higher quality wine.
What is the climate of Bordeaux?
wet, mild climate
What does AC stand for in France?
Name the 4 main Red Grape Varieties in Bordeaux
Petite Verdot (doesn't always ripen and small quantity)
Name the 3 main white grape varieties in Bordeaux
Muscadelle (used in Semillion and Balsac)
What are the 2 primary rivers in Bordeaux?
They come together in the 'Gironde Estuary'
What are the three levels of Bordeaux Appellation?
Generic: AC Bordeaux, AC Bordeaux Superieure...
District: AC Medoc, AC Entre Deux Mers, AC Libornais...
Commune: AC Saint-Estephe, AC Saint-Julien, AC Pauillac...
What is the significance of 1855
The year the Medoc Red and Sauternes White Crus was created.
Based off the excessive 1855 market price for these wines
How often does AC Semillion review its Crus?
Every 10 years
What is the structure of the St. Emillion cru system
Review of producers every 10 years,
enter system as a grand cru
after 10 years consistent G. Cru performance can become a Grand Cru Classé
Top tier is Premier G. Cru Classe
Describe the Graves (Pessac Leognan) Classification System
There is no ranking! All listed wines may call themselves Crus Classé. All lie within the Pessac Leognan AC.
Chateau Haut-Brion is the only exception in that it is part of the 1855 Premiers Crus Classification.
What is Libourne?
The Right Bank of Bordeaux
What is the Garonne river famous for?
Cool water that affects FOG and thus perfect BOTRYTIS conditions in Southern Bordeaux
How many Ranks Are There in the Medoc Classifications?
How many Ranks Are There in the Sauternes Classification?
Chattea d'Yquem occupies the Premiers Rating Slot
How is Cru Borgeouis Classification Awarded in Medoc?
By a panel, not to the chateaux but to each individual vintage. Done yearly.
What is Sale en Primeur?
Futures sales of early rated vintages from top producers in Bordeaux
What are THREE Regions just outside (SW France) that replicate Bordeaux Wines?
AC Bergerac - Both Red and White
AC Monbazzillac - Sweet Whites (botrytis)
AC Montravel - Dry Whites
What is the principle wine of Cahors AC in SW France?
Minimum of 70% in any blend
Also plant tannat and merlot
What kind of wine is Cotes de Gascogne, SE of Bordeaux, Famous for?
Crisp, Light whites made from Armagnac.
What style wines come from Madiran AC, South of Bordeaux?
Highly structured reds from Tannat Grapes
What are the differences between Cane and Spur Training?
Cane leaves only a piece of cane and the first few buds after pruning.
Spur leaves a permanent cordon with spurs and a bud on each every year.
What is a farmer controlling with different training solutions?
What are the 4 main Grape varieties of Burgundy?
What are the main characteristics of the Aligoté varietal?
Thin high acid wines. Generally two-dimensional flavor.
Used in sparkling burgundies, blended to add acidity.
Name the 7 most important Burgundy Districts from North to South.
Chablis - White Chardonay-Centric wines
-Cote de Nuits - Top Full Bodied Reds
-Cote de Beaune - Top Whites (excluding Musigny Blanc)
What is the soil composition of the Cote d'Or
Limestone and Marl Clay
What are the Key Grand Cru Villages from Cote de Nuits? (north to south)
Gevrey Chambertin AC
What are the 7 important villages on the Cote de Beaune?
Describe the Burgundy Cru System
Regional AC's - Aligoté, Rouge (P. Noir), Blanc (Chard)
Commune AC's - Chablis, Beaune, Gevrey Chambertin
Single Vineyard AC's - Premier and Grand Crus - Vineyards individually owned unlike Bordeaux Chateaux
What is the major climactic issue in Chablis?
What is the soil type of Chablis?
Limestone under Kimmeridigan Clay (Marine fossil clay)
What are the 4 main commune appellations in Cote Chalonnaise, Burgundy?
Rully AC - White and Red
Mercurey AC - Best Reds from Chalonnaise
Givry AC - Smallest
Mantagny AC - Only Whites
What is the most famous communal appellation in Mâconnais?
Pouilly-Fuissé AC - Amphitheater hills that produce the richest white wines in Burgundy (up to 14% abv).
Characteristics of ripe Peach, Melon with savory or nutty flavors of new oak.
How are Gamay grapes generally trained in Beaujolais?
What are some typical Beaujolais flavor profiles?
What is the typical soil profile of Beaujolais?
Gamay loves Granite
What are the 3 top Beaujolais Crus?
Moulin-a-vent AC - Powerful and full bodied
Morgon AC - Powerful and full bodied
Brouilly AC - Most common and large production
How is the Beaujolais system composed?
Beaujolais AC - Lowest Quality, Can produce Nouveau or Premieur
Beaujolais Villages AC - Can produce Nouveau or Premieur
Beaujolais Crus - Ten Crus
What are basic Gamay Flavors without Carbonic Maceration?
What is a unique aspect about the general composition of Alsace Soils?
There are many varying geologies!
Slopes of Granite, Limestone, Clay, Sandstone, Volcanic, and Loam
The plains are largely alluvial
What are the 7 Main Grape Varieties of Alsace?
What are the 2 AC's for still wine in Alsace?
Alsace AC -70% of Prod. Mostly White.
Alsace Grand Cru AC - 51 Vineyards, Single Noble Grape Varieties, Many problems with system
What is Vendange Tardive? (VT)
Late harvest in Alsace
Must be one of the 4 Noble Grape varieties
Minimum of 14% alcohol potential
Dry to medium sweet wines, no sweetness regulation
What is Sélection de Grains Nobles? (SGN)
selection of botrytis affected grapes
minimum of 16.4-18.2% alcohol potential
noble grapes only
not produced every year
Describe an Alsace style Riesling
Dry, medium/medium+ alcohol
High acidity and flinty minerality
Unlike the light german style
Describe a common profile for Geruztraminer in Alsace.
Lychee, Baking Spices
Medium to low acidity
Describe the Climate of the Loire Valley
Varying among subregions
Central Vineyards - Cool continental
Anjou and Nantais - Western with more maritime influence
Name the Major Regions and Subregions in the Loire Valley (East to West)
-Pouilly-Fume - Sauvignon Blanc
-Sancerre - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
-Menetou-Salon - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
-Tourraine - Generic AC, Many styles
-Vouvray - Chenin Blanc
-Bourgueil - Cab Franc
-Chinnon - Cab Franc
-Sanmur - Chenin Blanc & Cab Franc
-Anjou - Chenin Blanc, Cab Franc, And some Rosé
-Coteaux du Layon - Chenin Blanc
-Savennieres - Chenin Blanc
-Muscadet - Melon Blanc
-Muscadet de Svre et Main - Melon Blanc
-Muscadet de Svre et Marine Sur Lie - Melon Blanc
What are the 3 subregions of the Loire Central Valley?
-Pouilly-Fume - Sauvignon Blanc
-Sancerre - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
-Menetou-Salon - Pinot Gris, Sauvignon Blanc
What are the 4 subregions of the Tourraine Region in Loire?
-Tourraine - Generic AC, Many styles
-Vouvray - Chenin Blanc
-Bourgueil - Cab Franc
-Chinnon - Cab Franc
What are the 4 subregions of the Anjou-Sanmur in Loire?
-Sanmur - Chenin Blanc & Cab Franc
-Anjou - Chenin Blanc, Cab Franc, And some Rosé
-Coteaux du Layon - Chenin Blanc
-Savennieres - Chenin Blanc
What are the 3 subregions of the Nantais in Loire?
-Muscadet - Melon Blanc
-Muscadet de Svre et Main - Melon Blanc
-Muscadet de Svre et Marine Sur Lie - Melon Blanc
What are the characteristics of Melon Blanc?
Often referred to as Muscadet
Neutral, green apple, grassy aroma
What defines a Loire style Sauvignon Blanc?
Avoidance of excessive grassiness or fruitiness
Fermentation in old oak
restrained style unlike new world
What effect will Sweet food have on wine?
More drying, bitter, and acidic.
Less Fruity & less sweet.
Use sweeter or more fruity wines
What effect will Umami food have on wine?
More drying, bitter, acidic. Will firm tannins.
Less sweet & less fruity.
Pair with more fruity wines, limit tannins
What effect will Salty food have on wine?
Less drying and bitter, less acidic.
Makes wine smoother and richer.
What effect will Acidic food have on wine?
Less bitter and acidic.
Increases Fruit, Sweetness, and Richness.
Pair with High acid wines.
What effect will highly flavored food have on wine?
Wine can be overwhelmed.
Pair with wine of similar flavor intensity.
How does chili heat affect wine?
Firms tannins, increases bitterness, astringency, acidity, and alcohol burn.
Pair with low alcohol sweet or fruity whites.
What is the most maritime region in Loire?
What two-named region is in between Nantais and Tourraine?
What 2 regions define Northern Rhone?
Vienne in the North
Valence in the South
What is the geography of the Rhone Valley?
Narrow and steep following the river
Plantings on the Southern facing aspects
Continental with warm summers
How many cru apellations are in Northern Rhone?
What is the only black grape variety allowed in Northern Rhone?
What are the typical characteristics of Syrah?
Black Fruit, Black Pepper, Floral
Develop Gamey aromas
What are some typical Viognier characteristics in Northern Rhone?
Exotic- Apricot, spice, floral
Low acidity, high alcohol
picked late at high sugar ripeness
What are the 4 Main Varietals of Northern Rhone?
Syrah, Viognier, Marsanne, and Roussanne
What are the characteristics of Rousanne Grape?
High acidity and perfumed fruit
Develop honeyed aromas
-used for blending in northern rhone
What are the Characteristics of the Marsanne grape?
