Microbio final (all 4 tests and last two mastering chapters, SAU Dr. Trott)

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microbes commonly known as ______________ are single-celled eukaryotes that are generally motile
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Terms in this set (328)
pasteur's experiments on fermentation laid the foundation forindustrial microbiologythe structural framework within a cell is thecytoskeletonwhich of the following types of bacterial cells would have only a single flagellummonotrichoustaxis ismovement towards or away from a stimuluswhat is the advantage to spirochetes of the corkscrew movement provided by axial filamentsit allows the cells to move more easily through viscous human tissues and fluidsin the process of ______________________ microbes detect the presence and density of other microbes and modify their metabolic activity in responsequorum sensinga patient is infected with gram-negative bacteria and is experiencing only mild symptoms, when the pt. is given an antibiotic causing lysis of bacterial cells he suddenly experiences an increase in inflammation and fever, as well as the formation of blood clots. what explanation best describes what happenedthe lysis of the cells releases lipid A from the lipopolysaccharide layerlipid A is a component ofthe outer membrane of gram-negative bacteriasome bacteria have an outer layer called _____________ which allows them to adhere to surfaces and contributes to their ability to cause diseasecapsulehami, used for attachment, are found in which of the followingsome archaeathe cells illustrated in the figure below are in which type of environmenthypotonicstaining is an important way to improve which of the following aspects of microscopycontrast and resolutionput the following steps of bacteria specimen preparation in order: a. fixation b. application of staining dyes c. smear preparationc, a, bthe gram stain works because of differences in the ________________ of bacteriacell wallsin gram staining, ethanol is used as adecolorizing agentwhy does immersion oil improve resolutionit increases numerical aperture and maintains a uniform light speedwhich bacteria below is gram-positive, spherical, and unable to produce catalasestreptococcusanabolic reactions may be characterized asforming large molecules from smaller moleculeswhat are enzymes important to biological systemsenzymes decrease the amount of activation energy required for chemical reactions to occurpyruvic acid is a product ofglycolysisin eukaryotes, where does the krebs cycle occurin the matrix of mitochondriachemical reactions that can proceed toward either anabolism or catabolism are calledamphibolicsulfanilamide is an antimicrobial drug that mimics the shape of an important substrate for a particular bacterial enzyme, thereby inhibiting the enzymes. this type of inhibition is known ascompetitive inhibitionan organic compound gains electrons from another molecule. the organic compoundhas been reducedwhich of the following can be used as a final electron acceptor for aerobic respirationmolecular oxygenwhere would you expect to find an electron transport chains in a prokaryotesalong the plasma membranenitrogen is a growth-limiting nutrient for many organisms becauseonly a few microbes can extract it from the atmosphere, but all organisms require it for amino acid and nucleotide synthesisorganisms that can grow with or without the presence of oxygen areeither facultative anaerobes or aerotolerant anaerobesthe growth of bacterial cultures is best described aslogarithmic growtha clinical sample labeled as sputum was collected fromthe lungsa laboratory recipe lists sucrose, an ammonia compound, calcium salts, and a buffer as ingredients for microbiologic medium. these are added to water and autoclaved, what type of medium does this protocol producedefined brothwhat does halophilic meanthe organism is salt lovingthe goal of streaking for isolation is to spread an inoculum of bacteria thinner and thinner with each pass for the identification of individual colony-forming units. what action must be preformed between each step to ensure thissterilization of the loop must be preformedblood agar plates are an example of _____________ mediumdifferentialstaphylococcusvibriococcusbacillusstreptobacillusa microbiology inoculates a flask of broth to a concentration of 100 bacterial cells per ml. the generation time of the species is 1 hour, and there is no lag phase. how long in hours will it be before the culture contains more than 6,000 cells per hour6 hourstypical bacterial growth curvewhat is the name of the molecule that is present in the walls of bacterial endospores that make them particularly tough and able to survive a variety of harsh conditionsdiplicolinic acidif you were viewing some bacteria through a microscope with an objective lens with 40x and an ocular lens with 15 x magnification, what is the total magnification as viewed by you600xin e.coli presence of isoleucine shuts down the enzymatic pathway that results in the synthesis of isoleucine. this is an example of __________________feedback inhibition_____________ are an example of communities of mixed types of microbes that adhere to surfacesbiofilmsstudy the diagram of the respiration and fermentation cycle!!!! last page of the exam!!!.which of the following statements is true of selective toxicityselective toxicity takes advantage of structural and/or metabolic differences between host and pathogenwhich of the