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child psychology final
Terms in this set (132)
Most 3 year olds can
walk in a straight line and jump a short distance
Which of the following statements is true about sleep in early childhood?
Bedtime is likely to bring on a form of separation anxiety, and children are likely to do all they can to avoid it.
By ________, all the primary teeth are in place and the permanent teeth are developing.
One day, Jenny, a 3-year-old, starts screaming early in the night. Her parents rush into her room and find her sitting up in her bed. Jenny is breathing heavily and staring blankly at the walls. When her parents try to soothe her, she behaves indifferently and falls asleep again. The next morning, she barely remembers the night episode. This scenario best illustrates
a night terror
________ is a mineral essential for the maintenance and solidification of bones and at low levels has been shown to reduce the incidence of dental caries, or cavities.
Which of the following is true about obesity in early childhood?
The long-term success of treatment for obesity, especially when it is delayed, is limited.
During early childhood, the increased capacities of the respiratory and circulatory systems
build physical stamina
Susanna is a 4-year-old child. Which of the following is most likely true about Susanna?
Her cartilage turns to bone at a faster rate than before
Which of the following exemplifies the use of gross motor skills?
Giselle plays hopscotch with her friends.
Which of the following about handedness is true?
Boys are more likely to be left-handed than girls.
Irving is a typical 6-year-old boy. He is most likely to
sleep through the night without any daytime naps.
Which of the following statements is true of physical growth patterns in early childhood?
Boys' slight edge in height and weight continues until the growth spurt of puberty.
Cherry, a 4-year-old healthy child, sits with her lunch for half an hour. She barely eats anything. What should her mother do to encourage healthy eating habits in Cherry?
Her mother should remove the food and not serve Cherry anything until the next meal.
Unlike children who experience nightmares, those who experience night terrors are most likely to
forget the entire episode the next morning.
A treatment program for enuresis must be
delayed till a child can comprehend and follow instructions.
From ages 3 to 6, rapid brain growth occurs in the frontal areas that regulate
Enuresis refers to
Which of the following statements is true of exposure to smoking?
Children exposed to parental smoke are at an increased risk of respiratory infections.
Which of the following is true of handedness?
Handedness is usually evident by about age 3.
Which of the following is least likely to be recommended when trying to encourage healthy eating habits in early childhood?
insisting that children clean their plates
Claudia, a preschooler, resists going to bed every night and usually wakes up a few times at night. Which of the following should her parents do to ensure that she is able to get a sound sleep?
They should allow her to sleep with her favorite doll and her favorite blanket.
In the United States, most deaths from injuries, especially among preschoolers,
occur in their homes
Compared to kindergartens in the past, contemporary kindergartens in the United States
operate more like first grade classes where children spend more time on worksheets and reading activities.
________ is Jean Piaget's term for the ability to use mental representations to which a child has attached meaning.
Unlike the Reggio Emilia approach to early childhood education, the Montessori method
involves teachers serving as guides
Which of the following is true about cognitive development in most children?
Children learn to distinguish between real and imagined events sometime between 18 months and 3 years.
Which of the following statements is true of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Revised (WPPSI-III)?
In includes subtests designed to measure both verbal and nonverbal fluid reasoning.
Which of the following scenarios illustrates the use of symbolic function by a child?
On Sunday morning, 3-year-old Betsy watched her father make pancakes. On Tuesday, she made pancakes with modeling clay.
In the context of Jean Piaget's cognitive theory, which of the following best describes the term egocentrism?
the inability to consider another person's point of view
Which of the following statements is typically true of language development in early childhood?
At age 3, children know the difference between "I," "you," and "we."
Which of the following is true about influences on memory retention?
Preschoolers tend to remember things they did better than things they merely saw.
Ms. Wang, a kindergarten teacher, gives her students a math problem to solve. She asks them to decide who has more crayons: Jamie who has five crayons or Juan who has seven. Which of the following abilities is Ms. Wang specifically testing through this question?
Information being encoded or retrieved is kept in ________, a short-term storehouse for information.
Gannon and Cole, who are both 3 years old, ride their bikes around the driveway, making sounds of a moving train. They tell their parents that they are train conductors. What kind of play are they engaging in?
Which of the following statements is true of generic memory in children?
It helps a child know what to expect and how to act.
Which of the following statements is true of the ability to lie in early childhood?
Generally, children are capable of saying simple lies at 3 years.
Many children can classify by two criteria, such as color and shape, by the age of
Renee pours a glass of water for her doll, telling her mother that her doll is thirsty. This act best illustrates the Piagetian concept of
The ________ is an individual intelligence test for ages 2 and above that is used to measure knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, and working memory.