Richness and weight
Develop honeyed aromas
-More dominant in Rhone as Rousanne is temperamental to weather
What is the central town of Cote-Rotie AC?
Ampuis, in the north of Northern Rhone
What are typical characteristics of Cote-Rotie AC?
Elegant, Deep color, full bodied, spicy
the best have floral aromas and textural elegance
What are the eight AC styles of Northern Rhone?
Cote-Rotie AC - Red Syrah
Condrieu AC - White Viognier
Chateau Grillet AC- Similar to Condrieu
Saint Joseph AC - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussanne
Hermitage AC - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussanne
Crozes-Hermitage - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussanne
Cornas - Syrah
What are the characteristics of Hermitage?
Fullest body in Northern Rhone
Age for a long time, some to 50+ years
What are the characteristics of Saint-Joseph AC Syrah?
Varying from Hermitage intensity to light bodied carbonically macerated wines with raspberry and pepper perfumes.
What Northern Rhone Cru must be made of 100% Syrah?
Cornas AC - Southern most Cru in Northern Rhone
Most under valued!
What are the primary grapes used in the Southern Rhone?
Grenache - Red
Syrah & Mourvedre - Red
Cinsault - Red
Whites are a minority product
Clairette, Grenache Blanc, Bourboulec, Viognier, Marsanne, Roussanne
What distinguishes the Southern Rhone Style from The Northern?
The Southern Rhone tends to blend more varying varietals while the north sticks with Syrah, Viognier, and Marsanne/Roussanne
What distinguishes the geography of the Southern Rhone from the north?
The Rhone Valley opens up much more South of Valence the terrain is much flatter, Soil with large "Galet" stones that help hold heat.
What are the climates that distinguish Northern from Southern Rhone?
Northern is more Continental
Southern is Mediteranean
What is the dominant varietal of the southern Rhone?
-Heat/drought resistant, wind resistant. Develops concentrated spicy red fruit flavor. in hot years it can become baked and jammy
What are the 2 supporting red grapes in the southern rhone?
Syrah - Color and Tannin - South can be too hot
Mourvedre - Deep color intense tannin, Northern limit of ripening in Rhone. Gamey, savoury aromas.
What is the style of the southern Rhone?
Trick question: Wines can have huge range from light/med bodied fruity fresh to high tannin full bodied red.
All producers must manage tannin levels in the hot rhone valley!
What are the 8 essential AC's in the southern Rhone?
Cotes Du Rhone
Cotes Du Rhone Villages
Describe a typical Cotes Du Rhone AC
Medium Bodied, Fruity, and Simple
Many use carbonic maceration to limit tannins
Describe a typical Cotes Du Rhone Villages AC
Higher min. alcohol/percentage of Grenache, Mourvedre, and Syrah, lower yeilds.
18 Villages may add their names
Describe a typical Chateauneuf-du-Pape AC
Largest Cru in S. Rhone, Diverse Terroir, typically Grenache and Mourvedre.
Full bodied, rich texture, spiced red fruit, high alcohol.
What are the typical styles of the Tavel and Lirac AC's?
Rosés from Grenache and Cinsault
Full bodied and intense flavor.
What are the style of the 4 New S. Rhone Crus? (Gigondas, Vacqeyras, Beaume de Venise, Vinsorbes)
Full bodied spicy wines
What is the most common black grape in Southern France?
Grenache - thrives on the hot weather
What are the most common white varietals used in Southern France?
Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc
What does VSP stand for?
What are the 6 key AC's in Languedoc-Roussillon?
Cotes du Roussillon AC
Cotes du Roussillon Villages AC
Pay d'Oc IGP
What is typical of Pays d'OC IGP styles
They often resemble new-world styles with international varietals.
What are the 2 important Provence AC's?
Cotes de Provence AC - Rosés,
Bandol AC - Mourvedre Red $$$
Describe the Badol AC style from Provence.
Dark, full bodied, powerful tannin, require bottle age
Bramble, gamey, meat, licorice
What is an Ambaugebiet?
A region distinguished by a PDO or Denomination in Germany. There are 13 in Germany.
What is a Bereich?
A district within an Ambaugebiet. Often a famous village within a great PDO region.
What is an Einzellage?
An Einzellage is an individual vineyard. Only PDO producers may mention the Einzellage on Label.
What is a Grosslage?
A group of Vineyards, only producers of PDO wines may label the vineyards on label
What is the meaning of Qualitatswein bestimter Anbaugebiete(QbA)?
Produced from grapes exclusively grown within one of the 13 Anbaugabiete.
May undergo must enrichment.
What is Pradikatswein?
Indicates quality wine with special attributes from a single Bereich within an Anbaugebiete.
May not receive enrichment but can be sweetened post fermentation with Süssreserve.
Also must label which of the 6 Pradikat levels it belongs to.
What are the 6 Pradikatswein Denominations?
Define Kabinett Pradikat
Most delicate pradikatswein style
Reislings Light in body, High acidity, with green apple, citrus, and some residual sugars.
Varying sugar levels.
Define the Spälese Pradikat
More concentrated flavor than Kabinett
More ripe Riesling flavors, no green apple, more citrus and stone fruit (peach & Apricot)
Define the Auslese Pradikatt
Made from selected super ripe bunches
Huge style range for Riesling
Can be from a bit more concentrated than Spätlese up to full botrytis effect.
Highest category allowed to be dry wine.
Define the Beerenauslese Pradikatt
Rare expensive sweet style with Botrytis (noble rot). Don't require noble rot, just need to meet minimum must weight.
Define the Eiswein Pradikatt
"Ice-Wine" left until they meet -8ºC temp
Crushed, frozen water skimmed off
Intense Fruit and Acidity
Define the Trockenbeerenauslese Pradikatt
Minute quantities produced
Undergo noble rot until absolutely shriveled
very high residual sugar and acidity.
What are the requirements for Landwein (German PGI)
Either Trocken of Hab-Trocken (dry or off dry), higher must weight than Deutscher Wein (table wine)
Where can Deutscher Wein grapes come from?
Anywhere in Germany
What is the requirement for 'Classic' PGI on Germany?
Above average quality and alcohol, Dry White, Single varietal/region... ie. Riesling Classic from Rheingau or Spätburgunder classic from Baden
What are the 7 Core winemaking regions in Germany?
N to South-
Mosel - Reisling
Rhieingau - Riesling
Nahe - Riesling
Rheinhassen - Riesling
Pfalz - Riesling
Baden - Pinot Noir
Franken - Silvaner, Riesling
What is the significance of 'Selection' PGI in Germany?
Premium Quality, Minimum Must weight of Auslese level or better, comes from an Einzellage area, Generally Dry, rare classification that often qualifies for other certs
What is Verband Deustcher Pradikatswein (VDP) ?
Self-elected board of best German Producers
Quality control group that has own terms used on labels
What are the 2 VDP labeling terms used in Germany?
Erste Lage - Best vineyard sites of VDP members, Limited to classic german grapes, Denoted on label with grape bunch and a '1'
Grosses Gewachs - Erste Lage Wines that are Dry, somewhat redundant but important for quality
What is the climate of Germany?
What are the 5 Main Grape Varietals of Germany?
Riesling - Late Ripen, Hardy, High Acid, Floral to Ripe Peach
Müller-Thurgau (Rivaner) - Lower acid and flavor intensity than Riesling, Simple floral and fruit
Silvaner - White, moderate acidity, neutral fruit, can be earthy
Spatburgunder (Pinot Noir)
Dornfelder - Black grape - Deep color
What is the crossing in Müller Thurgau?
Riesling and Madeleine Royale
Is Chaptalization allowed for any pradikatswein?
What levels of German Pradikatswein are possible to ferment to dryness?
Kabinett, Spätlese, Auslese can all potentially be made dry
What are the two most famous Mosel Towns?
Piesport and Berkastel
What is the best vineyard arrangement in Mosel?
South aspect, steep slopes close to the river, lots of slate rock near surface to retain heat
What is the most common Mosel Riesling style?
Light body with low alcohol and high acidity balanced by medium sweetness.
Floral, green fruit
What is the typical Nahe Riesling style?
Between the light Mosel and Full Rheingau style. Pronounced acidity like Mosel but fuller fruit like Rheingau
What is particular about the shape of the Rhine in Rheingau?
The river goes east to west giving all of the vineyards in the north a perfect southern aspect
What is the typical profile of Rheingau Reisling?
Full body, ripe peachiness, full fruit flavor. Humidity allows for much TbA production, as the river gets over 1 km wide in some areas.
What is the largest wine growing region in Germany?
Rheinhessen, south of the Rheingau. The best slopes are on the west side of the Rhine, East aspects. Fullest bodied Rieslings in Germany.
Flatter areas in the center are producing fine wines from flat farms.
What is Pfalz essentially a continuation of?
It is essentially the northern half of Alsace.
Similarly dry area.
What is the warmest German region?
Baden - Strip from east of Alsace fromSwiss border up through Manheim
What is a particular of Baden's production?
Only majority Red wine producer in Germany - Is the warmest region - produce Pinot Noir (Spatburgunder)
What is particular about varietal uses in Franken?
They barely use Reisling, instead they focus on Muller Thurgau and Silvaner
What are the three main PDO Austrian wine regions?
N to S-
What is unique about Austria's wine production?
They have strict limits est. in 1986 that severely limits grape yield for PGI and PDI wines
What are the two PDO designations in Austria?
Qualitatswein and Pradikatswein
35 permitted grape varieties
What are the two additional Pradikats Austri uses in addition to Germany's 6?
Ausbruch - Between Beerenauslese and Trockenbeeranauslese
Strohwein/Schilfwein - Grapes laid on straw to dry through the winter
What is the designation for regional typicity in Austria?
