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Terms in this set (73)
What is constructivism?
The learners actively build or construct them based on their experiences.
The human brain processes incoming information, stores and retrieves it, and generates responses to the information. This involves a number of cognitive processes: gathering and representing information (encoding), retaining of information, and retrieving the information when needed.
Information processing theory uses a computer system as a model for human learning.
Select hazardous attitude that is mismatched to its antidote.
Impulsivity - taking chances is foolish
select incorrect statement of "Esteem"
Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs: a "lower" version and a "higher" version. The "lower" version of esteem is the need for respect from others, However:
externally obtaining self-respect is better than internally established self-esteem
What is wrong method to manage life stress?
react to the stress with extreme over-cooperation, painstaking self-control.
Automation was initially aimed at stabilizing aircraft attitude through the control of aerodynamic surfaces. How this has been achieved?
with use of gyroscopic devices.
Pilots had to demonstrate proficiency in their use during pilot certification, whereas previous requirements emphasized the ability to operate without these aids. This was due to?
difficulty in learning to operate more complex systems.
Reluctance by the crew to disconnect automation can be called ?
One approach to reduce or eliminate human's biased decision-making tendencies is to use automated decision-making aids at the time decisions are required. This will normally leads to
worsen, rather than improve, decision performance
What is most important training aspects in automation era.
basic aircraft instruction.
Flight deck observations have shown that pilots use only a few of the features available to them, what is the reason of this?
because of incomplete knowledge about how to use other features .
This is unintended, and is a product of an apparently greater proficiency of some first officers in CDU data entry compared to that of the captains, plus the delegation of these duties to the first officer. What is this?
shallower or reverse Transcockpit Authority Gradient (TAG).
The automated flight deck offers new consideration of LOFT scenario design. New design should be:
scenario design that do not require abnormal conditions or emergencies
What the lessons did they learned regarding assessment of training requirements for advanced technology aircraft?
assessment of training requirement should be made when a new aircraft type is designed.
What is most effective management techniques to cope with automation?
A permanent contact with the pilots, with a maximum exchange of information, views and policies, is essential, and procedures, equipment and rules.
What happened by reducing the number of the flight crew from 3 person to 2 person?
Pilots in two-person crew operations more systems training in their initial and periodic training than was given for predecessor aircraft with three-person crews.
Automated aircrafts and non-automated older aircrafts are in coexistence in some airlines, and these create additional problems. Select the incorrect answer.
Separation of the fleets are long time economic burden.
Existing data base evidence suggests that risk increases when the captain is performing monitoring duties, since a number of accidents/incidents have occurred when the co-pilot is flying. Why?
significant operational anomaly is normally preceded by a preventive monitoring failure and lead to ambiguous and critical role.
Considerable crew workload can be created by the requirement to perform non-operational tasks at inopportune times (for example, calling ahead for passenger connections, meal requirements, wheelchairs and other passenger service items).
Establish policies which reassign or eliminate of these tasks.
0.2 / 0.2 points
What is the objective of CRM training?
to contribute to incident and accident prevention.
Select the incorrect statement:
4th generation CRM realized explicit and stand alone CRM is established.c
What is not the feature of 5th generation CRM?
Discontinuation of CRM training in initial and recurrent training
The 4 layers of TEM are?
Recognition of Threat, Cancel Threat, Recognition of potential Error and Error management.
Select incorrect statement about Threat management
The treat means that there is undesired aircraft state
A decision-making error that is not standardized by regulations or operator procedures and, as such, the crew had more conservative option but not took, time not used effectively, is called?
Operational decision error
0 / 0.2 points
Identify the items that is not belong to error management.
Select incorrect statement:
Classroom "games" are most effective CRM training as it teaches human relationships.
Select the item that is not belong to the four phases of CRM training programme development:
extending the concept of the flight crew by broadening the scope of CRM training,
How do you countermeasure Threat?
with CRM skill
Select the incorrect statement regarding about building the scenarios for Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT)
LOFT scenarios should be compressed and fill the total flight period to save training time.
Perhaps the most challenge the operators(company) and their instructors in LOFT will be?
To convince the crew that while satisfactory completion is an inescapable aspect of LOFT, however, in some cases, mistakes may indicate deficiencies that need additional work.
Select the statement that does not represent LOFT (LINE-ORIENTED FLIGHT TRAINING)
In LOFT instructor can repositioning the simulator and repeat the problems for better training.
Select the incorrect statement about LOFT:
instructors are encouraged to lectures about what is right and what is wrong
Select the correct information processing sequence:
sensing - perceiving - processing - responding
Where in the information processing stage the error occurs?
all of the above
In the black-hole approach, pilot unconsciously descend below glideslope. This is due to?
absence of ground texture gave impression (perception) of high.
Landing flare error with the tailwind and downwind stall is due to?
impression of faster airspeed
Even complex tasks like driving a car can become automatic; many experienced car drivers 'find themselves' stopped at a red traffic light without remembering it happening. Why?
Some well-learned perceptions can bypass processing stage by triggering a skilled response automatically
How can we prevent the accident that is caused by lack of attention, lack of vigilance and monitoring?
by being more receptive and encouraging of the intervention if they understand the reality of the vigilance issue in themselves.
While old view of human error was "the bad apple theory", 'new view' is a socio-technical approach whereby all elements of a system (design of interfaces, procedures, working practices and human vulnerabilities) are considered as being inextricably connected. Any 'failure' is therefore a failure of the whole system.
it can be misinterpreted as making excuses for negligent performance. Shifting the cause from people to systems blurs and diffuses the individual accountability.
