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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
World History - Chapter 18 Questions
Terms in this set (34)
What were the three groups in French society known as?
First Estate, Second Estate, and the Third Estate
What groups made up the Third Estate? What did they have to do that the other Estates didn't have to do?
Peasants, skilled workers, and middle class; they had to pay taxes
Who were the bourgeois?
Middle class business owners
What event caused King Louis the XVI to finally call a meeting of the Estates-General?
A financial crisis and a food shortage
What did the Third Estate call itself when it met at the Estates-General?
When the National Assembly was locked out of Versailles, where did it meet?
What document similar to our Declaration of Independence did the National Assembly write and present to the King? How did he react to it? How did the women of the National Assembly react to his reaction?
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen; He did not accept the decrees; Women marched on Versailles
The National Assembly passed a new constitution that created a _____________ monarchy that gave most power to a ______________________________________ who would make laws.
Constitutional; Legislative Assembly
The Legislative Assembly went to war with _________ but fared poorly.
The unsuccessful war and the bad economic situation in France led to the rise of the _________________, whose members called themselves __________________. What did this group do to the King?
Paris Commune; sans-culottes; They captured him and then held him hostage in Paris
What did the Paris Commune do to thousands of French citizens?
What was the name of the government created by the Paris Commune?
What did the new government decide to do to King Louis XVI?
Execute him via guillotine
Because of the threats of foreign attack and domestic revolt, the National Convention gave power to what group?
Committee of Public Safety
Who led that new group? What period of violence within France did he start?
Maximilien Roberspierre; Reign of Terror
Which two cities were examples of what violence could occur within France during the Reign of Terror?
Lyon and Nantes
What was the idea behind the Republic of Virtue?
People would benefit society with good deeds instead of greed
What did the Republic of Virtue do to the calendar in France?
Removed religious holidays and Sundays
How big did France's army get at the time of the invasion of the Austrian Netherlands?
What happened to Robespierre?
After the Reign of Terror was ended, power passed from the Committee of Public Safety to what group?
What happened to that group?
Overthrown in a coup by Napoleon
Where was Napoleon born? What kind of education did he receive?
Corsica; French Military schools
How did Napoleon get power in government? When did he become Emperor?
Worked his way up in ranks throughout the military and participated in the overthrow of government; 1804
What was Napoleon's Civil Code?
300 sets of laws that were organized into one
What are some principles of the Revolution that Napoleon tried to spread?
Meritocracy, religious toleration, equality before the law
Napoleon's empire couldn't be complete because he couldn't knock what nation out of the war?
What battle did Napoleon lose to the British in 1805?
What is nationalism and how did it hurt Napoleon?
The cultural identity of people based on common language, religion, beliefs, history, and symbols; It hurt Napoleon because it united other countries and people hated French oppression
Napoleon decided to invade Russia with a force of _________ men. As the Russians retreated, they ______________________. France reached the city of ___________ but found it ablaze. He then started his _________________ and made it back to Poland with only __________ men left.
600,000; practiced scorched earth policy; Moscow; Great Retreat; 40,000
The British exiled Napoleon to the island of ______ in 1814.
When Napoleon took power again, he attacked what nation?
Who defeated Napoleon and in what battle to stop his second rule?
Britain and Prussia at Waterloo
Where did Napoleon get exiled the second time (where he died)?
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