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AMH Test Unit 5
Terms in this set (55)
The greatest tensions of Franklin Pierce's presidency and his downfall can be attributed to the Kansas-Nebraska Act, proposed by Senator Stephen Douglas in early 1854. Pierce's inability to handle the upheaval in Kansas led to repudiation by many Democrats who denied him the party's nomination in 1856.
1854 plot to buy Cuba. If Spain doesn't accept, America would invade Cuba and take it.
Mandated "Popular Sovereignty" which would allow settlers of a territory to decide whether slavery would be allowed with a new state's borders. Proposed by Stephen A. Douglas, which voided the Missouri Compromise's use of latitude as the boundary between slave and free territory.
Radical abolitionist who believed in the violent overthrow of the slavery system. During the Bleeding Kansas conflicts Brown and his sons led attacks on pro-slavery residents. Justifying his actions as the will of God. Brown soon became a hero in the eyes of Northern extremists and was quick to capitalize on his growing reputation.He succeeded in enlisting a small "army" of insurrectionists whose mission was to foment rebellion among the slaves. In 1859 Brown and 21 of his followers attacked and occupied the federal arsenal in Harpers ferry.
Kansas would enter the Union as a Slave State. President James Buchanan supported this. "Doughfaces" were North Democrats wanting to appease the South by maintaining slavery there. This was rejected though. "Popular Sovereignty" won the vote and Kansas would enter as a free territory in 1861.
Senator Charles Sumner (Mass.)
Known for his deep commitment to the cause of civil rights and emerged as an antislavery leader in the late 1840s. He joined with other disenchanted Whigs and Democrats to form the Free-Soil part, which opposed the extension of slavery into newly acquired territories.
Con. Preston brooks (S.C.)
Savagely beat Northern Senator Charles Summer in the halls of Congress as tensions rise over the expansion of slavery.
"Little-Giant" Supported the cause of popular sovereignty in relation to the issue of slavery in the territories before the American Civil War.
Americas 15th president. During his tenure, 7 Southern states seceded from the Union and the nation teetered on the brink of civil war. He was a Democrat who was morally opposed to slavery but believed it was protected by the U.S. Constitution. He tried to maintain peace between pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the government, but tensions only escalated. Political events affected economy, there was a economic crash, north was hit the hardest because South was agricultural.
Northern Democrat not opposed to slavery in the South.
Unorganized group of extremist pro-slavery Southern politicians who urged the separation of southern states into a new nation, Confederate States of America.
Dred Scott Decision
Slave owners had the right to take their slaves into Western territories, thereby negating the doctrine of popular sovereignty and severely undermining the platform of the newly created Republican Party.
Chief Justice. He said slaves cannot sue because they are not considered citizens, Congress cannot deny property owners, Missouri Compromise is unconstitutional, and territorial governments cannot restrict slavery.
Douglas stated that slavery could legally be banned from the territories if the territorial legislatures simply refused to enact the type of police regulations necessary to make slavery work. Without a legal framework and enforcement officials, slavery would be excluded. (helped Douglas win Illinois vote and Lincoln became a recognizable North Leader even though he lost.)
Harper's Ferry Raid
John Brown leads a small group on a raid against a federal armory in Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in an attempt to start an armed slave revolt and destroy the institution of slavery.
Abraham Lincoln beat out Charleston and Stephen Douglas.
Several southern states seceded by the time of his inauguration, and the Civil War began barely a month later. Contrary to expectations, Lincoln proved to be a shrewd military strategist and a savvy leader during what became the costliest conflict ever fought on American soil. His Emancipation Proclamation issued in 1863, freed all slaves in the rebellious states and paved the way for slavery's eventual abolition, while his Gettysburg Address later that year stands as one of the most famous and influential pieces of oratory in American history. With the Union on the brink of victory, Abraham Lincoln was shot and killed by John Wilkes Booth.