following diseases is not associated with bacteria and form endosporestoxic shock syndromewhat is the typical incubation perido for prion diseasesdecadeswhich of the following is an example of a mechanical vectora fly crawling on a sandwichwhich of the following bacterial genera includes species that protect areas of the body such as the intestinal tract and vagina from invasion of pathogenslactobacilluswhich of the following is used to sterilize items that should not, or cannot, be exposed to heat or waterethylene oxidethe cooperative activity of drugs such as beta-lactam antibiotics and clavulanic acid (a beta-lactamase inhibitor) is known assynergisma gram positive psychotropic rod ___________ is a frequent contaminant of dairy products and meat and survived phagocytosislisteria monocytogenesmethods of microbial control called _____________ arrest the growth of microbesmircobiostaticwhich of the following drugs specifically targets cell walls that contain mycolic acidisoniazidsingle-celled eukaryotes lacking a cell wall areprotozoaan antimicrobial that inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis will result in which of the followingbacterial cells become more susceptible to osmotic pressurewhich fo the following might or might not happen during binary fissionseparation of daughter cellsllysozyme use during the preparation of cheeses and wines is effective in reducing the numbers ofbacteriapleomorphic bacteriavary in shape and sizemuticellular organisms with hard exoskeletons, segmented bodies, and four pairs or jointed legs in the adult stage arearachnidsthe process known as ________________ is a mechanism of release for enveloped virusesbuddingalgae that are important sources of thickening agents like agar are known asrhodophytawhich of the following groups of drugs can become incorporated into the bones and teeth of a fetustetracyclinesrhizobium is important agriculturally because it supplies __________________ to plants such as peas and beansnitrogenwhich of the following an example of pasteurizationheat is used to kill potential pathogens in apple juicemilk that can be stored for months at room temperature has been treated by which of the followingultrahigh-temperature sterilizationwashing dishes in the dishwasher with detergent and hot water is a ____________ processsanitizingwhat effect do aldehydes have on microbial organismsthey damage proteins and DNAa ______________ is a bacterial virus which is integrated into the host cellprophagebetadine contains what type of chemical agenthalogendrug-resistant populations of microbes arise whenexposure to drugs selectively kills sensitive cells, allowing for overgrowth of resistant cellswhich of the following can be used to reduce microbes in the air of a patients room, while they are occupying itboth HEPA filters and ultraviolet lightit has been determined that the temperature in an autoclave should reach __________ degrees C for sterilization121the antifungals known as polyenes interact with _______________ a lipid unique to fungus membranesergosterolwhat is a superinfectionSuperinfection is a disease caused by an organism that is often an opportunist or one that was present in low numbers. Superinfection is a sequel to removal of the normal flora by antibiotic treatment.viruses can be grown in all of the following exceptsterile nutrient agarwhich of the following procedures is currently the standard test used in the US for evaluating the efficiency of antiseptics and disinfectantsuse-dilution testthe division basidiomycota includes which of the following types of fungimushroomswhich of the following is the most difficult to killbacterial endosporesit is inappropriate to prescribe antibacterial agents to treat colds or flu becausethese diseases are caused by virusesthe classification of algae is based largely on __________________photosynthetic pigmentsthe apicomplexa are named for their apical complexes which allow them topenetrate the cytoplasmic membranes of host cellslichens are composed of symbiosis of fungi and which of the followingcyanobacteria or green algaepairs of spherical bacterial cells are called ______________diplococcia pts. sputum culture shows yeastlike growth when incubated at 37 degrees C and filamentous growth when grown at 25 degrees C. what term is used to describe a fungus that exhibits these difference in growth ____________________dimorphic growthedible true mushrooms are typically members of the _______________basidomycotathe ___________________ is the entire interwoven mass of hyphal threads from one muticellulae fungal organismmyceliuma _______________________ is a virus that infects bacterial cellsbacteriophagediatoms are single celled marine algae with walls composed of _______________silicawhat response would you expect if you were to gram stain a colony of mycoplasma cellsgram-negativewhen shellfish ingest _________________ they can become poisonousdinoflagellatesstudy the diagram on the second to last page !!!!!.what are the clicnal signs and symptoms of typhoid feverfever and rose spotted rashif a disease occurs at a fairly stable rate, it is said to beendemicwhich of the following would be considered a fomitean infected toywhich of the following is an endotoxinlipid Awhat is the etiologic agent of typhoidsalmonellawhich type of toxin, when secreted, may lead to the disruption of the cells within the gastrointestinal tractenterotoxinwhich of the following is an example of the parenteral routea person steps on a nailwhich