Districtus Austriae Controllatus (DAC)
-Based on agreements of local producers on what is typical within a certain region
What are the 3 designations of Wachau, Austria style white wines?
Smaragd - Fullest and most complex
Federspiel - In the middle
Steinfeder - Lightest and freshest style
What geographical layout of Austria?
Vineyards are East and North of the Alps
What are the 6 main Grape Varietals in Austria?
Grüner Veltliner - 1/3 of High Quality production.
Welchsriesling - 2nd most
Riesling -Use din dry full bodied whites
Zweigelt - (Blaufrankish x St Laurent) - Widest Planting
Blaufrankish - Highest regarded
St Laurent - Similar to Pinot Noir
What is the typical profile of Austrian Grüner Veltliner?
White. Green Grapes, Salad, and White Pepper that becomes honeyed and toasted as the wine ages
Can express exaggerated minerality.
Often allowed to breath in new oak
What is the typical profile of a Welschrielsing?
Simple, Sappy Quaffing Wine
Botrytis affected, very good desert wine
What is the profile of a Zweigelt?
Deep colored red, soft tannin, bramble fruit
What is the profile of Austrian Blaufrankish?
Moderate tannin, strong minerality, crisp acid, sour cherry, peppery
Age in oak for softer acid and sweeter fruit character
What river runs through the Neiderosterreich?
What are the 3 main DAC's in Neiderosterreich?
Wachau, Kamptal, and Kremstal
All produce excellent Grüner Veltliner and Riesling
Steep terraced vineyards with great ripening potential
What style is the Burgenland known for?
Top quality sweet wines
What are the main Hungarian grape Varieties?
Furmint - concentrated acid, apples become nuts & honey with age
Harslevelü - late ripe, botrytis, aromatic
Sarga Muscotaly - (muscat) - aromatic, floral orange blossom
What are the 6 levels of Hungarian wine quality?
Non-botrytis Dry Wines - Can be premium
Tokaji Szamorodni - Dry or sweet, noble rot character, aged
Tokaji Aszu - base of healthy grapes concentrated must, matured for 3 years, can be extremely sweet
Aszu Eszencia - Very rare, min 180g/L Sugar
Tokaji Eszencia - Very rare, free run from Aszu.. minimum 450 g/L sugar. Hi acid, concentrated
Modern Sweet Wine - less barrel contact than others
Describe Classic Tokaji profile
Deep amber, High acid, intense aromas, orange marmalade, apricots and honey. Best can have rye bread, smoke, coffee and caramel.
Oxidated and held in oak for 3-6 years
COME BACK AND DO THE GREEK SECTION
What are the Italian PDO's?
What does passito entail?
Dried grapes (because Italy largely lacks Botrytis)
Picked early to retain acidity and pressed weeks-months later
What is Italy's Climate?
What are the three predominant soil types in Italy?
Maritime - Clay over limestone (Valpolicella, barolo, Barbaresco)
Volcanic - (Soave, Colli Euganei, Lacryma Christi, Etna)
Alluvial - Bardolino and Piave
What has been the large scale shift in Italian winemaking?
Away from dusty oxidized wines, to stainless steel production, quality oak, and better modern methods in general.
What is the common profile of a Langhe nebbiolo?
High alcohol, Tannin, and acidity. Excellent structure is hidden under light purple hued juice.
Complex aromatics, red fruit, rose, licorice, hay
What are the italian word Large oak barrels and small oak barrels?
Botte are large often slovenian oak
Barrique are small 250 liter casks
What are the 9 most important North West Italian Wine PDO's?
What's the typical profile of a Roero Arneis?
Peach and apricot
Rich and Balanced
What are the main regions of Italy's North West
What are the Main regions of Italy's North East
What are the 3 most important styles from Friuli Venezia Giulia?
Grave del Friuli DOC- Light Bordeaux Style Blends
Collio DOC** - Important Whites High acidity and Alcohol
Colli Oriantali del Friuli DOC - Reds and Whites
What are the 5 core PDO's of Veneto?
Amarone della Valpolicella
Recioto della Valpolicella
What are the manin grape varieties of Valpolicella?
Corvina, Rondinella, Molinara
What is the main grape variety in Soave?
What is the profile of a classic Soave DOC?
Strong acidity, pronounced floral notes, camomille and Iris.
What is the typical style of Valpolicella?
Light, Fruity, and best consumed young with duck, ham, or salami
What is the typical profile of an Amarone della Valpolicella?
Sweet nose of Chocolate, dark rum, and leather.
Full body and intensely flavored.
from the passito method
What are the 6 Regions of Central Italy?
Abruzzo and Molise
What is the best known style from Emilia Romagna?
Lambrusco - Refreshing, bone dry, frothy red
Perfect with Prosciuto
What are the core flavors of the Sangiovese grape?
Complex fruit spectrum from earth to blueberry to sour cherry.
What is the Montalicino Terroir?
Warm air comes up through the Orcia Valley to Montalcino Massif in the center of the Apennines to moderate daytime temps.
What are common varietals used in Super Tuscans
What is the main grape of Marche?
Verdicchio - White with hints of Fennel, Candied Fruit, and Mineral Nuance.
What is the main DOC of Umbria?
Orvieto - Famous for whites made with Grechetto, Malvasia and Trebbiano
Mantefalco Sagratino is a red that is demanding more attention now.
What's the typical profile of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo?
Pungent, Gamey nose with high tannin, alcohol, and acidity.
What are the 5 Key Wines of Tuscany?
Brunello di Montalcino
Vino Nobile de Montepulciano
Vernaccia di San Ginignano - White
Toscana Igt - Super tuscans
What does the Acronym SATABICO stand for?
Go back and complete italy before the test
What are the PDO Wine Stratas in Spain?
DO - Denominacion de Origin
DOCa - Denominacion de Origin Califcada
VP - Vinos de Paya
VCIG - Vinos de Calidad con Indicacion Geografica
What is the term used for Spanish PGI Wines?
VdlT - Vinos de la Terra
What are the 4 Spanish aging Categories?
Joven - Immediate release
Crianza - red: 6 mnth barrel, 24 total. White total 18 mnth
Reserva - reds 12 mnth barrel, 36 mnth total. White, 18 total, 6 in barrel
Gran Riserva - Exceptional vintages only, minimum 60 months, 18 in barrel for red, 48 for white and rosé
How long is the Gran Riserva aging Qualification for Reds and Whites?
Reds: 60 months total, minimum 18 in Oak
Whites & Rosé: 48 months with a minimum of 6 in oak.
What is the Climate from Catalunya to Levante in Spain?
What is the Climate of Meseta, Spain?
Continental, it is landlocked and surrounded by mountains.
Hot summer, cool winter.
What are the dominant red grape Varieties of Spain?
Tempranillo - #1
Garnacha Tinta - Spanish Grenache
Monastrell - Spanish Mourvedre
Graciano - Mainly in Rioja, Strong Structure
Carinera - Lower acid, High in Tannin and Color
Mencia - better in cooler climate, herbaceous, high acid
What are the typical characteristics of Tempranillo?
Low acid, best grown in cooler areas that can maximize what small acid it has
Carbonic maceration for strawberry scented Joven wine
Blended with other typical spanish grapes
What are the typical characteristics of Grenache (Garnacha Tinta)
Can produce intense full bodied reds or lighter Rosados
Name the Two main Spanish White Grape Varietals
Verdejo - Susceptible to oxidization, used in Sherry. Can be made a light bodied crisp melon/peach with anaerobic winemaking.
Albarino - Thick skin, resistant to fungas, aromatic with intense peach and apricot and high acidity. Can be full bodied.
What is the typical vine training method of (most of) Spain
Which type of oak is most common in Spanish quality wines?
American oak, with typical vanilla and sweet spice characteristics
Many are turning towards French oak to give a more tannic and spicy character
What are the 5 wine regions in Spain's Upper Ebro region?
Where is the Ebro River?
Northern Spain running west to east
What is the Spanish word for Cantina?
What are the 4 main Red varietals of Rioja DOCa?
Tempranillo, Garnacha, Mazuelo, Graciano
What are the 4 main white varietals of the Rioja DOCa?
Viura, Malvasia, Garnacha Blanca
What are the 3 Major subregions in Rioja?
Rioja Alavesa - High alt 800m, Chalky, light wines with finesse
Rioja Baja - Heavy clay, strong continental climate, HOT
Rioja Alta - 500-800m, limestone clay with red iron,
what is the main city in Rioja?
What are the two main spanish varietals of Navarra?
#1 - Tempranillo - 70%
#2 - Garnacha
What is the primary grape varietal used in Carinena and Calatayud Spain?
Garnacha, but Tempranillo is heavily promoted and on the rise.
What is the Climate like in Somontono?
Cool Continental with cool air coming off the Pyrenees, good rainfall as well.
What is the significance of the Catalunya DO?
It covers the entire region and promotes blending of varietals from all over.
Where is Cava primarily made?
Name the 2 main regions within Catalunya
Penedes - Closest to Barcelona
Priorat - South of Penedès
What are the 3 distinct climate zones of Penedès?
Coastal Plain - Hottest, mediterranean, dry. Full bodied Reds
Valleys - Temperate, white wines, Cava
Hills - up to 800m, cool, good for int. varietals like riesling.
What style are Penedès traditionally known for?
Full bodied Garnacha/Monastrell Reds
What is the name of the best soil type in Priorat?
LLicorella - red slate with small particles of Mica (that sparkle), low in nutrients but retain water well
How are grapes primarily grown in the hills of Priorat?
On steep terraced hills, with small densely powerful fruit.
What is the difference between old style Priorat wine and modern?
