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Sociology final exam (2/2)
Terms in this set (150)
Of the following illnesses, which probably carries the greatest stigma?
About what percentage of the adult population in the United States suffers from a mental illness at some point in their lives?
Health is defined by the World Health Organization as
a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being
One good measure of a society's health is the percentage of babies who die in their first year of life for each thousand live births. What concept is used to track this pattern?
the infant mortality rate
An illness that has a long-term development is called
a chronic disease
Which of the following is an acute disease?
Social epidemiology is the study of
how health and disease are distributed throughout a society's population
In what region of the world is the AIDS epidemic most serious?
The United States accounts for about what percentage of global AIDS cases?
Read the following statements about HIV/AIDS. Which statement is correct?
Non-Hispanic African Americans are ten times more likely than non-Hispanic whites to become infected with HIV
In societies with which type of economy does the government control most economic activity, including providing medical services and operating hospitals and clinics?
Since the Soviet Union's 1991 collapse, the health-care system in the Russian Federation is
still mostly under government control
For more than a century, Sweden has
taken the socialist approach that health care is a basic right for all citizens
What is the term for a medical care system in which the government owns and operates most medical facilities and employs most physicians?
In Great Britain,
there is a dual system with both government and private medical services
Canada has what type of health care system?
The government operates like a large insurance company, paying physicians and hospitals from tax revenues
When it comes to the health of the overall population, in comparison with most other high-income nations, the United States ranks
Which concept refers to a medical care system in which patients or their insurers pay directly for the services of physicians and hospitals?
Which of the following is NOT a reason for the rapid rise in U.S. health care costs?
a declining average age for the U.S. population
The fear of lawsuits may prompt doctors to order additional tests and procedures just to protect themselves—a strategy called
Which of the following is NOT one of the medical cost-controlling techniques discussed in the text?
denying care to people without insurance
In which of the world's high-income countries do the most people have direct responsibility for most of their medical expenses?
the United States
What concept refers to private insurance organizations that provide medical care to subscribers for a fixed fee?
health maintenance organizations (HMOs)
is part of the Social Security system
About what percentage of the U.S. population has no medical coverage?
Which of the following categories of people has an especially low life expectancy?
the Oglala Sioux Indians of South Dakota
The leading cause of death among African American men aged fifteen to thirty-four is
In the United States, African Americans are three times as likely to be poor as white people,
and die an average of four years earlier than whites
Gender affects the health of men and women in which of the following ways?
U.S. culture's definition of masculinity places men at higher risk for accidents, violence, and suicide
Our culture's tendency to define women in terms of physical attractiveness
can lead to eating disorders, which in turn cause other serious health problems
is a form of compulsive dieting leading people to eat too little to maintain a healthy body weight
Jeffrey is a paraplegic and uses a wheelchair. Jeffrey has a(n)
Because people may look at someone and see only a disability rather than that person's abilities, a disability can operate as a
The U.S. Census Bureau estimates that what percentage of the elderly have some disability?
More people in the United States are ending up with a chronic and disabling condition, ranging from arthritis (inflammation of the joints) to Alzheimer's disease (loss of brain function) mainly because
people are living longer
Because medical advances now save the lives of people who, decades ago, would have died, the share of our population with a disability is
In 1990, which act of Congress outlawed discrimination against people with disabilities in employment and public accommodations, including hotels, theaters, restaurants, and stores?
the Americans with Disabilities Act
According to the text, the U.S. nursing shortage is resulting in
increasing salaries for nurses
Which term refers to a condition involving thinking, mood, or behavior that causes distress and reduces a person's ability to function in everyday life?
Most mental disorders have
many causes, both biological and social
Psychiatrist Thomas Szasz charges that people apply the label of "insanity" to behavior that they find disturbing. According to Szasz, much behavior defined as "crazy" is
really only "different."
Which of the following is a medical approach to the treatment of mental illness?
Treatment of the mentally ill underwent reform during the 1800s due in large part to the efforts of
Deinstitutionalization refers to
the release of people from mental hospitals into local communities
The notion of the "sick role," a pattern of behavior expected of people defined as ill, is reflected in which of these theoretical approaches?
In what category of disorders does the mind appear to affect the body?
Which theoretical approach links patterns of health to inequality based on gender?
