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a subfield of sociology that examines population size, composition, and distribution


a group of people who live in a specified geographic area

What do changes in populations occur as a result of?

fertility (births), mortality (deaths), migration


the actual level of childbearing for an individual or a population


the potential number of children who could be born if every women reproduced at her maximum biological capacity

crude birth rate

the number of live births per 1000 people in a population in a given year


the incidence of death in a population

crude death rate

the number of deaths per 1000 people in a population in a given year

infant mortality rate

the number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age per 1000 live births in a given year

life expectancy

an estimate of the average lifetime in years of people born in a specific year


the movement of people from one geographic area to another for the purpose of changing residency


the number of people living in a specific geographic area


the physical location of people throughout a geographic area


the movement of people into a geographic area to take up residency


the movement of people out of a geographic area to take up residency elsewhere

What are pull factors?

factors that may draw voluntary immigrants into a nation, such as a demographic govt, religious freedom, employment opportunities or a more temperate climate

Push factors

factors, such as political unrest, violence, war, famine, plagues, and natural disasters, that may encourage people to leave one area and relocate elsewhere

population composition

the biological and social characteristics of a population, including are, sex, race, marital status, education, occupation, income and size of household

sex ratio

the number of males for every hundred females in a given population

population pyramid

a graphic representation of the distribution of a population by sex and age

What is the Malthusian perspective on population growth?

the population, if left unchecked, would exceed the available food supply; the population would increase exponentially, while the food supply would increase only arithmetically

According to the Malthusian perspective on population growth, how can the disaster of overpopulation be averted?

positive or preventive checks on population

Positive checks

mortality risks, such as famine, disease and war

Preventive checks

limits to fertility

moral restraint

check on population where people should practice sexual abstinence before marriage and postpone marriage as long as possible in order to have only a few children

What is the Marxist perspective on poverty?

it is a consequence, not of overpopulation, but of the exploitation of workers by the owners of the means of production

What is the Neo-Malthusian perspective on population growth?

Earth is a dying planet with too many people and too little food, compounded by environmental degradation

zero population growth

the point at which no population increase occurs from year to year because the number of births plus immigrants is equal to the number of deaths plus emigrants

Demographic transition

the process by which some societies have moved from high birth and death rates to relatively low birth and death rates as a result of technological development

What are the four stages of economic development

preindustrial societies, early industrialization, advanced industrialization and urbanization, postindustrialization

urban sociology

a subfield of sociology that examines social relationships and political and economic structures in the city


a relatively dense and permanent settlement of people who secure their livelihood primarily through nonagricultural activities

What are the three preconditions that must be present in order for a city to develop?

a favorable physical environment, an advanced technology (for that era), a well-developed social organization

What was the largest preindustrial city? population?

Rome; 650000


a set of social relationships operating within given spatial boundaries or locations that provides people with a sense of identity and a feeling of belonging


a society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenerational stability, such that people have a commitment to the entire group and feel a sense of togetherness


societies exhibiting impersonal and specialized relationships, with little long-term commitment to the group or consensus on values


one or more central cities and their surrounding suburbs that dominate the economic and cultural life of a region

mechanical solidarity

a simple division of labor and shared religious beliefs such as are found in small, agrarian societies

organic solidarity

interdependence based on the elaborate division of labor found in large, urban societies

What is the functionalist perspective on ecology?

they examine the interrelations among the parts that make up the whole, therefore, in studying the growth of cities, they emphasize the life cycle of urban growth

human ecology

the study of the relationship between people and their physical environment

Concentric Zone model

a description of the process of urban growth that views the city as a series of circular areas or zones, each characterized by a different type of land use, that developed from a central core

How many zones are there in the concentric zone model?