of the following is the correct sequences of a disease processincubation, prodromal period, illness, decline, convalescencewhat type of nosocomial infection is likely to arise form intravenous catheterizationsbacteremiawhat does anemia meandecreased RBC numberswhere are the complement proteins found in the bodyblood serumbasophils, platelets, and _______ are all capable of secreting histaminesmast cellswhich of the following most correctly describes how the eyes are protected from microbial invasiontears contain lysozyme and salt and mechanically flush particles from the eyeswhich of the following leukocytes is primarily responsible for an immune response against helminthseosinophilsopsonization isthe coating of a pathogen by complement to facilitate phagocytosisproteins on the surface of phagocytes called __________ aid in the detection of pathogen moleculesTLRsin a process called _______________, blood stem cells located in the bone marrow produced the three types of formed elements found in the bloodhematopoiesiscells of the second line of defense called ____________ recognize and kill virus-infected cellsNK cellsimmune cells that secrete cytokines and activated other immune cells arehelper T-cellswhich of the cells listed below can present antigens on class II MHC proteinsmacrophagesTH2 cells produce cytokines that activateB cellsan anamnestic response isanother name for secondary responsewhat is the role of plasma cells in humoral immunityplasma cells produce antibodieswhich of the following does not contain MHC II on its surfaceRBCwhich of the following function is agglutinationIgA and IgGclonal deletion of developing T lymphocytes takes place in which location in the bodythe thymusIgE antibodies are best described asa cause of basophil and eosinophil degranulationWhich type of vaccine could possibly cause a person to develop the diseaseattenuated live vaccinethe polio vaccine currently administered in the US, known as IPV, is an example of a ______________ vaccinewhole inactivateda person who has been exposed to rabies receives both HRIG injected near the bite site and the rabies vaccine. what strategy does this representactive immunization combined with passive immunotherapywhich statement best describes the human immunodeficiency virus that has been shown to cause AIDS in humansHIV is an enveloped, positive single-stranded RNA virus of the type called retroviruseswhat combination of mother/child blood types might develop into hemolytic disease of the newbornif the mother is Rh- and the fetus is Rh +a person with type B blood can receive blood from individuals with which of the following blood typestype B or Owhen immune complexes in the blood become trapped in the kidneys the resulting disease is known asglomerulonephritiswhich of the following is the most hypersensitivity disorder and an autoimmune disorderrheumatoid arthritismultiple sclerosis isa type of IV hypersensitivity disease in which cytotoxic T cells attack the myelin sheath of neuronsinnate immunityIncludes cilia, mucous membranes, dendritic cellshumoral immunityImmunological response brought about by antibody productioncellular immunityimmunological response that kills infected host cellsimmature B cellsUses BCRs to recognize epitope. First step in clonal selectiondendritic cellsphagocytes that engulf anything foreign. eventually display epitope to helper T cells using MHC I or IIa female with this blood type is at risk for a pregnancy with hemolytic disease of the newbornA-a person who has both A&B antigens on the RBCs is of this blood typeABa person with this blood type will have antiB antibodies and no anti-RH antibodiesA+a person who has anti-A & anti-B serum antibodies and will have blood typeOT-cell mediated delayed hypersensitivitytype IV reactionimmediate hypersensitivitytype I reactionantibody mediated cytotoxictype II reactionantibody/immune complex mediated - "bystander damage"type III reactionvarivax vaccination triggering extended immunity to chicken poxartificial activegiving a person immune serum globulins to chickenpox virus shortly after exposure to the diseaseartificial passivea fetus acquiring maternal IgG to the chickenpox virus across the placentanatural passivechickenpox infection, followed by life long immunitynatural active______________ is the study of where and when a disease occurs, and how it is transmittedepidemiology________________ are subjective characteristics of a disease that only the patient can feelsymptoms______________ is the migration of phagocytes through blood vessels to the site of tissue damagediapedesis____________ is the oily substance that lowers pH of the skins surface to about pH 5 and is inhibitory to many bacteriasebum_______________ is the process of programmed cell deathapoptosiswhat type of immunoglobulin is picturedIgM____________ are chemically or thermally modified toxins that are used for vaccinestoxoids________________ is a life threatening condition caused by the release of large amounts of chemical mediators in an allergic reaction that exceeds the body's ability to adjustanaphylaxisstress may result in the production of __________________ which may lead to acquired immunodeficiency diseasecorticosteroidsHow does tetanospasmin affect motor controlIt blocks the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters in the CNSwhich of the following would not be a likely member of the normal microbiota of the skin surfaceoblifate anaerobea man arrived at the emergency room with