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Arts and Humanities
Big Final Study Guide
ASL interp. study guide
Terms in this set (141)
2 Deaf people
What year was the Milan Confrence. How many deaf people were in attendence
close to 100 years of oralism, and the laying off of Deaf teachers
What did the Milan confrence cause
French Sign Language
Martha's Vineyard Sign
What types of Sign language came together to form ASL
1. Zinser's resignation
2. Spilman's resignation
3. Reconsitute the Board of trustees (51% Deaf)
4. no reprisals agains protestors.
What were the demands of the protestors durring the Deaf President Now (DPN) movement (1988)
Sign Language was Banned
most Deaf teachers were replaced with hearing ones.
What happend which the switch was made to Oralism
1960- Said ASL is its own language wiht syntax grammar etc
William Stoke's contributions
Met Alice Cogswell,
traveled to Europe in 1815, met Eppe and Clerc, and traveled to France. established Deaf schools in USA.
Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet
French Deaf Man - First Deaf teacher in U.S.. Came to the US with T. Gallaudet
American School for the Deaf in Hartford Conneticut
What was the name of the school Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc founded in 1817
NYSD (New York School for the Deaf)
PSD (Pennsylvania School for the Deaf)
KSD (Kentucky School for the Deaf)
What 3 Deaf institutes were established between 1817-1823
Edward Minor Gallaudet, 1864
Who started Gallaudet College
1. Handshape (DEZ)
3. Location (TAB)
4. Movement (SIG)
5. Non-manual Signs
5 Parameters of ASL
Questions-WHQ & Y/N
ASL sentence types
emphasis on the verb.
comment depends on intent
ASL Command sentence structures
NMS-depends on intent
ASL statement structure
Hold last sign
also: finger wiggle and "me ask to you"
ASL Yes/no question structure
Last sign is WHQ with eyebrows down
ASL WHQ question structure
WHQ is the last sign, with eyebrows up. no hold
structure of an ASL rehtorical statements
can be a question or a command
result-depends on intent
Body shift to show 2 parts
Structure of an ASL conditional Statement
Pronouns, adjative, verb, and adverb (can be at the same time)
What do Classifiers "Function as"
Indicate the ammount. ex: 2 boys (w/2handshape)
Number Specific Classifiers
one hand, while the other can be used to sign
Classifiers as pronouns are often signed with
T/F cannot be used until after the referents have been established
Show how to referants interact with one another
the purpose of a classifiers as a verb
show the manner of an action ex: the car turned quickly
Classifiers as an adverb
are often size and shape specifiers
Classifiers used as adjatives
Descriptive, locative, semantic, Body classifiers, instrument, body action, plural, elemental
Types of Classifiers
Gives spacial relationships between two or more referents
a word or sign that shows a relationship to something else
T/F Can classifiers be used to indicate locative relationsips
T/F directional verbs can be used to indicate locative relationships
Body Anchor verbs
seperate locative signs.
List the ways ASL indicates a locative relationship
when it is used as a pronoun (pronomilization)
When is Indexing not used for a locative
Setting up referents in the sign space for future refrence.
T/F ASL tends to have more Locative information than English
Show locative relationships when used to explain an interaction
ex: kiss all over, hit, shot
Body Anchored Signs
When does ASL use seperate preposition signs?
Modulates verbs to show the durration or frequency of something
changing a parameter of the sign, to change the meaning but not the concept
General time markers, Specific time markers and use of sign space
3 ways ASL shows time
usually at the end of and utterance, but can be at the beginning.
ex: now, finish,
General time indicators
always at the beginning of a sentence.
Ex. Tomorrow, Today, Monday
Specific time indicators
"Over and over"
4 different ways to show time ( temporal aspect)
repeated circular movement.
Means: coninually, regularly or a while
Over time in temporal aspect
frequently, repeatedly, alot
Regularly in temporal aspect
elliptical movement (rounded thrust and return)
for a prolonged time
Long time in temporal aspect
no, it is the signers persective of time
Does Temporal Aspect refer to the actual time
Prolonged, repeated focus
Over and over
verb inflection that gives information about the distribution or collection of things
to/from all in a group
4 types of distributional aspect
sweep of the hand in an arc (horizontal). eyes and head follow sweep
to/from all in a group
repreated seperate articualtions (horizontally)
to/from each in a group
repeated articulations, with both hands alternating. head moves back and forth
to/from specific indiviuals
repeated articulations. signers head does not focus on a specific point
to/from un-specified indiviuals
A languages way of indication more than one of something
dictionary listing of a sign
the noun, pronoun etc must agree with the number of this
ex: 2 boyS, not 2 boy
Number Agreement rule
(always noun adj)
What is the syntactical relationship between nounds and numbers in ASL
Specific number signs
Non-specific number signs
How does ASL show plurality
House, you, cars
example of Repitition/sweeping when discussing plurality
2weeks, 3 days
example of number incorporated signs
example of plural signs
example of plural classifers
example of plural verb
examples of non-specific number signs
they, 3 of us
example of a pural pronoun
Frozen, Formal, Consultative, Informal, Intimate
What are the 5 ASL registers
uncommon in ASL,
does not change,
Ex: Preservation of sign by Veditz
large sign space, sweeping eye contact, RHQs.