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
Three-year-old Jeremy has memorized the route that his bus takes to his school. He can describe it in detail to his father. This ability of Jeremy reflects the functioning of his
Which of the following statements is typically true of the language abilities of 5-year-old children?
They are able to use imperatives and interrogatives.
________ is the ability to identify something encountered previously, and ________ is the ability to reproduce knowledge from memory.
Adjustment of children to kindergarten can be eased by
enabling preschoolers and parents to visit before the start of kindergarten.
Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development describes ________ as temporary support to help a child master a task.
About one-third to one-half of preschoolers, kindergarteners, and first graders show a "learned helplessness" pattern in which they usually
assume they will fail and do not bother to try.
When one speaks of methods of molding children's character and teaching them self-control and acceptable behavior, one is referring to the process called
In the context of theories of gender development, which of the following is true of Albert Bandura's social cognitive theory?
Children create their environments through their choice of playmates and activities.
Nina's 8-year-old daughter, Sara, is extremely unruly and cannot be reasoned with through any amount of pleading. At the grocery store, Sara almost drops an entire rack of canned products on herself while trying to shake the rack violently. Nina gets angry, but she decides to ignore it. Even after they reach home, Nina chooses to ignore the earlier incident to avoid Sara's tantrums. Considering the dangerous consequences Sara's action could have had, Nina should have addressed it immediately. In this scenario, Nina should have ideally
given Sara some form of punishment tied to her behavior after they reached home.
Self-concept is essentially a ________ construction.
Seven-year-old Angelica gets extremely disheartened when she fails at a new task. She blames herself for her failure and begins to feel that she is worthless and that her skills are inadequate. She then avoids doing that task altogether. Which of the following should Angelica's parents avoid doing if they want Angelica to believe that she can succeed if she tries harder?
praise her more for her inherent abilities
The style of parenting in which parents focus on their own needs rather than those of children is called
According to Baumrind's model of parenting styles, ________ primarily emphasizes control and unquestioning obedience.
Lana asks her mother if she can have a friend over on a school night to study. Her mother quickly reminds her that the rule is no visitors on school nights and that she is not going to allow Lana to break it. Lana's mother is most likely demonstrating a(n) ________ parenting style in this scenario.
The motivation to help others without expectation of reward that often involves self-denial or self-sacrifice is known as
Which of the following is a typical aspect of self-definition for children around the age of 7?
being self-critical while holding a positive overall self-concept
Julian is explaining to his young daughter why she must not play in their neighbor's garden. He tells her that the neighbors work hard to grow flowers and to maintain their garden and that if she damages their plants while playing, she will not be allowed to go outdoors alone. In the context of discipline, Julian is employing
During free play at preschool, Valerie spends her time playing with Seth and Tifara. Their favorite activity is building different structures with blocks. As they share the blocks, they talk excitedly with one another about the various buildings they create. This scenario best describes the form of play called
Which of the following statements about dramatic play during the preschool years is true?
Dramatic play offers rich opportunities to practice interpersonal and language skills.
Identify a true statement about gender differences between boys and girls.
Boys tend to do better than girls in memory for spatial configurations.
According to Baumrind's model of parenting styles, ________ make few demands and allow children to monitor their own activities as much as possible.
Authoritative parenting is a
parenting style blending warmth and respect for a child's individuality with an effort to instill social values.
________ is the judgment children make about their overall self-worth.
Going from the simplest to the most complex, which of the following sequences of Smilansky's types of play is correct?
functional play, constructive play, dramatic play, formal games with rules
Formal games with rules
are organized games with known procedures and penalties, such as hopscotch and marbles.
Brandon, a 4-year-old boy, watches other children play, talks to other children, and makes suggestions about their games. However, he does not enter into the play. In the context of Parten's categories of social and nonsocial play, which of the following types of play is described in this scenario?
Which of the following is true of children's ability to understand and regulate emotions?
By about 9 years of age, children start to understand more complex aspects of emotion than before.
Justin, a 9-year-old boy, has been given detention several times within the last 8 months for unruly and disruptive behavior during class. His teachers have reported that he often talks back and is rude toward them. He disobeys his parents and frequently fights with his siblings. Justin does not have any friends at school, as other children are put off by his behavior. He is most likely to be diagnosed with
oppositional defiant disorder.
Louie studies in sixth grade. He often steals money from his parents to buy cigarettes. For the past 6 months, he has been lying to his parents and missing his classes. He often bullies smaller children in his neighborhood and gets into physical fights with his classmates. He gets caught stealing from the school cafeteria and is sent to the school counseling center. Louie is most likely to be diagnosed with which of the following?