neurological disorders, uncontrolled facial twitching, anxiety....... (etc. rest of question long just use recognition)rabieswhat causes massive uncontrolled bleeding characteristic of ebola infectiondepletion of clotting factors by infected macrophageswhich is the vector of rickettsia rickettsiaa tickwhich of the following factors would not contribute to the development of severe dermatomycoseswearing sandalswhich of the following organisms causes primary atypical pneumoniamycoplasma pneumoniaethe chambers and valves of the heart are lined by theendocardiuma laboratory technologist is examining a stained slide of a pts. respiratory secretions. he observes an acid-fast bacilli among the human cells. which of these disease might be indicated by this resultleporsya 55 year old actor is concerned about maintaining his star status a s leading man ....... botulism is generally associated with ingestion of the toxin produced by clostridium botulinum. the activity of the toxin will result in _____________flaccid paralysiswhich vector is required for the spread of malariathe female anopheles mosquitovegetations are associated with which of the following disease processesendocarditiswhich of the following could cause athelete's foottrichophyton specieswhich of the following factors is primarily responsible for the ability of mycobacterium tuberculosis to survive long periods of time in dried droplets of respiratory aerosolsthe presence of mycolic acid in the cell walla few days of fever with vomiting followed by high fever, jaundice, and black vomit are characteristic ofyellow feveranalysis of the spinal tap shows the presence of gram-negative bacteria cocci; for this age group (20-year old college student) which bacteria would be the probable cause of these symptomsneisseria meningitidisa petechial rash starting on the hands and feet and spreading to the torsos is characteristic ofrocky mountain spotted feversome microbes gain access to the normally axenic central nervous system byeither damaging the blood-brain barrier or by axonal transport from infected peripheral neuronspoliovirus is most often transmitted viacontaminated waterA person reports to a clinic complaining of fever and abdominal pain. The abdomen is swollen, and blood tests indicate kidney damage. A stool sample is examined under a microscope and found to contain eggs with a spine projecting from its surface. The indications are consistent with infection withschistosoma mansoniwhich of the following organisms is critical to the life cycle schistosomessnailslimiting exposure to rodents and their waste is an important means of preventinghantavirus pulmonary syndromeNasal or ocular contact with water containing _____ may result in primary amebic meningoencephalitisboth acanthamoeba and naegleriawhich of the following can cause birth defectsrubellawhich of the following bacteria is the primary cause of necrotizing fasciitisstreptococcus pyogenesa nursing student had been given a tuberculin test prior to doing his clinical practicum ....... etc. which of the following is not a logical conclusion from this resulthe should not be allowed to work at the nursing home, because he has an active case of tuberculosisa patient is observed to have a long red streak extending along the entire length of the right thigh, what condition does this physician suspectlymphangitiswhich of the following would not be considered a zoonosispolioLocalized swelling of a scratch accompanied by fever, malaise, and swollen lymph nodes may result from infection withbartonella henselaewarts may disappear over time without treatment. this is due to ______________the body's CELL mediated immunitycycles of fever, chills, anemia, and headache along with passage of dark colored urine are symptoms of infection withplasmodium falcipriumwhat is the role of neuraminidase during influenza infection of the hostit hydrolyzes mucuswhich of the following habits will best prevent infection due to listeriosisavoid eating raw fruits and vegetablesa patient comes into the clinic with s/s including fever, severe headache... examination of CSF.... no growth results of CSF sample, which of the following explains pts. symptomsthe pt. likely has viral meningitisa pt. presents with these signs; wounded finger that has turned black, crackly sound.... etc. what disease does this indicategas gangrenea young man living in southeastern US is an avid outdoorsman and has a hx of tick bites. blood tests show he has leukopenia, he may have contractedehrlichiosisa women who breeds parrots develops fever, cough, and has difficulty breathing... gram negative cells detected in sputum sample.... which disease is she likely to have contractedornithosisa key diagnostic sign of diphtheria is the presence of thepseudomembraneotitis media is a bacterial infection of themiddle earhow is B. pertussis and whooping cough transmitted from one person to the nextinhalation of respiratory dropletsin the 1970s archeologists unearthed a vast cemetery in a desert in chile..... skulls of women appeared to have bone eaten.... what flagellated protozoan had moved form facial lesions to the women's skulls, slowly eating them awayleishmania braziliensiswhich of the following is/are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoesdengue fever and yellow feverThe texas dept. of health has isolated yersina pestis from wood rats and prairie dogs in west texas..... what disease is this camper likely to havebubonic plaguean 18 yr old freshmen reports to the