Aimed at resolving the looming secession crisis in the Deep South. It included six proposed constitutional amendments and four proposed Congressional resolutions that Crittenden hoped would appease Southern states and help the nation avoid civil war. Would have guranteed the permanent existence of slavery in the slave states by reestablishing the free-slave demarcation line drawn by the 1820 Missouri Compromise. However, it was rejected
On Dec. 1860 South Carolina seceded. Six more seceded in January and February 1861 (Alabama, Missouri, Georgia, Florida, Texas, and Louisiana). The Confederacy was born.
President of the Confederate States of America for the duration of the American Civil War. Davis had argued against secession, but when Mississippi seceded he resigned from the U.S. Senate. He struggled to manage the Southern war effort, maintain control of the Confederate economy, and keep a new nation united. Several weeks after the Confederate surrender, Davis was captured, imprisoned, and charged with treason, but never tried.
Union Fort in Charleston. South attacked on April 12. Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to help him. The Confederacy grew by adding Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina. Richmond, Virginia became the South's capitol.
Britain + France
Bull Run (Manassas)
Union and Confederate armies clashed near Manassas Junction, Virginia, in the first major land battle of the American Civil War. Union General Irwin McDowell and 30,000 men were on the offense while Confederate General P.G.T. Beauregard and 22,000 men were on the defense. "Stonewall" Jackson held the line, and this Confederate victory gave the South a surge of confidence and shocked many in the North, who realized the war would not be won as easily as they had hoped.
General P.G.T. beauregard
U.S. military officer who later served as a Confederate general during the Civil War. He led 22,000 men into the Battle of Bull Run, and held off Union forces.
General Irwin McDowell
Led Union forces into the First Battle of Bull Run. He lost the battle even though he outnumbered the Confederate forces.
General Thomas Jackson
Nicknamed "Stonewall" Jackson, was a war hero and one of the South's most successful generals during the American Civil War. He served under General Robert E. Lee for much of the Civil War. Jackson was a decisive factor in many significant battles until his mortal wounding by friendly fire at the age of 39 during the Battle of Chancellorsville in May 1863.
Only an overwhelming display of superior force-demonstrated by an invasion of the South at every vulnerable point could force the Confederacy back into the Union. (a defensive policy)
Major Union offensive against the Confederate capital of Richmond led by Major General George B. McClellan (111,000 men) in the spring and summer of 1862. After moving his Army of the Potomac by boat to Fort Monroe on the Atlantic coast in late April, McClellan planned an advance toward Richmond. Due to a habit of consistently overestimating his enemy's numbers, the Union general refused to act until late May. The first stage of the Peninsula Campaign ended in the inconclusive Battle of Seven Pines, during which Confederate General Joseph Johnston was injured and command passed to Robert E. Lee.
General Robert E. Lee
Military officer in the U.S. Army, a West Point commandant and the legendary general of the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. He assumed command in June 1861, and would lead for the rest of the war. He achieved great success during the Peninsula Campaign and Second Bull Run. His greatest victory was at the Battle of Chancellorsville. He lost the Battle of Gettysburg, and could see the Confederate defeat was near. He went and fought Union General Ulysses S. Grant before finally surrendering what was left of his army in April 1865.
General George McClellan
Organized the Army of the Potomac in 1861 and briefly served as General of the Union Army. He was well liked, but his reticence to attack the Confederacy with the full force of his army put him at odds with President Abraham Lincoln. He failed to decisively defeat Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army at the Battle of Antietam. Lincoln became frustrated and removed him from command.
Merrimac vs. Monitor, the first battle between iron-fortified naval vessels in history (doom for wood ships). The Confederate navy's addition of iron plates to the captured USS Merrimac Steam frigate temporarily made it an unstoppable force in the disputed waters of the Civil War. The Union navy constructed its own ironclad, the USS Monitor. On March 9, the two vessels engaged each other, and both the monitor and the Virgina (Merrimac) suffered direct hits that failed to penetrate their iron shells. The battle ended in a draw.