In terms of health care, conservatives
favor allowing physicians and health-care agencies to compete freely in a market system
In terms of health care, liberals
accept the idea of most doctors and hospitals operating for profit, but emphasize that government programs should be expanded so that everyone receives care
If you argue that health care is a right that everyone should have, you are speaking from which position on the political spectrum?
left of center
About what percentage of eligible voters actually voted in the 2012 presidential election?
What is the social institution that guides a society's collective decision-making process?
The formal organization that directs the political life of a society is
The social institution that organizes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services is
Capitalism is an economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are
According to Scottish economist Adam Smith,
the pursuit of self-interest has widespread benefits from producing the greatest good for the greatest number of people
Which type of economic system places natural resources and the means of producing goods and services under collective ownership?
In a socialist economy,
there is a collective orientation, teaching people to be motivated by serving the common good.
Which of the following statements about socialism is correct?
In practice, socialist nations have less economic inequality than capitalist nations
Which type of economic system has government working closely with large, privately owned companies?
In Western European nations, including Italy, France, and Sweden, which political and economic system is common?
In the United States, about what percentage of the gross domestic product comes from the privately owned sector of the economy?
According to Karl Marx,
capitalism's private ownership of productive property allows an elite to dominate society
Which concept refers to a political system in which power is exercised by the people as a whole?
Which type of political system, by definition, denies popular participation in government?
In which type of political system does a single family rule from generation to generation?
Which of the following countries is currently ruled by a monarchy?
Which term refers to businesses with a legal existence, including rights and liabilities, apart from those of their members?
You probably approve of the operation of WalMart if you support
In the United States
the economic activity of corporations is far greater than that of government
In the 2012 presidential election, the Obama-Biden and Romney-Ryan campaigns each spent how much money in their efforts to win the election?
The domination of an entire market by a single company is referred to as
Which concept refers to the domination of a market by a few companies?
In the United States, the manufacture of breakfast cereal is dominated by Kellogg's, General Mills, and General Foods, which together control most sales. This pattern is an illustration of
Which term refers to a giant corporation composed of many smaller corporations?
Which term refers to networks of people who serve as directors of several corporations at the same time?
Assume a member of the Kodak Corporation's board of directors also serves on the boards of other camera manufacturers, such as Nikon and Fuji. This pattern would illustrate the operation of
an interlocking directorate
Which concept refers to political alliances of people interested in some economic or social issue?
Which concept refers to the efforts of special-interest groups and their representatives to influence government officials?
Which term refers to organizations formed by special-interest groups to raise and spend money in support of political goals?
political action committees (PACs)
In 2013, there were about how many political action committees (PACs) in the United States?
The 2002 Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act, also called the McCain-Feingold bill,
states that soft money can no longer flow directly to candidates or political parties
Critics say that our system of campaign financing
puts the U.S. political system up for sale
Which of the following was least likely to have voted in the 2012 presidential election?
Juan, a 20-year-old high-school dropout from Corpus Christi, Texas
The Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution extended the vote to
Conservatives claim that relatively low voter turnout is mostly a sign of
indifference on the part of many people who are fairly satisfied with the way things are
Liberals and radicals on the left argue that low voter turnout reflects
widespread alienation from politics on the part of people who are dissatisfied but doubt that voting will make a difference.
In the United States, people most likely to vote include
Although 78 percent of people earning more than $100,000 per year reported voting in the 2012 presidential election, what percentage of people earning less than $20,000 did the same?
African American men were granted the right to vote in
In the 2012 presidential election,
women were slightly more likely to vote than men were
Which of the following categories of people face legal barriers to voting?
Which political model describes power in the United States as widely distributed among various groups and organizations?
the pluralist model
As he prepared to leave office in 1961, President Dwight D. Eisenhower gave a farewell address in which he warned the country of the growing power of what he called the
Which political model sees a concentration of wealth and power in U.S. society resulting from the operation of the capitalist economy?
Marxist political-economy model
Which political position claims that U.S. society is largely democratic?
Which of the following would be considered a part of the power elite?
top military officials
Which political position calls for reforms based on the claim that our political and economic systems benefit some more than others?
According to which political position does the capitalist economy concentrate wealth in the hands of the few and the government serve the interests of the capitalist elite?
Which of the following statements is correct?
Both conservatives and liberals try to use the power of government, but for different goals
Which term refers to a social bond based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption, which joins individuals into families?
Which term refers to one or two parents and their children?