Allows 2-way communication.
mixed sentence structure use of finerspelling
assimlated signs, direct address and sign play
NMM-on the mouth
with people you are very close to.
Phonology, Syntax, Semantics, Morphology, Pragmatics (LIU)
Branches of linguistics
Study of Phonemes:The smallest part that has NO meaning
(each parameter is a phoneme)
Meaning of words and sentences
the smallest part of a word that still has meaning
a new word is derived from another (creates a new unit).
adding grammatical information to units that already exist. (ie. a number, gender, or tense)
Language in Use
Establish, Maintain, and destroy social norms
3 functions of a language
5 sign parameters
Demands are requirements of a job
T/F Demands are controled by the worker
T/F Controls are the responsability of the worker
4 Types of demands
Things that have to do with the physical setting.
specific interactions with other people
ex: teammate on their phone
How things are being said.
ex: pace, volume, accent
Things specific to the interpreter
Ex: feelings, thoughts, internal distractions, hunger, illness
decisions afforded to the worker
3 types of controls
Helper | Conduit | Communcation Facilitator | Bilingual-Bicultural
Were the first interpreters who were often volunteers that performed their job.
often had no boundaries
The interpreters job consisted of only transmitting the information.
between the helper and conduit model,
had Code of Ethics,
Needs of interpreter and clients were acknowledge
"Interpreter as a participant in bilingual-bicultural exchange of equals"
Considers consumers:language, culture, and norms
Explain by Example
Utilizing 3D Space
7 Types of ASL Expansion
to emphasize an idea and highlight the juxtaposition of two opposites
Several different signs are signed sequentially to more clearly express one's idea. Signs used are different but still somewhat synonyms.
repeating information, often bookending the statment.
express referentail space (pronouns) to establish a scene
Utilizing 3D Space
Lists examples of a concept.
Explain by Example
grouping together background/contextual signs to express a concept that does not have a sign of its own
describing, roll shifting to act out
describe then do
Respect for Customers
Respect for Colleagues
Tenets of the CPC
2 handed signs, if each hand has a different handshape, only the active hand can move. The passive hand serves as a support and doesn't move
B A S 1 C 5 0
X 7 R T E 8
A compund sign becomes one sign ex: husband/wife, home, remember
sing moving so it can be more easily seen/produced
Signs moving towards the midline of the body
example of head displacement
example of body displacement
Edward Miner Gallaudet
Who founded Gallaudet University?
Identified Sign Languge interpreting as a service
Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1965
Defined "handicapped indiviuals"
Mandates full rehab services
agencies who recieved federal funds must be accessable
(sec. 501, 503, 504)
Rehabilitation Act of 1973
full rehab services to
501-employment practices of the federal government
504-recipients of federal assistance
Sections of the Rehab act of 1973
guarantees that children with disabilities will receive an "appropriate" education
"least restrictive enviorment"
increased interpreting jobs
Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975
an certified interpreter must be provided if a non-native English speaker is involved in court, not disability legislation, witness testimony must be consecutive.
Court Interpreters Act of 1978
sec. 101- Must have personel trained in the use of the clients native language
sec. 304- funds 12 federal interpreter education centers
Rehabilitation Amendments of 1978
private businesses must provide equal access.
businesses of a ceritan size must provide interpreters, TTY, etc.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1991
What are types of Language Variation
Basic Interpsonal Communication Skills and Cognitive academic learning proficiency
What are BICS and CALP?
Week hand deletion
phonological processes of ASL
Process of adding one or more movement segments between two signs.
Ex: Father, Study
Shortens holds between movements when signs occur in sequence
The process /absorption of signs/handshapes becoming similar to another
Ex: girl+Marry= wife
Passive hand is removed to form a single handed sign
Weak Hand Deletion
One parameter is changed to make the sign easer to produce, ex: Deaf, Member (the direction that it is signed can change)
Uses symbols, either arbitrary or iconic
shared my members of a community
What makes a language a language?
It is productive.
shows relationships between symbols
has ways to create new symbols.
more that one meaning to a symbol
changes across time
minitored by its users
can be used to discuss the language
Features that make a language unique
deaf-does not identify with the Deaf community.
Deaf-a member of the community, Deaf pride
Deaf of Deaf-family is Deaf
Types of culturally Deaf people
The body of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people.
What is culture?
7 Qualities of culture
Symbol of identity
Medium for social interaction
Repository of cultural knowledge: Value
Repository of cultural knowledge: Customs
Repository of cultural knowledge: information
5 roles of ASL in the Deaf world
changing modality of the message.
changing a message from one language to another.
usually inthe form of visual text
CS- close, with effort
STAH-with great efford
examples of mouth morphemes
1. Take in source language
2. Identify deep structural meaning
3. Apply contextual/schema screen
4. Formulate target language utterance
5. Produce interpretation
5 steps of Interpreting Process
T/F we got this!!
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