General Robert E. Lee and George McClellan faced off near Antietam creek in Sharpsburg, Maryland, in the first battle of the American Civil War to be fought on northern soil. McClellan failed to to utilize his numerical superiority to crush Lee's army, he was able to check the Confederate advance into the north. After a string of Union defeats, his tactical victory provided Abraham Lincoln the political cover he needed to issue his Emancipation Proclamation. This battle was the bloodiest single day in American History with more than 22,000 casualties.
Issued on Jan. 1 1863. It declared that slaves shall be freed, but it applied only to states designated as being in rebellion, not to the slave-holding border states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri or to areas of the Confederacy that had already come under Union control.
Adm. David Farragut
Commanded the Union blockade of Southern ports, helped capture the Confederate city of New Orleans, and provided support for General Ulysses S. Grant's siege of Vicksburg. Farragut is best known for his victory at the Battle of Mobile bay in August 1864, during which he commanded his fleet to ignore Confederate defenses in the harbor.
Captured by the Union in 1862. It was a huge blow to the Confederacy.
Invilved nearly 200,000 combatants, the largest concentration of troops in any Civil War battle. Ambrose Burnside, the newly appointed commander of the Union Army, ordered more than 120,000 troops to cross the Rappahannock River, where they attacked Robert E. Lee's 80,000 Confederate army at Fredericksburg. Lee's rebel defenders turned back the Union assault with heavy casualties. The results of the battle sent Union morale plummeting and lent much-needed new energy to the Confederate cause after the failure of Lee's first invasion of the North.
General Ambrose Burnside
Served as a Union General. First saw combat in the Civil War at the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861. He later led an expeditionary force in North Carolina and then served during the Maryland Campaign at the Battle of Antietam. He later became the General of the Union army in November 1862, then removed in January 1863 after the devastating Union defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg.
Widely considered to be Confederate General Robert E. Lee's greatest victory during the American Civil War. Facing an enemy force nearly twice the size of his own, Lee daringly split his troops in two, confronting and surprising Union General Joseph Hooker. Though Hooker still held numerical superiority, he did not press this advantage, instead falling back to defensive positions. Hooker was forced to retreat across the Rappahannock River. Lee's victory came at a cost though because Thomas "Stonewall' Jackson, was mortally wounded by friendly fire.
General Joseph Hooker
Served as a major general and commander of the Union Army of the Potomac during the Civil War. He gained reputation as a reliable combat commander during the Peninsula Campaign and the Battle of Antietam. After the Union defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg, Hooker succeeded General Ambrose Burnside as commander of the Army of the Potomac in early 1863. His men loved him, but a surprising defeat at the Battle of Chancellorsville led to his resignation in June 1863 just days before the Battle of gettysburg.
Considered the most important engagement of the American Civil War. After a great victory over Union forces at Chancellorsville, General Robert E. Lee marched his Army of Northern Virginia into Pennsylvania in late June 1863. On July 1, the advancing Confederates clashed with the Union's Army of the Potomac, commanded by General George G. Meade, at the crossroads town of Gettysburg. On July 2, Lee ordered an attack by fewer than 15,000 troops on the enemy's center at Cemetery Ridge. The assault, known as "Pickett's Charge" managed to pierce Union lines, but failed at the cost of thousands of casualties. Lee was forced to withdraw.
General George Meade
Commander of the Union Army during the Civil War. He succeeded general Joseph Hooker as commanding officer in June 1863. Only a few days later Meade achieved a major victory at the battle of Gettysburg where his army repelled repeated assaults by General Robert E. Lee's Confederate forces. He was widely criticized for allowing Lee's weakened force to escape into Virginia. Meade's reputation for caution led to the appointment of the more aggressive Ulysses S. Grant as Union general-in-chief in 1864.