Which one is system error?
Select the incorrected paired errors.
routine violations that have evolved in response to task demand - knowledge based error that can be correct with CRM training easily
Select the incorrect defense technique in preventing the errors.
intention to violate is always to intend to do a harm.
19-6. Select the incorrect statement about the attention
The solution of lacking the attention will be just paying more attention on the important factors ( i.e. speed on the final turn)
In rationale types of decisions that are used in flight in response to an unexpected, unusual, ongoing or emergency situations, acronyms are used. However, there is no way for crews to systematically generate options and no way of knowing whether they have exhausted the possible alternatives, these acronyms should only be used:
only if time allows
humans very rarely, if ever, make decisions in the way that classical models suggest. Simon (1957) used the term 'bounded rationality' to suggest that humans do not have the 'mental capacity' to make perfectly rational decisions.
Select the mechanism that is not a shortening information assessment:
Considering all the options
PSA Boeing 727 that collided with a Cessna 172 at San Diego in 1978. On the downwind leg in visual conditions, the flight crew was visually searching for a Cessna 172 that they had previously had visual contact with. The captains asked: "are we clear of that Cessna?" The replies implied that no one knew for sure, but everyone considered they should be clear, e.g. "supposed to be". The captain then said the following:
I guess... Yeah; before we turned downwind, I saw him about one o' clock...probably behind us now
What was the decision mechanism and shortcuts the captain based upon?
Select the correct statement
The overall phenomenon of decision-making is too wide and complex for general rules to be applied for improvement (There are no so called 'silver-bullets')
Select incorrect statement in decision making:
In conclusion, any undesirable outcome following a decision could have been prevented by spending more time and effort on the decision.
Flying an accurate ILS approach is adversely affected by mentally processing crosswind information. Why?
This is because although the crosswind information is presented verbally, the calculation of the wind vector requires heavy executive functioning and some spatial visual resource. Flying ILS must compete visual attention.
Select the incorrect way to reduce the workload
re-arranging flight deck tasks so that task switching is minimized.
But in fight or flight, the brain wants to quickly establish a very basic mental model then drop any assessment process in order to concentrate all attention to the response. But if resources are not given to assessment and problem solving then the person cannot decide the best response. This situation would be best described as a vicious circle. How do you minimize this? Select the incorrect way to cope with this startle effect.
by attempting to reduce or fight the effect.
It is unlikely that a pilot who has lost SA will passively recognise it without a clear signal or consequence. Then how can the pilot regain the SA?
By using multiple sources of information
Perceiving and Understanding and Projecting are three level of situational awareness these are approximately aligned with the central tenant of ________, because, in order to avoid a threat one must be able to project ahead. In order to trap a threat or error one must understand the situation. If someone does not understand the situation then they are more likely to make an error requiring mitigation.
threat and error management (TEM)
Select incorrect way for good SA (Situational Awareness)
focusing on one thing to resolve discrepancies
Alarm reaction, Resistance and Exhaustion are:
The response to chronic or acute stress
Select the items which is not a stressors:
The best way to deal with stress will be:
This coping strategy is used when the situation cannot be changed. It involves reducing the emotional and physiological impact of the stress. This may be done by rationalisation or emotional and intellectual detachment from the situation. The effect is to change the perception of the problem even if the demand itself is no different. This is called:
Anxiety creates worry, and in turn any form of worry may lead to stress. Anxiety can be produced when an individual knows that they have no control over events or lack the knowledge to handle them. It is particularly prevalent in people who, for one reason or another, are lacking in self-confidence. How can this changed?
This can be changed by increasing knowledge and gaining greater proficiency in operating an aircraft, requiring more time devoted to study and flight training.
Select the incorrect statement about sleep
If you slept very well for more than 8 hours, sleep debt will not occur after 16 hours of continual wakefulness.
Select the incorrect statement about the sleep:
REM sleep is related to body restoration
Select the incorrect statement about the jet lag/sleep deprivation:
Only long haul crew suffer from cumulative sleep deprivation, but not short-haul crew as a result of regular early morning starts and long multi-sector days.
Select incorrect statement about fatigue
Alcohol increase REM sleep and help to relieve fatique
What would be proper personality traits the commercial pilot's should have according the various study?
emotionally stable, non-impulsive, agreeable but assertive, and appreciate cultural differences , professional
Group decision-making can be quite different than single person decision-making.
Select incorrect statement:
Decision made by many people always better than one made by a person because of redundancy and synergy effect.
Sometimes pilots will sacrifice their point of view in order to maintain relationships, give a good impression, or avoid the possibility of being wrong. This will be more likely to occur when the authority gradient is very steep. To avoid leading or suggestive questions, what is the best question by the captain in this situation?
"What height did he tell us to level off?"
Do the captain must invite and include whole crew's decision all the time?
Answer A, and B. "It doesn't matter who's right, it matters what's right".
Which leadership is best to be more effective and not detrimental?
Balance of task-orientated behaviour and relationship maintenance
Select the factor that will reduced or even destroy the synergistic crew working environment.
Followership behaviour motivated by goals other than joint goals
Select the incorrect statement regarding the communication
Clarity of communication can be improved by methods such as plain language and non-standard operational phraseology in non-routine situation,
What is the incorrect way to bring up assertiveness and intervention?
First Officers should speak up and share the decisions to make the cockpit trans-authority gradient flatter
If you are the captain and do not agree with the First Officer's assertion, What do you have to do?
You should still acknowledge it, then show some appreciation of the communication in later debriefing.
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