Formerly, Priorat produced opaque, dense full bodied wines that were picked late and had a raisiny quality.
Nowadays they are still full bodied and deep in color, but with lower alcohol and concentrated aromas of black fruit with toasty french oak.
What are the three core regions of the Duero river Valley?
Ribera del Duero - in the east
Rueda - in the middle
Toro - in the west
Where does the Duero river flow?
Westward into Portugal's port producing regions
What is the climate of Ribera del Duero?
Continental, cut off from Maritime by the mountains
Very high altitude plantings help mitigate summer heat and allow for large diurnal temp shifts that are great for Tempranillo.
What is the dominant grape in Ribera del Duero?
Very little Garnacha Tinto is blended
Why is the diurnal range in Ribera del Duero so good for Tempranillo production?
High pigment, acidity, and fruit aroma.
Local clone called Tinto Fino as it is naturally darker than most tempranillo
Describe the style of Reds from Toro, Spain
Deep from thick skinned clone of Tempranillo (tinta del toro).
Noticeably high in alcohol
What differentiates Rueda from Ribero del Duero and Toro?
Rueda grows white wines primarily.
What type of soil and climate is typical of Rueda?
What is the classic grape of Rueda?
Verdejo - elegant white that's high acid with aromatic flavor
What is the second most important grape in Rueda?
Sauvignon Blanc - benefits from cool night climates
What are the two styles of whites produced in Rueda?
Fresh simple fruity wines best drank young
Complex full bodied and texture, skin macerated and barrel fermented
Name the 2 primary regions of North-West Spain
Rias Baixas - Regularly carying vintage quality from weather
Bierzo - Red region, using the Mencia grape
What is peculiar about the history of vine training in Rias Baixas?
Never bush trained, because of the cool humid maritime climate. They used pergolas but have begun to use more sophisticated systems
What is the dominant grape varietal of Rias Baixas?
Albarino - Delicate fruit character, crisp high acid, best drank young
What is the key varietal used in Bierzo spain?
Mencia - aromatic fruity intensity balanced with natural high acidity.
Describe the typical qualities of a Sonoma Chardonnay
Describe the typical qualities of a California Cabernet Sauvignon
Describe the typical qualities of a Chablis
Describe the differences between Burgundy and Bordeaux's Ownership and Wine Making Organization
What is the primary grape varietal used in Chablis?
Describe the differences between a California Cabernet and a French Chablis
Describe the differences between Burgundy and New World Style Pinot Noir
Describe the typical qualities of a Dry German Riesling
Describe the typical qualities of a TBA German Riesling
Compare a TBA Riesling with a Hungarian Tokaji
Describe the conditions necessary for Botrytis
Name 3 regions that consistently have botrytis and name the bodies of water that allow for it.
Describe the Methode Champagnoise
What is the largest agricultural challenge in Champagne?
Describe the terroir of Champagne
Chalky soil with excellent water water retnetion and very low nutrients
What is the essential quality of both Taille Chablis and Cordon de Royat pruning used in Champagne?
They both leave significant amounts of hard wood which assists in frost protection.
What are the three primary varietals used in Champagne?
Describe the Meunier Varietal
Used in champagne
Buds late/good against frost
Used in fruity Champagne made to enjoy young
Describe Pinot Noir's role in Champagne
It gives the structural back bone of body and length
Compare Champagne Chardonnay with that of Chablis in Burgundy
Champagne Chardonnay is usually lighter bodied with a high acidity and floral/citrus character, Burgundy Chardonnay has more body, and can produce lean steely high acid wine in Chablis or creamy complex bodied wines of Cote d'Or, or Highly fruity round wines from Macon
What is the essential white grape of Burgundy?
What is the northern most region of Burgundy and what does it produce?
Chablis - Chardonnay based whites
What is the river that runs North to South through Burgundy?
Is mechanical harvesting allowed in Champagne?
What is the shallow soft press most commonly used in Champagne?
Coquard Press, now used alongside modern pneumatic presses
What ratio of juice liters to kilos of grape may be pressed in Champagne?
First 82 Liters is Cuvee
Last 20 Liters is Taille
What is significant about the number 82 in terms of Champagne?
The first 82 liters of juice is Cuvée, used in the finest champagne
What does the word "Taille" refer to?
The last 20 liters of pressed juice for Champagne
What is particular about the primary fermentation of the best Champagnes?
Varietals and Cuvée/Taille are fermented separately.
Most will undergo some MLF
Why is Champagne dependent on blending?
Inclement weather leads to uneven years of production. Wine sealed anaerobically from years past allows fixes for lacking vintages.
It allows for consistent house style wines
What is liquer de Tirage?
A blend of Wine, sugar, yeast nutrients, and a clarifying agent added to promote the secondary fermentation
Describe the Secondary Fermentation of Champagne
Liquer de tirage added and bottle corked, cellared at 10-12ºC.
Pressure rises to 6 Atmospheres
What is Yeast Autolysis?
Death of yeast releases proteins and other chemicals into wine providing bready toasty flavors.
What is disgorgement?
The neck of the wine is frozen in brine, freezing a top layer of wine and stabilizing the sediment to allow for removal of the sediment and temporary cork. Cap is ejected and Liquer d'expedition is added (
What is Liquer d'Expedition?
Wine and Cane Sugar added after disgorgement of champagne
What is Riddling?
Slow inversion, gentle shake, and twist to allow yeast to slide to Crown Cap over time.
What is the name of the person who Riddles wine?
What are the 7 labeling terms describing Champagne Sweetness?
Brut Nature - 0-3g/l
Extra Brut - 0-6g/l
Brut - 0-12g/l
Extra Sec - 12-20g/l
Sec - 17-32g/l
Demi-Sec - 32-50g/l
Doux - 50+g/l
What levels of sugar define dry-luscious for red/white/rose/sparkling/ and sweet wines...
What does the word Honeepoot mean?
Muscat from South Africa
What does the word Steen Mean?
Chenin Blanc from South Africa
What is the sugar in Liquer d'expedition referred to?
What do Dosage sugars and left over yeast protein in Champagne create?
The complex flavors of bicuit, honey, walnut, and toast
What challenges face the growers and Houses of Champagne?
Matching production with demand and keeping everyone paid!
Growers will make their own blending wine or champagnes at cooperatives to sell
Champagne houses cannot expand their holdings and must rely on growers
Name the six styles of Champagne
Blanc de Blancs
Blanc de Noirs
What does the term Prestige Cuvée mean?
Super premium Champagne made form the very best parcels of land.
Can be NV or Vintage
What does the term Blanc de Noir refer to?
Champagne made exclusively from Pinot Noir and Meunier grapes
more structured and with red fruit character
What are the regulations on Vintage Champagnes?
Producers may only use up to 80% vintage wine as to not deplete reserve stocks.
Give an overview of the Transfer method for making sparkling wine
Same as traditional up until the riddling process when all bottles are emptied into a tank, filtered, then rebottled into new bottles.
Describe the tank or Charmant method for making sparkling wine
Second fermentation takes place in a sealed tank rather than a bottle
Can use paddles to stir sediment and encourage autolytic fermentation like champagne
Describe the Asti method for sparkling wine
Must is kept near frozen until needed
put in tank and warmed
fermentation allowed with CO2 release until 6% ABV
Then sealed and allowed to ferment to 7-7.5%, chilled, bottled, sealed
Describe Crèmant wine
Wines made in France outside of Champagne using the traditional method
Allowed 100L/150kg pressed juice
Made with the best still white wine of the regions
Describe Cava's production and region
A DO that covers non-contiguous parts of Spain
Uses Traditional Method
Must spend 9 months on Lees
Made from Xarel-lo, Parellada, Garnacha, and Monastrel
Describe the characteristics of a typical Cava
Dry with Medium Acidity
Unlike Champagne it is Smoky and Rubbery rather than Bread and Toast
Contrast the typical flavor profile of Champagne and Cava
Champagne is toasty and Bready
Cava is Rubbery and Smoky
What grape is Asti DOCG made from?
Describe the typical characteristics of sparkling Asti DOCG
Distinctly Grapey, Candied Orange overlaid with floral notes
Sweet, low alcohol, avoids autolysis
What is sparkling Asti DOCG classically paired with?
What are the two Prosecco Denominations?
Conegliano-Valdobbiadene DOCG - More elite
What do the words 'Cartizze' and 'Rive' mean in relation to Prosecco?
Cartizze is a hill of 120 producers considered to make the Grand Crus of Proseccos
Rive is a group of 43 top producers in Coneglionano-Valdobbiadene DOCG that produce on really steep hills
How is prosecco produced?
What are the typical Characteristics of Prosecco?
Med Acidity, Fresh Green Apple & Melon
Do not benefit from bottle aging
How is Lambrusco made?
Using the tank method
Describe a the typical characteristics of a quality Lambrusco
Off-dry to sweet (dry becoming more popular)
Deeply pigmented, firm acidity
Acidity perfect with food like Parmesan or Prosciutto
What is Sekt?
German Sparkling wine made from either internationally grown grapes or German grown grapes (Deutscher Sekt and D.S.bA)
Best made from Riesling
What two famous Spanish regions are on the Ebro River?
Navarra and Rioja **
What sides of the river Ebro are Navarra and Rioja on
What are the three spanish regions on the Duero River?
Ribera del Duero
Name the three spanish regions on the Duero East to West
Ribera Del Duero
What is Spain's southernmost winemaking region?
What are two regions in Catalunya
What is a major challenge to new world sparkling wine production?
Heat if these regions makes for higher alcohol which is bad. Need to pick at 10-10.5% alcohol to stay balanced
Need to have lost herbaceousness, and be high in acid
What is the benefit of a continuous or coloum still?