Although individual growth in middle childhood varies widely, one typical difference between school-age boys and school-age girls is that
girls retain more fatty tissue than boys do.
Which of the following is true of obsessive-compulsive disorder?
It involves an obsession with repetitive, intrusive thoughts, images, or impulses that often involve irrational fears.
Children who watch ________ hours of television a day are 4.6 times as likely to be overweight as those who watch television no more than 2 hours daily.
Brain development in middle childhood indicates that there is a loss in the density of gray matter. This process reflects the
pruning of unused dendrites
True school phobia in children is usually more closely related to
separation anxiety disorder
Which of the following is true of anxiety disorders?
Anxiety disorders are twice as common among girls as among boys.
Joshua, an 8-year-old boy, has been diagnosed with conduct disorder. He has been undergoing therapy for the past few months. Joshua's psychologist has advised his parents to reward him whenever he is obedient and does what has been asked of him. This technique is most likely to be part of
Which of the following is true of children's activities during recess?
Most of the recess activities involve socializing with peers
In the context of brain development, which of the following is most likely to happen to the brain of a child between ages 6 and 13?
Striking growth occurs in connections between the temporal and parietal lobes.
Which of the following best describes children's height gain during middle childhood?
School-age children grow an average of about 2 to 3 inches a year between ages 6 and 11.
________ is a form of therapy that uses principles of learning theory to eliminate undesirable behaviors or to develop desirable ones.
________ is a chronic, allergy-based respiratory disease characterized by sudden attacks of coughing, wheezing, and difficulty in breathing.
Jenny, an 11-year-old girl, feels that her life is meaningless since her parents' divorce 3 months ago. She has lost a lot of weight since then. She feels extremely tired and listless for the past few months. She does not find anything interesting and has no desire to eat or to spend time with her friends. Jenny is most likely to be diagnosed with which of the following?
Persistent snoring, at least three times per week, may indicate that a child has ________, a condition that has been linked to behavioral and learning difficulties.
Children with generalized anxiety disorder
worry about everything
Which of the following is true of the recommendations for the prevention and treatment of overweight in children?
Treatment should begin early and promote permanent changes in lifestyle.
Unlike separation anxiety, social anxiety
tends to increase with age
In the context of recess activities, boys
play more physically active games than girls do.
Changes in the density of the white matter in the corpus callosum may underlie the advances seen in ________ during late childhood.
fine motor control
Which of the following is true of fast-food consumption by children in their middle childhood?
Approximately one-third of children eat at fast-food restaurants on any given day.
Which of the following elements of Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence determines how people deal with their environment and represents their ability to size up a situation and decide what to do, adapt to it, change it, or get out of it?
the contextual element
Mrs. Howard has set up different stations in her classroom to test the student's different types of intelligences. Each station is dedicated to a different type of intelligence and teaches and tests areas such as music, body movements, and interpersonal communication. This approach represents the application of
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences
Which of the following is true about metacognition in children?
It can help children monitor their understanding of what they read.
Which of the following refers to the conscious control of thoughts, emotions, and actions to accomplish goals or solve problems?
Which of the following is true of children with learning disabilities?
They often have near-average to higher-than-average intelligence.
Which of the following is true about the social and home influences on academic achievement in children?
Parental involvement has a positive effect on academic achievement in children.
In the context of Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence, which of the following elements is the analytic aspect of intelligence, which encompasses information-processing skills and tells people how to solve problems, how to monitor solutions, and how to evaluate the results?
the componential element
The major area of linguistic growth during the school years is in
A(n) ________ determines how much you currently know.
Which of the following is true about the English-immersion approach to teaching English?
It is an approach to teaching English as a second language in which instruction is presented only in English.
Patty knows that Tysen, her friend from school, is taller than she is. She also knows that she is taller than her friend Joseph. Without seeing the two of them together, Patty realizes that Tysen is taller than Joseph. In the context of the developments during Piaget's stage of concrete operations, Patty demonstrates
The type of logical reasoning that moves from particular observations about members of a class to a general conclusion about that class is called
Eight-year-old Irene knows that it takes 20 minutes to get to her grandparents' house from her house. She also knows how to play a game that is based on a map. In the context of Piagetian cognitive development, which of the following advances in selected cognitive abilities during middle childhood is exemplified in this scenario?
Intellectual disability is indicated by an IQ score of ________, coupled with a deficiency in age-appropriate adaptive behavior, such as communication, social skills, and self-care, appearing before age 18.