General James Longstreet
Lieutenant General in the Confederate Army during the Civil War. One of Robert E. Lee's most trusted subordinates. Longstreet played a controversial part in the Confederate defeat at the Battle of Gettysburg in 1863, in which he reluctantly oversaw "Pickett's charge," a doomed offensive that resulted in a Confederate defeat.
Col. Joshua Lawrence Chamblerlain
The Battle of Gettysburg brought Lawrence to fame. Many stories were published about his defense of Little Round Top including a novel by the name "The Killer Angels."
"Little Round Top"
Confederate General Robert E. Lee ordered an attack on Union forces dug in just south of town. His men stormed the Union army's left flank but were repelled partially as a result of Union Colonel Joshua Chamberlain's famous bayonet charge down Little Round Top. The South lost all momentum.
Confederate General George Pickett began a massive attack against the center of the Union lines on the climactic third day of the battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. On July 3 Lee decided to attack the Union center, stationed on cemetery Ridge, after making another unsuccessful attempt on the Union right flank at Culp's Hill in the morning. The majority of the force consisted of Pickett's division, but there were other units represented among the 15,000 attackers. The Rebel force moved through the open field and up the slight rise of Cemetery Ridge. But by the time they reached the Union line, the attack had been broken into many small units and they were unable to penetrate the Yankee Center.
General Ulysses S. Grant
Brigadier general of the Union. Grant's first major victory came in February 1862 when his troops captured Fort Donelson in Tennessee. He also captured Ft. Henry on Tennessee River.
One of the Major early engagements of the American Civil War. The battle began when the Confederates launched a surprise attack on Union forces under General Ulysses S. Grant in southwestern Tennessee. After initial successes, the Confederates were unable to hold their positions and were forced back, resulting in a Union victory. Both sides suffered heavy losses.
Union forces waged a campaign to take the Confederate stronghold of Vicksburg, Mississippi River, halfway between Memphis to the north and New Orleans to the South. The capture of Vicksburg divided the Confederacy and proved the military genius of Union General Ulysses S. Grant.
General William T. Sherman
Commanded the Union armies of the West in the decisive drive from Chattanooga to Atlanta and the famous "march to the sea" across Georgia. Sherman's troops carried the war to the Southern home front and blazed a wide path of destruction that delivered the death blow to the Confederacy's will and ability to fight.
Atlanta & March to Sea
Union General William T. Sherman led some 60,000 soldiers on a 285-mile march from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia. The purpose of this "March to the Sea" was to frighten Georgia's civilian population into abandoning the Confederate cause. Sherman's soldiers did not destroy any of the towns in their path, but they stole food and livestock and burned the houses and barns of people who tried to fight back.
Marked the first stage of a major Union offensive toward the Confederate capital of Richmond, ordered by the newly named Union General-in-Chief Ulyssess S. Grant in the spring of 1864. As the Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan River on May 4, Confederate General Robert E. Lee determined that his Army of Northern Virginia woods known as the Wilderness. The heavy woods negated the Union's numerical advantage, but it was nearly impossible for a large army to make an orderly advance.
Union General Ulysses S. grant's Army and Confederate general Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia collide for the last time as the first wave of Union troops attacks Petersburg, a vital Southern rail center 23 miles south of the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia. The 2 massive armies would not become disentangled until April 9 1865, when Lee surrendered and his men went home.
Appomattox Court House
Confederate General Robert E. lee surrendered his approximately 28,000 troops to union General Ulysses S. Grant in the front parlor of Wilmer McLean's home in Appomattox Court House, Virginia, effectively ending the American Civil War.
John Wilkes Booth fatally shot President Abraham Lincoln at a play at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C. The attack came only five days after Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his massive army at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, effectively ending the American Civil War.
John Wilkes Booth
Assassinated President Abraham Lincoln. Originally he had conspired to kidnap Lincoln and hide him until all Confederate prisoners were released. However, Booth shot Lincoln close range and immediately fled the scene, and was later tracked down and killed 12 days later by Union soldiers.
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