Multiple levels of continuous intensity through the still, can be drawn off individually at different intensity levels and reblended
What are congeners?
Flavors in spirits
How is color added to spirits?
Oak: allows for color and new flavor, oxidization and mellowing, and concentration though evaporation
What are the main sparkling wine regions of Australia?
Cool regions like Tasmania, Yarra Valley, Adelaide hills
What are the most important sparkling wine regions in New Zealand?
Marlborough, Hawkes Bay, and Gisbourne
Marlborough is the southernmost of the main sparkling regions
What is the very best American region for sparkling wines?
2nd - Anderson Valley in Medocino - Cool ocean wind with thick fog
What is the name for the besttraditional South African sparkling wines?
must stay on lees for 9 months
Describe the cloning method "layering"
Burying on cane down under ground to promote root growth, then separating it from the original plant.
What is the difference between crossings and hybrids?
Crossings both parents are vitis vinifera
Hybrids - Vitis vinifera x Vitis "?" - two species combined, not used for wine much anymore
What is the benefit of head grafting?
Can switch from one variety to another on existing stock (though must wait 3 years to produce good fruit) and allows producers to adjust quickly to market changes.
What is the largest region in the northern rhone?
Saint-Joseph - Follows the Rhone north to south
Make Syrah, Roussane and Marsanne
What are typical COLD climate Chardonnay Characteristics?
Steely, light-medium body, high acidity, apple, pear, green plum
What are What are typical Moderate climate Chardonnay Characteristics?
Citrus, Melon, Peach flavors
What are typical HOT climate Chardonnay Characteristics?
Exotic fruit like Banana, mango, fig
Full bodied, high in alcohol, low in acidity
What are the benefits of Chardonnay's non-aromatic profile?
Vineyard and winemaking techniques are more obviously important
What are the classic Chardonnay regions of the world? (4 countries)
France - Burgundy and Champagne
USA - Russian River, Carneros
Australia - Adelaide Hills, Geelong, Mornington Peninsula
New Zealand - Gisbourne and Marlborough
What are the 3 primary regions for Sauvignon Blanc?
Loire Valley - Sancerre, Pouilly-Fumè
Marlborough, New Zealand
What is typical of a Sauvignon Blanc in cool climate with poor soil?
herbaceous, green pepper, grass, nettles
joined with Passion Fruit or Elderflower
What is typical of a Sauvignon Blanc from Warm climates?
Limited aromatic character, peach and grapefruit
Can be oaked and called Fumè Blanc in the US
What is typical of Reisling's profile?
Aromatic, high acid, late ripening, very hardy making it ideal for late harvest
What is typical of cold weather Riesling?
Fresh Grape and Apple
High acidity often balanced with residual sugar
What is typical of Late harvest Riesling
Citrus, Peach, Pineapple
What is a distinct feature of Australian Rieslings?
Distinct lime characteristics
What are 5 classic Riesling regions?
Germany - Mosel, Rheingau, Pfalz, Nahe
Austria - Wauchau
France - Alsace
Australia - Clare adn Eden Valley
Where does Pinot Gris produce the best wines?
What is the Alsatian style of Pinot Gris?
Full bodied, oily, high alcohol, med-low acid
Spicy, with melon, ripe banana, mango
What is the north eastern Italian style of Pinot Grigio?
Early harvest for more acidity and lower fruit, light, neutral, medium acidity,
What are typical characteristics of Viognier?
Delicate peach, pear, and violet
silky texture and mineral
What is the main difficulty in growing Viognier?
It develops sugars too fast and that crushes the delicate peach, pear and violet aromas
Can be unbalanced and have too much alcohol
What are the 3 main regions producing quality Viognier?
France - Northern Rhone (Condrieu and Chateau Grillet)
What are the typical qualities of all Muscats?
Intensely grapey flavor
Can contain grape, peach, rose, and citrus in best locations
What conditions does Muscat need to grow well?
Warm and Dry
What is the varietal of muscat used in Asti DOCG?
Muscat Blanc a Petits Grains
Most complex and full spectrum muscat
What are the typical growing characteristics and issues of pinot noir?
Tight bunches-prone to rot
Thin skins with low soft tannins
What are typical characteristics of Pinot Noir?
Light tannin, red cherry and raspberry, barnyard, vegetal, can develop meaty,
What are the 5 Classic Pinot Noir regions?
France - Burgundy, Champagne
USA- Carneros & Sonoma
South Africa - Walker Bay
New Zealand - Martinborough, Central Otago, Marlborough
What are the classic Cabernet Sauvignon Regions?
France - Haut Mèdoc, Graves,
Australia - Coonawara, Margaret River,
USA - Napa
New Zealand - Hawkes Bay
Chile - Colchagua
What are the 10 Beaujolais Crus?
Cote de Brouilly AC
What are the typical characteristics of a Cabernet Sauvignon?
High acid, tannic, deep color
Fresh black currants in cooler climes, to black cherry and black currant jam in warm and hot climates
can be accompanied with green capsicum, mint, and cedarwood, even menthol
Why is Cabernet Sauvignon considered hearty?
Buds late to protect from frost
has thick skin to protect from insects and rot
gives low yield, with high tannin and acid
What are the classic Cabernet Sauvignon Regions?
France- Médoc & Graves
Australia - Coonawara and Margaret River
NZ - Hawkes Bay and Colchuga
What is the Bordeaux style of Merlot?
Pick early for medium body/alcohol, higher acid
red fruits like raspberry, strawberry, and even vegetal leafy aroma
Describe New World Style Merlot
Harvested late for optimum color, and fruit. Intense purple juice, blackberry and plums. Velvet textured Tannin with higher alcohol and possibly oak influence
What are the two best Bordeaux districts for Merlot?
St. Emillion and Pomerol
Describe the characteristics of a typical Syrah
Deep color, black fruit, spicy aroma
High tannin with blackberry, pepper, and mint
Hot climate can soften the tannin and fruit to be more jammy, leathery, and earthy
What is the typical grape of Beaujolais?
What is the most widely planted grape in spain?
Describe the Grenache grape
Thin skinned, sweet grapes. Tolerant of drought. Requires heat.
Produce high alcohol with soft tannins with high oxidization potential
Can show browning in the rim quite early in development
red fruit: strawberry, raspberry, and white pepper
What is the flavor profile of Grenache?
Strawberry and raspberry with hints of white pepper
can develop leather, tar and coffee over time.
Full bodied high alcohol with low soft tannins
Where are the best Granaches/Garnachas made?
Spain - Navarra, Rioja, Priorat
Australia - Mclaren Vale
France - Southern Rhone and Midi, Chateneuf du Pape blend
Describe the flavor profile of sangiovese
High in acidity with sour red cherry, astringent tannin, earthy/dusty aromas like tea leaves or tobacco
What are a few other Spanish/Portugese names for Tempranillo?
Ull de Llebre
Tinto de Pais
Where are the best Tempranillo wines made?
Spain - Rioja and Ribera del Duero
Describe the flavor profile of Tempranillo
often blended with other more distinctive grapes
What is the minimum operating temperature for vines?
What is the temperature at which vines consume more sugar than photosynthesis can produce?
22ºC - This is the cause for unripened grapes
What is the ideal temperature range for grape growing?
What is the word for when ripening begins?
What 6 factors affect temperature in the vineyard?
Soil - How much heat can the soil hold and reflect
How does the Humboldt Current affect grape growing in South America?
It cools the air that might otherwise be too warm in Chile
Where is the Benguela Current and what does it help with?
It is on the west coast of Africa and it helps regulate coastal temperatures and keeps it cooler
What is the ideal Latitude range for wine making?
What is continentality?
The average temperature difference between winter and summer
What are fourfactors effecting sunlight?
Proximity to seas and lakes
Sunlight hazards - Trees and vine's own leaves
What is transpiration?
The process of drawing water up through the roots. Determined by temperature.
Higher temp, higher metabolism, higher transpiration
What is a secondary use for sprinkler systems?
What are the four growing climate classifications and associated temps?
Cool - <16.5º
Warm - 18.5-21º
Hot - > 21º
What is an example of a warm mediterranean Region?
Napa Valley/Chateauneuf du Pape
What are the three core factors in Site Selection?
Business considerations - Proximity to power/distribution/workforce
Why was big vines management developed?
To decrease vigor in areas with high temperatures an soil nutrients. By having more buds on a single permanent vine there is less distribution to each bud and thus less vigor
What is the risk of culling grapes after veraison?
The remaining grapes can swell in size and become diluted.
What are nematodes and what do they do?
What are Four non-systemic diseases that effect grapes?
Downy Mildew - Damages Leaves, slows ripening
Powdery Mildew - Effects buds/leaves, splits grapes open
Grey Rot - Attacks berries, taints flavor,
Botrytis - Makes grapes delicious - Can lead to grey rot
Name 3 Systemic Diseases
Fanleaf Virus - dirupts canopy growth
Leafroll Virus-Disrupts canopy growth
Pierce's Disease - Spread by sharpshooters
What is integrated pest management?
Use chemicals only when needed, introduce predators, staying ahead with monitoring
Who developed Biodynamic Agriculture?
Rudolf Steiner and Maria Thun
What temperatures promote budburst?
at 10ºC or near-abouts
What is millerandage?
When the development of the berry is disturbed it may develop without seeds and remain small
Will be intensely sweet and seedless
What is Sulfur Dioxide used for?
Anti Septic/Anti Oxidant
an make wines seem harsh and lacking in fruit at high levels
What is the difference between American and European Oak Production?
American staves are sawn (efficient) while European staves are split off
What are the differences in flavor of american and european oak?
European - Toast, Vanilla, fine tannin
American - more aromatic, bright flavors, sweet vanilla and coconut
What is the bloom?
