31 terms

Understanding Psychology: Chapter 9 Vocabularies

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Classical Conditioning
person or an animal's respond becoming attached to an old stimulus
Neutral Stimulus
a factor that is neutral to any responses prior to conditioning
Unconditioned stimulus
an event that elicits a certain predictable response without previous training
Unconditioned response
an organism's automatic (or natural) reaction to a stimulus
Conditioned stimulus
a once-neutral event that elicits a given response after a period of training in which it has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned response
the learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus
Generalization
responding similarly to a range of similar stimuli
Discrimination
ability to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli
Extinction
the gradual disappearance of a conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus
Operant conditioning
learning in which a certain action is reinforced or punished, resulting in corresponding increases or decreases in occurrence
Reinforcement
stimulus or event that follows a response and increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated
Primary reinforcer
stimulus that is naturally rewarding, such as food or water
Secondary reinforcer
stimulus such as money that becomes reinforcing through its link with a primary reinforcer
Fixed-ratio schedule
schedule of reinforcement in which a specific number of correct responses is required before reinforcement can be obtained
Variable-ratio schedule
schedule of reinforcement in which an unpredictable number of responses are required before reinforcement can be obtained
Fixed-interval schedule
schedule of reinforcement in which a specific amount of time must elapse before a response will elicit reinforcement
Variable-interval schedule
- schedule of reinforcement in which changing amounts of time must elapse before a response will obtain reinforcement
Shaping
technique in which the desired behavior is "molded" by first rewarding any act similar to that behavior and then requiring closer approximations to the desired behavior before giving the reward
Response chain
learned reactions that follow one another in sequence, each reaction producing the signal for the next
Aversive control
process of influencing behavior by means of unpleasant stimuli
Negative reinforcement
increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs
Escape conditioning
training of an organism to remove or terminate an unpleasant stimulus
Avoidance conditioning
training of an organism to withdraw from an unpleasant stimulus before it starts
Social learning
form of learning in which the organism observes and limitates the behavior of others
Cognitive learning
form of altering behavior that involves mental processes and may result from observing or imitation
Cognitive map
a mental picture of spatial relationships or relationships between events
Latent learning
learning that is not demonstrated by an immediate, observable change in behavior
Learned helplessness
condition in which repeated attempts to control a situation fail, resulting in the belief that the situation is uncontrollable
Modeling
learning by imitating others; copying behavior
Behavior modification
systematic application of learning principles to change people's actions and feelings
Token economy
conditioning in which desirable behavior is reinforced with valueless objects, which can be accumulated and exchanged for valued rewards.
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