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Farooq, a Muslim Asian immigrant in the United States, joins an automobile plant as an assembly-line worker. He interacts with his coworkers but only gradually gains acceptance in everyday interaction with members of the dominant group. Over time, he becomes close friends with one of his white American coworkers. This scenario exemplifies __________.
In the 1950s, many African Americans participating in the civil rights movement tried to combat racial inequality through nonviolent action seeking to change a policy or law by refusing to comply with it. This tactic is called
The fastest-growing major racial or ethnic group in the United States today is
The U.S. Census of __________ made it possible for the first time for individuals to identify themselves as being of more than one race.
A small country in Europe is renowned for being home to multiple ethnic groups. People of Asian, German, and African cultural heritages peacefully coexist with one another and have uniform access to power and privilege in this country. In this scenario, this European country can be said to have __________.
Which of the following statements is true of Puerto Rican Americans in the United States?
They have higher levels of educational attainment than the overall Hispanic population overall.
Native Americans in the United States are currently in a transition from a history marked by prejudice and discrimination to a contemporary life in which they may find new opportunities. One of the challenges that Native Americans face today is
erasing negative stereotypes while maintaining their heritage.
Which of the following racial or ethnic groups has been the most privileged racial or ethnic group in the United States?
white Anglo-Saxon Protestants
Which of the following theories states that actions of the government substantially define racial and ethnic relations in the United States?
the theory of racial formation
In what way does race differ from ethnicity?
Race is based on physical characteristics, whereas ethnicity is based on culture and national origin.
Identify a true statement about white ethnic Americans.
.They experienced discrimination because many white ethnic Americans were not Protestant.
Many Iranian Americans refer to themselves as "Persian" rather than "Iranian" because
of the perceived negativity associated with the political history of the country of Iran.
Many sports teams such as the Atlanta Braves, Cleveland Indians, and Washington Redskins use Native American mascots and depict them with feathers, buckskins, beads, spears, and "warpaint." Such depictions are examples of __________.
Which of the following theoretical perspectives is associated with the contact hypothesis?
The symbolic interactionist perspective
A category of people who have been singled out as inferior or superior, often on the basis of real or alleged physical characteristics such as skin color, hair texture, eye shape, or other subjectively selected attributes, is referred to as a(n) __________.
Which of the following categories of Asian Americans in the United States have a median household income of over $100,000, which is higher than that of Asian Americans as a whole?
asian indian americans
Leah, a white American sports journalist, describes African American athletes as naturally gifted people with athletic abilities who are more suitable for team positions that require agility rather than information processing. However, she describes white athletes as intelligent people who are better suited for decision-making positions. This scenario exemplifies __________ racism.
According to symbolic interactionists, when individuals meet someone who does not conform to their existing stereotype, they frequently __________.
ignore any behavior that contradicts the stereotype
Native Americans have historically been exploited and marginalized in the United States. The "Trail of Tears" was an intentional act of
Which of the following is a difference between racial groups and ethnic groups?
Unlike racial groups, ethnic groups are formed on the basis of cultural or nationality characteristics.
Contemporary sociologists would term whites in the United States with northern European ancestry (often referred to as European Americans, white Anglo-Saxon Protestants, or WASPs) as the
Jennifer, a white American, believes that the customs of her own culture are superior to those of other cultures. As a result, she judges members of other cultures based on the standards of her own culture and considers them inferior. This scenario best exemplifies __________.
Antony owned a restaurant in the United States in the 1950s. He did not feel negatively toward African Americans but refused to serve them in his restaurant because he feared that serving them would offend his white customers. In the context of Robert K. Merton's typology of prejudice and discrimination, Antony is a(n) __________.
Which of the following is a reason for the relatively high average household income of Filipino American families?
They have one of the highest levels of educational attainment among Asian Americans
A bank consistently denies loans to people of color because it believes they are unlikely to repay the amount due on time. This is most likely an example of __________ discrimination.
Which of the following terms is defined as overgeneralizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of members of particular categories?
Which of the following refers to the attitudes, behavior, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and that are learned through the socialization process?
According to the text, three factors are important in determining the gendered division of labor in a society. One of the three factors is the __________.
type of subsistence base
An individual who is born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy that does not correspond to the typical definitions of male or female is called a(n) __________.
Men and women who do not alter their genitalia but whose appearance and mannerisms fall within the range of what is expected from members of the opposite sex are called __________.
Which of the following terms refers to the subordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex?
Identify a true statement about agrarian societies.
In agrarian societies, gender inequality and male dominance become institutionalized.
According to functional analysts such as Talcott Parsons, __________.
women's roles as nurturers and caregivers are even more pronounced in contemporary industrialized societies
Which of the following is an example of a primary sex characteristic in females?
A society in which factory or mechanized production has replaced agriculture as the major form of economic activity is called a(n) __________ society.
Which of the following statements is true of postindustrial societies?
In postindustrial societies, a number of households are headed by women with no adult male present.
Which of the following terms refers to all the ideas regarding masculine and feminine attributes that are held to be valid in a society?
a gender belief system
Which of the following is the subject of a microlevel analysis of gender?
How individuals learn gender roles and acquire a gender identity
According to functional analysts such as Talcott Parsons (1955), wives provide affection and emotional support for the family in contemporary industrialized societies. These tasks are referred to as __________ tasks.
Showing favoritism toward one gender over the other is called __________.