Waxy grape surface that contains yeast
What comes first? Pressing or Crushing?
Crushing! - Breaks the skin and allows free-run juice to flow out - will be left on to macerate or pressed immediately for whites
What is the juice from pressing called?
What chemical can be used to lower acid content in wine?
What is essential in the rack and return method?
All the liquid is pumped out, then mixed back in with the cap.
What is the essential gas in carbonic maceration?
What are the four methods used in Rosé winemaking?
Direct Pressing - Same style as white wine, no on skin maceration
Drawing off - Limited Maceration, taken out early
Bleeding - Only a portion is taken out early, leftover macerating wine gets extra macerated
Blending - Small portion of red added to white for color. Not allowed in EU
What does RCGM stand for?
Rectified Constituted Grame Must - added to new world brands for sweetness - pure grape sugar extraction
What is the difference between passerillage and passito?
Passerillage is done on the vine
Passito is dried indoors
What are Solutes?
Chemicals dissolved in wines - i.e. Tartaric, lactic, and Malic acid...
What are Colloids?
Particles that cloud the wine, are suspended in the liquid and do not deposit. Most important are tannins and color compounds
What process can Racking help with?
Clarification, by removing the sedimented particles from the liquid
What is the chemical responsible for Cork Taint?
TCA - Trichloroanisole
Mouldy Cardboard aroma!
What are screw caps best at preserving?
Describe the differences between Coop and Negociant system
Coops pool grapes, can be given back to the producer or blended
Negociants buy grapes/wine from producers and blends/sells it themselves
What is bentonite used for?
It is a fining agent.
How can a producer remove tartrate crystals?
Cool the wine, then filter
What is the grape used in Sauternes Botrisyzed wines?
What are the ideal conditions for Noble Rot?
Proximity to a consistently evaporative body of water that will create a fog layer in the vineyard. Botrytis must also be present. The fog should lift and the vineyard should dry out with the mid day sun as well, allowing to grapes to shrivel and the botrytis to cease.
Continued wet weather can lead to more serious fungal infections like grey rot, that will destroy a grape crop.
What are the defining flavor characteristics of Gamay?
Strawberry, cherry, Banana
What are the defining Characteristics of Grenache/Garnacha?
black cherries, raspberries, spice
Oxidizes Very Readily! Can be browninsh.
What are the defining flavors of Malbec?
plum, anise, earth
What are the flavor characteristics of Merlot in Both Cool and Hot Climates?
(cool climate) plum, vanilla, cherry
(warm climate) cherry, plum, chocolate, mint
What are the defining flavor characteristics of sangiovese?
sour cherry, raspberry, spice, anise
What are the defining characteristics of Syrah in cool and warm climates?
(cool climate) blueberry, prune, coffee, leather, pepper
(warm climate) raspberry, blackberry, pepper, chocolate
Both full bodied
What are the defining characteristics of Zinfandel/Primitivo?
raspberry, cherry, spice
What is the primary white grape of Bordeaux?
Sauvignon Blanc is Second
Muscadelle is Third
What are the white grapes of Entre Deux mers?
What is the most widely planted grape in Bordeaux?
What region is Chateaux Haut-Brion from?
Pessac-Leognan in Graves
Does Saint-Emilion AC have White Wines?
- Only Merlot/Cab franc
What is the most extensively planted varietal in Bergerac (SW France)
- for dry white wines
What is the name for Malbec in SW France?
What are the primary varietals of MonBazillac?
Sèmillon and Sauvignon Blanc
-excellent sauternes clone
What is the essential grape used in Madiran?
What are the 5 essential designations of SW France?
Cotes de Gascogne IGP
What texture is semillon famously known for?
can be quite bodied
What are the flavor characteristics of Botrytis affected Semillon?
concentrated with sweet fruit, roasted nut and honey coated, tropical flavors
What region in South West France Produces Bordeaux Style Wines?
What are the 5 Burgundy regions north to south?
Cote de Nuits
Dote De Beaune
Which Maconnais wine benefits most from age?
What are the core flavors of Pouilly-Fuissé?
Peach and Melon, Nuttiness from new oak
Can taste quite 'New World'
What is varietal used in Pouilly-Fuissé
What is the primary white Varietal of Burgundy?
What is the style of Chablis compared to that of Pouilly-Fuissé?
Chablis is steely, high acid and lean, extremely refined
Pouilly Fuissé and Cote D'Or Chardonnay is rich, textured, often barrel aged and left on lees.
What are the levels of Burgundy Apellations?
Regional - Broad, include all of Burgundy
Restricted Regions- ex. Bourgogne-HautesCotedeBeaune
Commune AC's- i.e. Beaune, all within a town
Single Vineyard AC's - Premier or Grand Crus only
How many Premier and Grand Crus are there in Burgundy?
over 600 Premier Crus
33 Grand Crus
What is the Clay most common in Chablis?
How long are Cotes De Beaune whites aged for?
6-9 months in oak barrels
Which aspect do the best Alsasce vineyards face?
East towards the River Ill
What is the german word for spice?
Gewürz - Like Gewurztraminer
What are the typical characteristics of Gewurztraminer?
Pungent aromatic and spicy
-LYCHEE, ROSES, SWEET BAKING SPICE
Describe the body of a typical alsasce gewürztraminer
Full bodied and rich oily texture
What pairs well with gewurztraminer?
Spicy foods (Thai and Chinese), smoked fish, strong cheese
What is the Alsasce style for Riesling?
Full bodied, dry, medium/+ alcohol, High acid
How are the Alsasce style and German style Rieslings different?
Alsasce has full bodied, dry, with medium + alcohol while the germans are either more austere or quite sweet.
Will almost certainly have higher alcohol with some residual sugar while germans will focus more on full sweetness
Describe the Fleurie AC from Burgundy
Mid/High Priced Beaujolais Cru
Part carbonic maceration
Light/Medium bodied with low tannin, med acidity, some cherry fruit
Describe the Le Montrachet AC from Burgundy
Premium Priced Grand Cru White
Full Bodied, med/high acid, peach and apricot fruit
Describe the Bourgogne Haut Cotes de Beaune Rouge AC
Inexpensive/mid priced red
light bodied, simple cherry fruit, higher acidity
lower in oak so lower price
What are the two rosé producing subregions of Southern Rhone?
Tavel and Lirac
What grapes are used in Rosé production in Southern Rhone?
Grenache + blend of Cinsault, Syrah, Mourvedre etc
what is the northernmost Northern rhone AC?
Cote Rotie AC - strictly Syrah
What is the region just south of Cote Rotie?
What is the longest Northern Rhone AC?
Saint-Joseph AC - Syrah, Marsanne & Roussane
Why are marsanne and roussane perfect blending partners?
Marsanne has richness and weight
Roussane has acidity and perfumed fruit
What varietal is Condrieu famous for producing?
What are the typical characteristics of Condrieu AC Viognier?
High alcohol, low acidity
Exotic apricot, spices, floral aroma, rich mouthfeel (can become oily)
What is the southernmost AC of Northern Rhone?
Syrah production only
What is the core issue with Syrah in the southern Rhone?
Too hot sometimes!
What is the climate of Southern France?
Long diurnal range, very hot in sumer
What is significant about the mistral and tramontne winds?
They blow to southern Frances from the north and help to cool the east and west.
Is Southern France producing more Reds or Whites?
Reds - 75% of production
What is the primary red grape of southern france and southern rhone?
Name 4 significant AC's in Southern France
Minervois AC (inside Languedoc)
Fitou AC (inside Corbieres)
Cotes de Roussillon AC
What is the one notable German Appellation producing Pinot Noir?
Baden - The warmest and southernmost region
What's the primary white grape of Austria?
green grapes, salad, white pepper
develops honey and toast
What are the typical flavors of Austrian Grüner Veltliner?
green grapes, salad, white pepper
develops honey and toast
What are the characteristics of the Carignan varietal?
Naturally high tannin, acidity and color
lacks fruit and finesse
What style of wine is Provence most famous for?
What kind of grapes do best in Southern France?
Warm weather varietals like:
Marsanne and Roussane
What is the varietal used in Bandol AC?
What AC in southern France uses Mourvedre exclusively?
What is the process for making Muscadet Sur Lies?
Picked and spends the winter on lees in tanks. Bottled the following spring and will maintain some petite bubbles as well as a yeasty bready taste. Will be very fresh as there is very little oxidization and handling. Delicate!
What's particular about the Coteaux du Layon?
It is botrytis affected! There is a lot of water around allowing for misty mornings. It is in contrast to the vendange tardive style of Savennieres on the north side of the Loire.
Will be high in alcohol, distinctly Acidic, and good body from the botrytis.
What are the 8 core AC's of Southern Rhone?
Cote du Rhone AC
Cote Du Rhone Villages AC
Chateauneuf du pape
What is the climate of northern Rhone?
Cool continental with warm but not too hot summers
What is the ONLY black grape varietal allowed in the Northern Rhone?
What is a specialty style from Nantais that's gaining popularity?
Muscadet Sur Lies
What is the soil of Nantais?
Schisty granite and sand
What is the premium appellation of Muscadet?
Muscadet Sevréet Maine AC
What is the main wine of Nantais?
Produced with Melon Blanc
Contrast Coteaux du Layon with Savennieres
Coteaux is prone to botrytis while Savennieres is well exposed and air circulates to prevent noble rot but promotes vendange tardive wines.
Both use chenin blanc
What is particular about the Coteaux du Layon AC in Anjou-Sanmur?
Higher rates of Botrytis that are absolutely world class.