Sandra lives with her two children. These three people represent
a nuclear family
Which of the following terms refers to parents and children, plus grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins, who often live close to one another and operate as a family unit?
Families are built around a lawful relationship, usually involving economic cooperation, sexual activity, and childbearing. What is this relationship called?
Samuel, Jake, and Jake's two children share an apartment. They consider themselves a family. Their relationship is referred to as
a family of affinity
One documented trend that is a sign of family change is that
more gay and lesbian couples are joined by marriage
The sharing of a household by an unmarried couple is referred to as
In the United States, about what share of people between twenty-five and forty-four years of age cohabit at some point?
In 2012, the average number of children born to the typical U.S. woman over her lifetime was about
In 2013, the typical age at first marriage for a woman was
26.6 years old
In 2013, what percentage of the U.S. adult population have remained single?
In 2013, about what share of families with children under 18 had just one parent in the household?
The biggest problem facing one-parent families, especially when that parent is a woman, is
What percentage of African American children are born to a single mother?
In 1965, Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan said the African American family was in crisis because of
a growing number of absent fathers who leave single mothers to raise children on their own
William Julius Wilson claims that the major cause of poverty among African American families is
a lack of available jobs
In the United States, most people who receive public assistance are
A majority of U.S. families, including those with young children,
have both parents working for income
About what percentage of young children of mothers in the labor force receive care during the working day from a parent, grandparent, or other relative?
About what share of today's marriages will end in divorce, separation, or dissolution within twenty years?
Compared to a century ago, the divorce rate today is
almost four times higher
Under "no-fault" divorce laws,
couples declare that their marriage is over due to irreconcilable differences
Which nation has the highest divorce rate in the world?
the United States
Of the children who are awarded court-ordered child support, about what percentage receive partial payments or no payments at all?
Scott and Connie are married and have a six-month-old son. Also in the home is Scott's son from a previous marriage and Connie's daughter from a previous marriage. This household can be correctly described as
a blended family
Most blended families manage to cope with the challenges, but research shows that blended families carry an increased risk of
physical and sexual abuse of children
Prenuptial agreements may be a good idea because
there is a significant chance that the marriage will eventually end in divorce
In the United States, about how many gay and lesbian couples have formed committed partnerships?
As of 2014, how many countries (excluding the United States) have enacted lawful same-sex marriage in name, as well as in practice?
In 2004, which state became the first to recognize lawful, same-sex marriage?
Research shows that children raised by same-sex parents
receive the same supportive and effective parenting as those raised in other families
New reproductive technology, including in vitro fertilization
is very expensive, and thus out of reach for many people
According to the structural-functional approach, which of the following social institutions is considered to be the most important?
In the case of John and Luanne Buzzanca, who engaged a woman to serve as a surrogate mother using donated eggs and sperm, and who then divorced before the child was born, the court ruled that
both parental parties who engage a surrogate mother are responsible for the child
Sociologists use what term to refer to cases of scientific discoveries that occur faster than our ideas develop about the acceptable ways to use them?
Which term refers to an arrangement in which one woman carries and bears a child for another, usually in exchange for money?
James and Marjorie have a marriage in which each partner finds comfort and support. This kind of intimate relationship is considered ideal according to
Which theoretical analysis views families in terms of patterns of gender inequality?
The structural-functional approach and the social-conflict approach both represent which type of analysis of the family?
Which theoretical analysis views the family less as an institution and more in terms of ongoing relationships among individuals?
Which of the following is a "micro-level" analysis of the family?
Which theoretical analysis explains how the family perpetuates inequality by continuing the class system?
Friedrich Engels developed an early theory of family life making the claim that men gained control of women's sexuality as a means to protect their own wealth. This claim is the foundation for which type of theoretical analysis?
From which point of view would someone see the rise in cohabitation as spelling trouble for U.S. society?
Which political point of view considers "family values" to mean getting—and staying—married with parents displaying strong commitment to children?
Which political point of view places the greatest emphasis on support for diverse family forms, including cohabitation, single-parent families, blended families, same-sex marriages, and singlehood?
Which political point of view claims that, in order to increase social equality, we need to replace the family as we know it?
Which political point of view claims that conventional families are breaking down: divorce, single-parenting, and living together without marriage are symptoms of a "me first" culture that weakens society and places children at risk?
According to which political point of view should society develop collective arrangements for performing housework and child care?
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