Concentric Zone Model: Zone 1

the central business district and cultural center

Concentric Zone Model: Zone 2

houses formerly occupied by wealthy families are divided into rooms and rented to recent immigrants and poor persons, also contains light manufacturing and marginal businesses

Concentric Zone Model: Zone 3

working-class residences and shops and ethnic enclaves

Concentric Zone Model: Zone 4

homes for affluent families, single-family residences of white-collar workers, and shopping centers

Concentric Zone Model: Zone 5

a ring of small cities and towns by persons who commute to the central city to work and by wealthy people living on estates

What are the two important ecological processes involved in the concentric zone theory?

invasion and succession


the process by which a new category of people or type of land use arrives in an area previously occupied by another group or type of land use


the process by which a new category of people or type of land use gradually predominates in an area formerly dominated by another group or activity


the process by which members of the middle and upper-middle classes, especially whites, move into central-city area and renovate existing properties

What is emphasized in the sector model of ecology?

the significance of terrain and the importance of transportation routes in the layout of cities

located along the higher ground near lakes and rivers or along certain streets that stretch in one direction or another from the downtown area; either side of the wealthier neighborhoods; remaining space, bordering the central business area and the industrial areas

In the sector model, where are high-class neighborhoods? Middle-class? lower-class?

Multiple nuclei model of ecology

cities do not have one center from which all growth radiates, but rather have numerous centers of development based on specific urban needs or activities

Social area analysis

analysis that examines urban populations in terms of economic status, family status and ethnic classification

Describe urban ecology, according to contemporary urban ecology

urban areas are complex and expanding social systems in which growth patterns are based on advances in transportation and communication

According to conflict theorists, how does city growth happen?

they are the product of specific decisions made by members of the capitalist class and political elites

Exchange value

the profits that industrialists, developers, bankers, and others make from buying, selling and developing land and buildings

Use value

the utility of space, land, and buildings for everyday life, family life, and neighborhood life

uneven development

the tendency of some neighborhoods, cities, or regions to grow and prosper whereas others stagnate and decline

gated communities

subdivisions or neighborhoods surrounded by barriers such as walls, fences, gates, or earth banks covered with bushes and shrubs, along with a secured entrance

gender regimes

prevailing ideologies of how women and men should think, feel and act; how access to social positions and control of resources should be managed; and how relationships between women and men should be conducted

Private patriarchy

a strongly gendered division of labor in the home, gender-segregated paid employment, and women's dependence on men's income

Public patriarchy

the form of women's increasing dependence on paid work and the state for income and their decreasing emotional interdependence with men


the distinctive social and psychological patterns of life typically found in the city


students, artists, writers, musicians, entertainers, and professionals who choose to live in the city because they want to be close to its cultural facilities

Ethnic villagers

people who live in ethnically segregated neighborhoods, some are recent immigrants who feel most comfortable within their own group


poor individuals with dim future prospect, they have very limited education and few, if any, other resources


urban dwellers who can find no escape from the city, this group includes persons left behind by the process of invasion and succession, downwardly mobile individuals who have lost their former position in society, older persons who have nowhere else to go, and individuals addicted to alcohol or other drugs

Sexual Space

a place where women, based on their sexual desirability and accessibility, are categorized as prostitutes, lesbians, temptresses, or virtuous women in need of protection

What are the three functionalist perspectives on urbanism and growth of cities?

concentric zone model, sector model, multiple nuclei model

What are the three conflict perspectives of political economy models?

capitalism and urban growth, gender regimes in cities, global patterns of growth

What are the three symbolic interactionist perspectives regarding the experience of city life?

simmel's view of city life; urbanism as a way of life, Gan's urban villagers, gender and city life

urban agglomeration

comprising the city or town proper and also the suburban fringe or thickly settled territory lying outside of, but adjacent to, the city boundaries, as a more accurate reflection of population composition and density in a given region

global cities

interconnected urban areas that are centers of political, economic, and cultural activity

rural communities

small, sparsely settled areas that have a relatively homogeneous population of people who primarily engage in agriculture

Describe birth and death rates in the preindustrial stage of economic development

high birth, high death

Describe birth and death rates in the early industrial stage of economic development

high birth, low death

Describe birth and death rates in the advanced industrial and urbanization stage of economic development

low birth, low death

Describe birth and death rates in the postindustrial stage of economic development

low birth, stable death

What is the political economy model/conflict perspective on urban growth?

urban growth is influenced by capital investment decisions, class and class conflict, and government subsidy programs; at the global level, capitalism also influences the development of cities in core, peripheral, and semiperipheral nations

How do symbolic interactionists view urban life?

perspectives focus on how people experience urban life; some analysts view the urban experience positively; others believe that urban dwellers become insensitive to events and to people around them.

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