Super high acidity, 12-14%, botrytis adds body and texture
Describe the reds of Chinon AC
3 styles of Cab Franc:
Lightest- sandy soils of Rive Vienne
Medium- Gravelly Clay Plateau -firmer body
Finest - Limestone Slopes
What is the style of Vouvray AC?
All Chenin Blanc
Can be many styles though, dry, sweet, sparkling etc
How are the style of wine in touraine divided geographically?
The reds are made in the west in Chinon and Bourgeuil
The whites are made in the east at Vouvray
Describe the Climate of Tourraine in the Loire
Half continental and half maritime
relatively early spring but with mild summer temps
Describe the Pouilly-Fumé Style
Flinty like Sancerre
Describe the Sancerre style
Sauvignon Blanc fermented in large Oak or stainless
Gun Smoke, flinty, from chalky soil
Why is the Cabernet Franc grape ideal for Loire?
Flowers and ripens early
Describe the style of Loire Sauvignon Blanc
Medium temperature fermentation limit the herbaceous and fruitiness. Much more restrained than NZ style.
What is the climate of the central vineyards?
Hot summers, very cold winters. More linked to Burgundy than the rest of Loire
What is the primary red grape of the Loire?
-Used in Chinon AC, Bourgueil AC, Touraine, Saumer, and others
Where are Pouilly-Fume and Sancerre located in terms of the Loire Valley?
They are the easternmost contingent, deep in the central vineyards.
Describe the famous soil of Sancerre
Yellow Tuffeau - soft very chalky well drained soil. Helps with acidity and minerality.
Describe the climate of the Loire
It varies! From cool continental in the central vineyards to maritime in the Nantais and Anjou
What are some of the issues particular to Chenin Blanc development in the vineyard?
The grapes will ripen at different rates
farmers will pick in numerous 'Tries'
What is the style of Loire Chenin Blanc?
Vastly varies: from dry to sweet, still to sparkling. It is dynamic.
What is the primary white grape varietal of the Loire Valley?
Describe the Bourgogne Haut Cotes de Beaune Rouge AC
Inexpensive/mid priced red
light bodied, simple cherry fruit, higher acidity
lower in oak so lower price
What is the name for Hungarian PDO?
Oltalom Alatt Allo Eredetmegjololes
What are the two Hungarian PDO levels?
Minosegi Bor - Doc
Vedett Eredetu Bor - Docg (Special level)
What is the climate of Hungary?
Long warm summers and short cold winters
What is the name for Hungarian PGI Wines?
Is Hungary able to ripen red varietals like Cabernet Sauvignon?
YES - Long warm summers allow
What is the most common Hungarian Varietal?
Furmint - High acid white varietal
What is the typical Furmint profile?
High acid white wine
when young apples, develops into nuttiness and honey
What are the 5 primary native grape varietals of Hungary?
Furmint - high acid, apples to nutty honey, botrytis
Harslevelu - late ripening, botrytis
Sarga Muscatolay - aromatic, orange blossom
Olasz Rizling - (Welsch Reisling) light dry whites
Irsai Oliver- intense aromatic, spicy like muscat or gewurtz
What are the 3 primary native Hungarian red grapes?
Kekfrankos - (Blaufrankish) light peppery high acid purple wine
Kadarka - prone to grey rot
Zweigelt - Austrian Cross of Kekfrancos and St laurent
What style of Pinot Gris is popular for export in Hungary?
Italian style - light and neutral
Where are the Hungarian wine regions?
The southern plains - Half of vineyards
Lake Balaton - largest lake in europe with moderating climate effects
What is the classic Hungarian Red style wine?
Egri Bikaver or Bull's Blood - powerful reds
WWhat makes Tokaji a perfect botrytis wine growing area?
Sloping southern aspect hills in the far north east
long dry autumns
early morning humidity from the Bodrog and Tisza rivers
What does Aszu mean in Hungarian?
What does Szamorodni mean in Hungarian?
As it comes - picking the whole bunch when only a few grapes have botrytis
What is particular about the Toaji Aszu winemaking process?
Starts with dry base wine
Aszu grapes are added and macerated for up to 36 hours
mixture is pressed
matured for a minimum of 3 years, two in oak
What is the range of Puttonyos levels?
3 p... 60g/l
4... 90 g/L
5 ... 120 g/L
6 ... 150 g/L
What is the sweetest level of Tokaji?
Tokaji Eszencia - sweetest best grapes - 450 g/L minimum
low alcohol, less than 5%
What is the profile of a classic Tokaji swet wine?
deep amber, high acid, intense aroma, oxidative characters from long oak aging,
orange marmelade, apricots, honey
can have rye bread, smoke, coffee, caramel
What is the Grecian Appellation system based on?
What is the abbreviation for Grecian PDO?
How many regions have OPE Status in Greece?
What is the Superior Apellation Abreviation in Greece?
What are the 3 Important Grecian wine making regions for WSET?
Naoussa (macedonia) - Reds Xinomavro
Nemea (Peloponnese) - Agiorgitiko
Santorini - Assyrtiko
What is Retsina?
A grecian wine made with tree resin, racked off, and can be made anywhere in Greece
What is the geography of Greece?
Low nutrient craggy soils, limestone
What is the climate of Greece?
Hot Mediterranean but the ocean winds can have a cooling (if not destructive) effect
How are most grecian vines trained?
Spur trained and head trained
What is the core grape varietal of Naoussa?
NeXus of wine in the North
What is the profile of Xinomavro from Naoussa
High tannin and acid
What is the grape of the Nemea OPAP?
What is the character or Nemea style Agiorgitiko?
Best suited for Rosé the best will have a medium+ acidity and have high levels of round tannins, sweet spice and red fruit
What is the famous white grape used in Santorini?
Assyrtiko - two S's for a sassy santorini
concentrated perfume high in acid and alcohol
What is the profile of Assyrtiko
Concentrated perfumey, high acid and alcohol
naturally dehydrated on the vine with hot sun
wind is so intense it will stop photosynthesis to keep high acid
How are the assyrtiko grapes grown in Santorini?
Grown in basket shapes, woven together to protect from wind.
What is the wine made for Roman Emporers in Campania?
What is the king grape of Campania?
High acid, high tannin
What is "the barolo of the south"?
High Acid, High Tannin, made with Anglianico
What is the flavor profile of Anglianico?
Overtly floral red, black berry and black cherry, matches well with new oak
How many years must Taurasi DOCG be aged?
What are two important Puglian DOC's?
Both are port-esque based on negroamaro and Malvasia nero
What is the DOC of Note in Basilicata?
Anglianoco del Vulture - High altitude plantings, like Taurasi in style
What is the success story from Sicily?
The island wide IGT Sicilia
What wine is Pantelleria Island known for?
Passito di Pantelleria DOC - a dried moscat grape style
What is a typical structure of Sangiovese wines?
High acid and tannin, medium alcohol
What is the grape used in Soave?
Garganega, high acid, floral perfume, camomile and iris
What is the most widely planted white grape in the world?
Airen - Primary grape of La Mancia Spain
What is the dominant central plateau of spain?
What does the tempranillo grape lack?
therefore it must be grown in cooler climates or regulating bodies like the sea
What area of Spain is Tempranillo Country?
The north, central and Maritime areas
What is the other (french) name for Monastrell?
What part of Spain is ideal for Monastrell production?
The south where it's really hot and will allow full ripening.
What style of wine is Verdejo used in?
It is very oxidative and is perfect for sherry style. It can also be made crisp through anaerobic winemaking
What area is the Albarino grape most grown in?
The north west
What is the flavor profile for Albarino?
Intense peach and apricot with high acidity
can be made into a very rich and full style
What are the three primary varietals used in Cava production?
What are the agricultural challenges faced by spain?
Drought and heat
What are the 6 geographical zones in Spain?
North Western Spain
What is Rioja traditionally know for?
Often Oxidised Rosé wine
made from garnacha
How many months aging is required for crianza level?
24 months red 18 white
min of 6 in oak, none for white
What is the minimum aging for Riserva Wines in Spain?
36 months red, 18 white
18 oak red, 6 white
What is the aging time for Gran Riserva level in Spain?
60 Months red, 48 months white
18 oak red, 6 oak white
Where is the Penedes DO?
wide variety of wines
What is the geographic layout of the Penedes region
divided into 3 regions
coastal plain is hottest and it cools up into the hills
What is special about the soil in Priorat?
red slate with mica particles that shimmer int he sun
Which Duero Valley apellation makes white wines?
Verdejo, Sauvignon Blanc
What are the two tempranillo centric regions on the duero?
Reibera del Duero
What is the thick skinned clone of Tempranillo popular in Spain?
Tinta de Toro
Why is Ribera Del Duero so ideal for Tempranillo growing?
Huge diurnal range allows for higher acid production
What is the dominant grape variety used in Rias Baixas in North Western Spain?
Cooler climate, delicate fruit, crisp acidity, refreshing young wine
What is the Baga varietal's profile?
Deep red with high acidity and tannin.
What is the climate of Portugal?
It varies. Largest influence is the atlantic but it has continental. Duero regulates the temp in that region
What is Portugal's most important red grape?
Touriga Nacional - low yeild intense color, flavor and tannin
What does the term Garrafeira mean
Vintage wines from any DoC or IGP with distinctive organoleptic qualities, require 30 months aging for reds, 12 for whites
What does the term riserva entail in Portugal?
That the wine has more than .5% higher alcohol than minimum and is in glass bottles.
Describe the Touriga Nacional grape
low yeild, intense color, tannic flavrful
used in port
What is the name for Portuguese Tempranillo?
What is the Castelao grape used in?
Palmela DOC in the south of Portugal
low yeild, fruity, complex, rich textured reds that become nutty with age.
What wine is Baga most important in?
thick skin, high acid and tannin
What is the primary white varietal in Portugal?