70 or less
The most commonly diagnosed learning disability is
The approach to teaching reading that emphasizes decoding unfamiliar words is called the
Thinking aimed at finding a single correct answer to a problem is referred to as
Eight-year-old Roberto knows that all dogs bark. His neighbor has a dog named Spot, and he concludes that Spot barks. Roberto's ability to make this conclusion is an example of
Eight-year-old Lucas is shown a ball of brown clay. It is then rolled into a large, flat disk. He is asked whether the disk contains the same amount of clay. Lucas says, "It's the same amount because I could just make it into a ball again." This awareness of Lucas demonstrates his ability to understand the principle of
A(n) ________ determines how much you could know.
Which of the following approaches to learning reading and writing is based on the belief that children can learn to read and write naturally, just as they learn to speak?
the whole-language approach
Kristie is participating in an art competition titled "Green Earth" as part of the World Environment Day initiative in her school. She has been provided with some old magazines, color paper, scraps of colored cloth, play dough, and paints. She has to combine these materials to depict her vision of "Green Earth" in an hour's time. This problem tests Kristie's abilities in the area of
Which of the following is true of single-parent families?
Children in single-parent families tend to lag socially and educationally behind peers in two-parent families.
Adam and Sofia have a 10-year-old child. They are aware of the negative influences of violent media on children. Therefore, they strictly monitor and control their child's access to media at home. They let him play video games for an hour after homework on school days, and under their supervision, they allow him to watch television for only about 14 hours a week. They also ensure that the media content he has access to is age appropriate. Suggest a change Adam and Sofia should make to ensure that their child is not negatively influenced by media?
They should reduce the total time the child spends on media to approximately 7 hours a week.
The cognitive growth that takes place during middle childhood enables children to
develop more complex concepts of themselves than before.
Compared with younger children of divorce, older children
tend to be at higher risk with respect to academic outcomes
The ability to stifle the impulse to show negative emotions at inappropriate times is called
Aggression deliberately and persistently directed against a particular target, or victim, typically one who is weak, vulnerable, and defenseless is known as
Which of the following is true of friendship among school-age children?
Boys have more friendships than girls, but they tend to be less intimate.
Which of the following statements about sibling relationships is correct?
Children are more likely to squabble with same-sex siblings.
Identify a true statement about the impact of the type of care children receive before and/or after school.
Children enrolled in high-quality child care programs show declines in drug use.
During middle childhood, children
tend to become more empathic
Leonard, who is in third grade, was initially unable to grasp the concepts taught in his math classes. However, with additional help from his parents and increased practice, he was able to improve his math skills. According to Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, by successfully resolving this crisis, Leonard acquired the virtue of
In the context of parenting, which of the following is true of divorce?
Emotional or behavioral problems children exhibit after parental divorce may reflect the level of parental conflict before the divorce.
Which of the following is true of sibling relationships?
Siblings learn about others' points of view, negotiation, and problem solving through conflicts.
Which of the following is true of coregulation?
The shift to coregulation affects the way parents handle discipline.
In the context of sociometric popularity, which of the following is true of unpopular children?
They do not adapt well to new situations.
a transitional stage of middle childhood in which parents and the child share control of behavior.
Which of the following statements is true about poverty and children?
Effective parenting can buffer children from the effects of low socioeconomic status.
Identify a true statement about cohabiting families
Children living with cohabiting biological parents tend to have worse emotional outcomes than children living with married biological parents.
Children typically are aware of feeling pride and shame by the age of ________ years.
7 or 8
Jenny is new in her class and is having difficulty making friends. She is usually inattentive and withdrawn during class activities. In a classroom sociometric popularity study, she gets no nominations from the other students of her class. This indicates that Jenny is sociometrically
Which of the following is true of the influence of peer groups in middle childhood?
They sometimes foster antisocial tendencies.
Mia, a 12-year-old girl, dislikes her classmate Alice. She often spreads rumors about Alice and encourages others to ignore her. Mia uses similar tactics to hurt other girls in her school. Mia's behavior exemplifies which of the following?
"What evidence suggests that a hostile family environment can be a perpetuating cause of schizophrenia?"
Jamal's parents buy their son a new toy for every good grade on his report card in first grade. According to motivation researchers, what is Jamal receiving from his parents?
Sarah is 16 years old and does not want to belong to any clique or crowd. She is independent and does not feel that group membership is important. Her level of self-esteem is likely:
Why might psychologists wish to select a random sample of research participants when conducting research? What might having a random sample protect against occurring?
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