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84 terms

Sociology, Chapter 15

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demography
a subfield of sociology that examines population size, composition, and distribution
population
a group of people who live in a specified geographic area
What do changes in populations occur as a result of?
fertility (births), mortality (deaths), migration
Fertility
the actual level of childbearing for an individual or a population
fecundity
the potential number of children who could be born if every women reproduced at her maximum biological capacity
crude birth rate
the number of live births per 1000 people in a population in a given year
mortality
the incidence of death in a population
crude death rate
the number of deaths per 1000 people in a population in a given year
infant mortality rate
the number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age per 1000 live births in a given year
life expectancy
an estimate of the average lifetime in years of people born in a specific year
migration
the movement of people from one geographic area to another for the purpose of changing residency
density
the number of people living in a specific geographic area
distribution
the physical location of people throughout a geographic area
immigration
the movement of people into a geographic area to take up residency
emigration
the movement of people out of a geographic area to take up residency elsewhere
What are pull factors?
factors that may draw voluntary immigrants into a nation, such as a demographic govt, religious freedom, employment opportunities or a more temperate climate
Push factors
factors, such as political unrest, violence, war, famine, plagues, and natural disasters, that may encourage people to leave one area and relocate elsewhere
population composition
the biological and social characteristics of a population, including are, sex, race, marital status, education, occupation, income and size of household
sex ratio
the number of males for every hundred females in a given population
population pyramid
a graphic representation of the distribution of a population by sex and age
What is the Malthusian perspective on population growth?
the population, if left unchecked, would exceed the available food supply; the population would increase exponentially, while the food supply would increase only arithmetically
According to the Malthusian perspective on population growth, how can the disaster of overpopulation be averted?
positive or preventive checks on population
Positive checks
mortality risks, such as famine, disease and war
Preventive checks
limits to fertility
moral restraint
check on population where people should practice sexual abstinence before marriage and postpone marriage as long as possible in order to have only a few children
What is the Marxist perspective on poverty?
it is a consequence, not of overpopulation, but of the exploitation of workers by the owners of the means of production
What is the Neo-Malthusian perspective on population growth?
Earth is a dying planet with too many people and too little food, compounded by environmental degradation
zero population growth
the point at which no population increase occurs from year to year because the number of births plus immigrants is equal to the number of deaths plus emigrants
Demographic transition
the process by which some societies have moved from high birth and death rates to relatively low birth and death rates as a result of technological development
What are the four stages of economic development
preindustrial societies, early industrialization, advanced industrialization and urbanization, postindustrialization
urban sociology
a subfield of sociology that examines social relationships and political and economic structures in the city
city
a relatively dense and permanent settlement of people who secure their livelihood primarily through nonagricultural activities
What are the three preconditions that must be present in order for a city to develop?
a favorable physical environment, an advanced technology (for that era), a well-developed social organization
What was the largest preindustrial city? population?
Rome; 650000
community
a set of social relationships operating within given spatial boundaries or locations that provides people with a sense of identity and a feeling of belonging
Gemeinschaft
a society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenerational stability, such that people have a commitment to the entire group and feel a sense of togetherness
Gesellschaft
societies exhibiting impersonal and specialized relationships, with little long-term commitment to the group or consensus on values
metropolis
one or more central cities and their surrounding suburbs that dominate the economic and cultural life of a region
mechanical solidarity
a simple division of labor and shared religious beliefs such as are found in small, agrarian societies
organic solidarity
interdependence based on the elaborate division of labor found in large, urban societies
What is the functionalist perspective on ecology?
they examine the interrelations among the parts that make up the whole, therefore, in studying the growth of cities, they emphasize the life cycle of urban growth
human ecology
the study of the relationship between people and their physical environment
Concentric Zone model
a description of the process of urban growth that views the city as a series of circular areas or zones, each characterized by a different type of land use, that developed from a central core
How many zones are there in the concentric zone model?