Eric is a 30-year-old man who recently came out as gay on social media. A few days after this incident, he was publicly attacked by a group of masked men who hit him and told him that he deserved it for being gay. This scenario best exemplifies __________.
Which of the following terms refers to an individual's preference for emotional-sexual relationships with members of the different sex (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality), or both (bisexuality)?
The conflict perspective on gender stratification states that
the traditional division of labor between men and women is natural and inevitable.
Which of the following feminist perspectives on gender stratification suggests that male domination causes all forms of human oppression, including racism and classism?
In the context of gender socialization in sports, which of the following is a difference between girls and boys?
Unlike boys, girls are socialized to play games that involve minimal competitiveness.
Laura is a 25-year-old woman who has been in a long-term relationship with Tanya, a 23-year-old woman. They have a strong emotional and sexual bonding with each other. Laura prefers to have emotional-sexual relationships exclusively with women. This scenario best describes Laura's __________.
According to sociologists, which of the following is most important in defining what females and males are, what they should do, and what sorts of relations do or should exist between them?
social and cultural processes
Which of the following terms refers to the biological and anatomical differences between females and males?
Applying convergence theory in his study of a lynch mob, social psychologist Hadley Cantril (1941) found that the participants __________.
shared traits that made them susceptible to joining a lynch mob even when they did not know the target of the lynching
A classic "trickle-down" theory describing the process by which members of the lower classes emulate the fashions of the upper class was suggested by __________.
As a social movement develops, leaders emerge to organize others and give them a sense of direction. In the context of value-added theory, which of the following conditions does this statement best illustrate?
mobilization for action
Which of the following is a major factor that contributes to the likelihood that collective behavior will occur?
Structural factors that increase the chances of people responding in a particular way
Which of the following theories is based on the assumption that certain conditions are necessary for the development of a social movement and that each condition contributes to preceding conditions in making a social movement more likely?
Which explanation of crowd behavior suggests that people with similar attributes find a collectivity of like-minded persons with whom they can express their underlying personal tendencies?
Environmental justice and ecofeminism are examples of __________ movements.
A group of college students is discussing radical extremist groups. Gita believes that shared beliefs are the primary reason for the formation of such groups. According to her, personal tendencies bring people together to act toward or against a common belief and that although their behavior appears irrational, it is likely to be predictable to those who share similar beliefs and emotions as them. Gita is most likely a proponent of __________ theory.
A "bank run" in which hundreds or thousands of customers seek to take out all of their money at the same time, fearing that the financial institution is becoming insolvent, is an example of __________.
Contagion theory holds that __________.
a crowd takes on a life of its own that is larger than the beliefs or actions of any one person
Labor movements, animal rights movements, antinuclear movements, Mothers against Drunk Driving, and the disability rights movement are all examples of __________ movements.
In a study of audience participation, sociologist Steven E. Clayman (1993) found that members of an audience listening to a speech applaud promptly and independently but wait to coordinate their booing with other people; they do not wish to "boo" alone. Which of the following theories best explains how people in such collectivities develop their own definition of a situation and establish appropriate behavior that fits the occasion?
People following each other on Twitter and people from different states and countries being Facebook friends are examples of __________.
Sheena is part of an animal rights movement that seeks to prevent cruelty toward animals by changing legal policies governing animal rights. The members of the movement create petitions and conduct awareness rallies to bring about a change in the way animals are treated. Social movements such as this can best be classified as __________ movements.
Groups organized to oppose gun-control legislation, abortion, and same-sex marriage are examples of __________ movements.
In the context of sociological research on fashion, who among the following asserted that fashion serves mainly to institutionalize conspicuous consumption among the wealthy?
"New Age" movements that direct people's behavior by emphasizing spiritual consciousness combined with a belief in reincarnation and astrology are an example of __________ movements.
Propaganda is __________.
disseminated by those with a vested interest in the given issue
Voluntary, often spontaneous activity that is engaged in by a large number of people and typically violates dominant-group norms and values is termed
In 1938, actor Orson Welles hosted a radio broadcast dramatizing H. G. Wells's science fiction classic The War of the Worlds. A CBS radio dance-music program was interrupted suddenly by a news bulletin informing the audience that Martians had landed in New Jersey and were in the process of conquering Earth. The ensuing reaction was an example of __________.
Which of the following forms of mass behavior is demonstrated by tabloid newspapers and magazines, such as the National Enquirer and People, along with television "news" programs that present "inside" information on the lives of celebrities?
In the 1960s, African American students and sympathetic whites used sit-ins to call attention to racial injustice and to demand social change. When such protests escalate into violent confrontations, these groups become __________ crowds.
Which of the following theories of social movements is based on the assumption that certain conditions are necessary for the development of a social movement and that each step in the production process contributes something to the finished product?
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Physical strength is not as important for males today as it was in past times. The nature of work has changed so that not as many jobs require stamina or physical strength. What impact do you think this devaluing of muscle strength has on society? List five attitudes or values that could be affected.
Current research says that religion often reflects conventional (traditional) norms. Accordingly, religious clergy tend to address their messages to the more traditional segments of society. Sermons, for example, are aimed at the typical married family arrangement (mother, father, two children). What effect, if any, do you think this could have on general attendance?
Religious faiths can be analyzed by two major social characteristics. What are those characteristics?
What is the most important master status you have held? Has the master status helped or hindered you? What master status would you like to achieve? Why?
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