Arinto - Semi aromatic, fresh fruity wines. Stays acidic in hot conditions
What is the style of Vinho Verde in Portugal?
Light pale lemon, low alcohol, made from local varietals, slight sparkle,
What is the style of Duoro DOC?
Schisty soil is ideal for growing touriga nacional which is the core grape used in port
What is the style of Dao DOC?
Mountainous region with continental weather
ruby wines with red fruit, soft tannins, high acid, and good aging potential
Describe the levels of regulation of the AVA (American Viticultural Area)
As broad as a state
a county sized area
a geographical area like the central coast
What are the important restrictions on AVA?
95% of wine comes from Vintage date
85% of wine comes from the specific AVA
75% of wine must be varietal stated on label
100% of grapes must come from estate if labelled
State laws differ from AVA regulations
When was the quality movement in California?
What is the climate classification system at Davis designed upon?
What are the most suitable climates (davis system) for premium wine growing?
What grapes are grown in California?
What are the most important california varietals?
What is the common Chardonnay style in CA?
The Pouilly-Fuisse style or new world with lots of oak and fruit. Full body and low acid
exotic fruit, complexity, peach, banana, butter, hazelnut, oak vanilla
What are two regions (cooler) growing more refined old world style chardonnay?
Carneros and Russian River Valley?
What is typical of California Zins?
They will ripen unevenly and by the time they're all ripe there will be some raisins on the bunch.
Black fruit, high alcohol, and some residual sugars
What is the style of a white zinfandel?
Pale rose's that are fruity, low in alcohol, with medium sweetness
What is the most widely planted red grape in CA?
some of the best in the world are in napa
Why is Cab Sauv able to be so expressive in California?
Excellent conditions and incredibly high tech production and grape selection
Describe a California Merlot
Round tannins, deep color, high alc, blackberry and plum
Where has Pinot Noir found a home in California?
Russia River Valley, Carneros, and Santa Lucia Highlands
What indicates an oaked Sauv Blanc in CA?
What is the style often referred to Sauv blanc production in CA?
New Zealand style
- High acid and crisp from the central coast
What is a notable Davis zone 1 in California?
What are the primary Canadian Icewine Varieties?
Vidal and Riesling
What is a common weather factor of the Napa benchlands?
Solid morning fog that clears in the afternoon
What is an acronym that will help remember all the chilean regions north to south?
E - elqui
L - Limari
Ch - Choapa
A - Aconcagua
Casa - Casablanca
S- San Antonio
Mai - Maipo
Ca - Cachapoal
Co - Colchuagua
Cu - Curico
Ma - Maule
Ita - Itata
Bio - Bio Bio
What is the core region in the north part of Oregon?
Willamette Valley - Cool winters, wet, warm dry summer with cooling from pacific
What is the primary varietal of Oregon?
Pinot Grisis also grown
What are the to core regions of the Washington Wine World?
And Walla Walla
What are the primary 3 grape varietals from Washington State?
Chardonnay, Merlot, Cab Sauv
What does VQA stand for in Canada?
Vintners Quality Alliance
Equivalent to the european AC
What makes wine growing possible in Ontario?
The temperature regulation of the great lakes
What are the red varieties seeing promise in the warmer BC regions
Pinot Noir and some Cabernet Blends
What are Chile's DO's similar to?
American AVA's, limited regulation
What is a regulating weather force in Chile?
The humbolt current spews cool air that cools the valleys and also makes the fog on the coasts
What is the most important international variety used in Chile?
What are the core red varieties used for export in Chile?
Cabernet, Merlot, Syrah, Camenère blends
What is a red grape showing particular promise in Chile's cooler locations?
What are the three leading white Varietals of Chile?
Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscat d'Alexandria
What is the modern style of Chardonnay?
Big ripe fruit and Oak
Is there much irrigation in Chile?
Yes, most places
What country uses Torrontes varietal?
Argentina, in Cafayete and Mendoza
Describe the Torrontes varietal
Signature White from Argentina
-Intense fruity floral aroma, medium body and acidity
What is the primary red grape varietal from Argentina?
What is considered the heart of Argentinian winemaking?
What is particular about Salta's vineyards in Argentina?
They are the highest in the world
What does the Argentinian Parral training system help avoid?
the searing heat close to the ground
Describe the Malbec profile from Argentina
Ripe red spicy black fruit, can be floral from higher altitudes
What is the second most grown grape in Argentina?
What are the three core regions in Mendoza Province?
Mendoza, Maipu and Uco Valley
What is the primary grape of Uraguay?
What is the style of Uraguay often compared to?
New Zealand, also has maritime influences
What is the climate of Southern Chile?
Cooler and Wetter than the rest of the country
What is the South African Wine Origin Scheme and how does it work?
It's a quality and geographical scheme that is guaranteed by a tasting panel.
What is the only significant geographical unit in South Africa?
How are geographical units broken down in South Africa?
Into regions - dominant geological features
Then Districts - Share environtment features
Then Wards - similar soil and geog within regions
Then Estate Wines
What is the climate of South Africa?
What is the regulating current in South Africa?
The Benguela Current
What is the heat regulating ocean breeze in South Africa?
The Cape Doctor, brings ocean air further inland
What Australian area is most associated with Shiraz?
Where in New Zealand does Cabernet Sauvignon Ripen well?
What are the most common red grapes in South Africa?
Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah
What is the style of South African Red Blends
Can be very bordeaux in style. Some syrah blends are huge full bodied reds with high alcohol, and some beaujolais style Pinotage blends exist
What is the crossing of Pinotage?
Pinot Noir and Cinsault
What is the profile of Pinotage?
Red berry fruit, can be made beaujolais style or full bodied with spicy notes
What is steen?
South African Chenin Blanc
What is the South african style for Chenin Blanc
Loire style, both dry and sweet.
What is the second white of South Africa?
What is the main viticultural challenge of South africa?
Virus and disease (Leaf roll virus primarily)
Where does the vast majority of South african wine come from?
The western cape produces 90%
What is the constantia district of South Africa known for?
Cooled by the Cape Doctor, high on the table Mountain it produces Sauvignon Blanc
Where is the Margaret River?
The south Western Part of Aus, Under Perth
Where is the Limestone Coast?
Under Adelaide in Southern Aus. Home to coonawara
What is the key grape in Vouvray?
What is a region that can emulate the Vouvray style Chenin Blanc?
What Climate is Margaret River in Western Aus similar to?
The maritime climate of Bordeaux
Can make excellent Bordeaux Blends
What region in NZ is producing fine quality Pinot Noir?
What are the 8 steps in traditional methode champagnoise?
maturation and Autolysis
What are 4 alternative methods for sparkling wines
Describe the asti method
Must is chilled until needed
one fermentation in sealed tank
fermentation interrupted, filtration, bottled
Describe the tank method for sparkling wines
same as traditional but all in tanks after second fermentation
Can keep down autolytic character so ideal for aromatic grapes
What is the minimum ageing necessary for a vintage champagne?
what is the minimum ageing for a non vintage champagne?
What are 3 important Champagne subregions?
Mantagne de Riems
Vallee de la Marne
Cotes de Blancs
What is in a Prestige de Cuvee Champagne?
Only made from free run cuvee juice
What are the 6 sweetness levels in Champagne?
The process of Yeast breaking down and becoming bready flavored and will help to keep the wine tasting freesh
What does paddling during the tank process help express>?
The autolysis given during the riddling process
How are prosecco's fermented?
where is the second fermentation in Champagne production?
In the bottle.
What is a sparkling wine made from chenin blanc in Loire?
What grape is Asti made with
Muscat - Grapey and candied orange
Where is Cap Classique made?
from cardonnay and pinot noir in South africa
What american AVA makes sparkling wines well?
Carneros and Anderson Valley
What is special about Sherry producers?
Only a certain number of Bodegas can make it.
What is the primary sherry grape?
Palomino - thrives on the chalky albarizo soils
What is the secondary sherry varietal?
Pedro Ximinez (PX)
What is peculiar about the first fermentation of sherry?
They ferment at a warm temperature which kills much of the fruit in the white wines. good for a neutral base wine.
What is flor?
The yeast that's used in Sherry production, forms a cap on the top of the sherry and is allowed breathing room in the barrel or butt.
What is the name for light colored sherries?
Fino - light body
What is the name for darker colored sherrys?
Olorosso - Develop little to no flor. Fortified to 17% to kill Flor
What is key about Olorosso Sherry?
It's fortified early to kill flor and has a fuller body
If the flor fails in a fino sherry it becomes a
Describe the Solera system
Has up to 14 levels or Cridera, equal parts from each butt distributed down the line over time and finally reaches the solera level where the sherry is taken from
What is particular about the bodegas where Sherry is made
They are huge buildings kept cool by high lofty windows and ceilings with a continually damp earthen floor to maintain humidity levels (which regulate oxidization in the barrels)
What does the flor protect against?
What are the two oxidized styles of Sherry?
Olorosso and Amontadillo
What is the profile of a Fino Sherry?
Pale lemon yellow, almonds, herbs, and dough
can be tangy or salty
Do fino sherries develop in bottle?
What are the top two sherry aging categories?
VORS - Very old rare sherry
VOS - Very old sherry
both at least average of 30 years
What is the climate of Sherry?
What is considered a unit of alcohol in the US?
What is the max recommended consumption in the US?
men - 14 units / week (2/day)
women - 7 units/week (1/day)
Sets found in the same folder
Food and Wine pairing
WSET Level 2 - Chapter 16 - Sweet Wines
Wine know-how set 1
Other sets by this creator
Wine Descriptors Anki Mini Deck
Thigh Muscles, Nerve/Artery Pairs - chun…
Nerve/Artery Pairs - chunking