5
Concentric Zone Model: Zone 1
the central business district and cultural center
Concentric Zone Model: Zone 2
houses formerly occupied by wealthy families are divided into rooms and rented to recent immigrants and poor persons, also contains light manufacturing and marginal businesses
Concentric Zone Model: Zone 3
working-class residences and shops and ethnic enclaves
Concentric Zone Model: Zone 4
homes for affluent families, single-family residences of white-collar workers, and shopping centers
Concentric Zone Model: Zone 5
a ring of small cities and towns by persons who commute to the central city to work and by wealthy people living on estates
What are the two important ecological processes involved in the concentric zone theory?
invasion and succession
invasion
the process by which a new category of people or type of land use arrives in an area previously occupied by another group or type of land use
succession
the process by which a new category of people or type of land use gradually predominates in an area formerly dominated by another group or activity
Gentrification
the process by which members of the middle and upper-middle classes, especially whites, move into central-city area and renovate existing properties
What is emphasized in the sector model of ecology?
the significance of terrain and the importance of transportation routes in the layout of cities
located along the higher ground near lakes and rivers or along certain streets that stretch in one direction or another from the downtown area; either side of the wealthier neighborhoods; remaining space, bordering the central business area and the industrial areas
In the sector model, where are high-class neighborhoods? Middle-class? lower-class?
Multiple nuclei model of ecology
cities do not have one center from which all growth radiates, but rather have numerous centers of development based on specific urban needs or activities
Social area analysis
analysis that examines urban populations in terms of economic status, family status and ethnic classification
Describe urban ecology, according to contemporary urban ecology
urban areas are complex and expanding social systems in which growth patterns are based on advances in transportation and communication
According to conflict theorists, how does city growth happen?
they are the product of specific decisions made by members of the capitalist class and political elites
Exchange value
the profits that industrialists, developers, bankers, and others make from buying, selling and developing land and buildings
Use value
the utility of space, land, and buildings for everyday life, family life, and neighborhood life
uneven development
the tendency of some neighborhoods, cities, or regions to grow and prosper whereas others stagnate and decline
gated communities
subdivisions or neighborhoods surrounded by barriers such as walls, fences, gates, or earth banks covered with bushes and shrubs, along with a secured entrance
gender regimes
prevailing ideologies of how women and men should think, feel and act; how access to social positions and control of resources should be managed; and how relationships between women and men should be conducted
Private patriarchy
a strongly gendered division of labor in the home, gender-segregated paid employment, and women's dependence on men's income
Public patriarchy
the form of women's increasing dependence on paid work and the state for income and their decreasing emotional interdependence with men
Urbanism
the distinctive social and psychological patterns of life typically found in the city
Cosmopolites
students, artists, writers, musicians, entertainers, and professionals who choose to live in the city because they want to be close to its cultural facilities
Ethnic villagers
people who live in ethnically segregated neighborhoods, some are recent immigrants who feel most comfortable within their own group
Deprived
poor individuals with dim future prospect, they have very limited education and few, if any, other resources
Trapped
urban dwellers who can find no escape from the city, this group includes persons left behind by the process of invasion and succession, downwardly mobile individuals who have lost their former position in society, older persons who have nowhere else to go, and individuals addicted to alcohol or other drugs
Sexual Space
a place where women, based on their sexual desirability and accessibility, are categorized as prostitutes, lesbians, temptresses, or virtuous women in need of protection
What are the three functionalist perspectives on urbanism and growth of cities?
concentric zone model, sector model, multiple nuclei model
What are the three conflict perspectives of political economy models?
capitalism and urban growth, gender regimes in cities, global patterns of growth
What are the three symbolic interactionist perspectives regarding the experience of city life?
simmel's view of city life; urbanism as a way of life, Gan's urban villagers, gender and city life
urban agglomeration
comprising the city or town proper and also the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to, the city boundaries, as a more accurate reflection of population composition and density in a given region
global cities
interconnected urban areas that are centers of political, economic, and cultural activity
rural communities
small, sparsely settled areas that have a relatively homogeneous population of people who primarily engage in agriculture
Describe birth and death rates in the preindustrial stage of economic development
high birth, high death
Describe birth and death rates in the early industrial stage of economic development
high birth, low death
Describe birth and death rates in the advanced industrial and urbanization stage of economic development
low birth, low death
Describe birth and death rates in the postindustrial stage of economic development
low birth, stable death
What is the political economy model/conflict perspective on urban growth?
urban growth is influenced by capital investment decisions, class and class conflict, and government subsidy programs; at the global level, capitalism also influences the development of cities in core, peripheral, and semiperipheral nations
How do symbolic interactionists view urban life?
perspectives focus on how people experience urban life; some analysts view the urban experience positively; others believe that urban dwellers become insensitive to events and to people around them.