campus clinic...... sleeping more than usual, no appetite, girlfriend feeling fatigued as well.....infectious mononucleosis caused by the EBVduring which times of the year would you expect the incidence of francisella tularensis ingection to be highestlate spring/early summerwhy is the production of a vaccine for the common cold so difficultthe common cold is caused by many different viruses from very different viral familieswhat distinguishes influenza from the common coldfeverwhich of the following is classified as spongiform encephalopathyvariant credutzfeldt-jakob diseasethe route of transmission for cutaneous anthrax isbacillus anthracis endospores entering through a skin woundwhat is the name of the structure indicated by the arrow ___________________the Eustachian tubethe presence of koplicks spots is sufficient for a diagnosis of ______________measleswhen bacteria in the blood stream invade the bones, this leads to a painful condition called ______________osteomyelitissmall subcutaneous hemorrhages called ___________ are sometimes present in cases of meningitispetechiaein approx. 10% of pts. tubercles rupture and reactivate infection. this is known as __________ tuberculosissecondarypseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common microbe associated with infections of ___________ patientsburn____________ is a STD bacterium and is significant cause of blindness in humanschlamydiathe DTaP vaccine protects against which three diseasestetanus, pertussis, diphtheriaa herpetic lesion on the finger or hand is known as ___________whitlowlook at the blood smear below, what parasite is present in the bloodtrypanosoma bruceiwhat is the name of the disease this man is suffering from (the man infected with trypanosoma brucei)African sleeping sicknessstudy diagram on second to last page!!!!.Greasy, frothy diarrhea with the smell of __________ may indicate giardiasis.rotten eggsThe pathogen, Giardia intestinalis, is diplomonad meaning __________.it has 2 nucleiIn the dormant cyst form, Giardia is protected from the environment by a shell composed of __________.chitinWhen does the dormant cyst excyst in the human body?Upon entry into the intestines.Pathogenically, how does Giardia produce symptoms in humans?They attach to large areas of the intestines.How serious cases of giardiasis currently treated in the United States?MetronidazoleTo prevent infection with giardiasis, one should __________ when drinking from a possible contaminated water source.use a filterWhich of the following is responsible for most of the absorption of nutrients?small intestineThe portion of the gastrointestinal tract indicated by the arrow is the (ascending/descending/sigmoid/transverse) colon.ascendingThe (liver/pancreas/villus) is the accessory organ responsible for producing digestive enzymes active in the small intestine.pancreasA patient receives a long-term dose of powerful antibiotics that dramatically reduces the number of microbiota in his digestive system. Which of the following effects would you predict?increased susceptibility to disease and vitamin deficiencyWhich of the following is a fungus that commonly lives in the large intestine?CandidaAll of these are virulence factors that allow Helicobacter pylori to colonize the stomach EXCEPT __________.hemolysinsA man is admitted into the hospital and treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for an infection caused by a gunshot wound to the abdomen. He subsequently contracts pseudomembranous colitis. Which of these is the most likely reason this happened?Antibiotics wiped out the normal microbiota, allowing Clostridium difficile to overgrow in the colon.Which of the following characteristics is NOT necessary for a bacterium to form dental caries?ability to survive in high pHThe bacterium ________ adheres to and grows on teeth, contributing to dental plaque formation.Streptococcus mutansPorphyromonas gingivalis contributes to the development ofperiodontitis.Most peptic ulcers are the result of colonization of the stomach byHelicobacter pylori.The virulence factor of Vibrio cholera, which is primarily responsible for the signs and symptoms of cholera, isits ability to produce a potent exotoxin.The most common cause of traveler's diarrhea isEscherichia coli.The most common bacterial cause of diarrhea that sends people to doctors in the United States isCampylobacter.Staphylococcal food poisoning is called an intoxication disorder becausetoxins produced by the bacteria growing in the food are ingested along with the food.What member of the human intestinal microbiota occasionally causes life-threatening disease?Clostridium difficileA diarrhea called "rice-water" stools is diagnostic of (campylobacteriosis/cholera/shigellosis/typhoid).choleraThe accumulation of plaque can lead to the development of (abscesses/caries/ulcers) in the mouth.cariesEscherichia coli O157:H7 produces (cholera/Shiga/Staphylococcal)-like toxin, which inhibits protein synthesis, kills cells, and can result in death of the infected individual.ShigaDysentery is a severe type of gastroenteritis in which stools contain mucus and blood.TrueDescribe the events of tooth decay.1. plaque formation 2. bacteria ferment sugar to acid 3. decay into dentin 4. decay into pulpAll of these are mechanisms for transmission of oral herpes EXCEPT __________.foodborne transmissionWhich of these statements is true concerning the hepatitis A virus (HAV)?HAV is transmitted in fecally contaminated food or water.Which of the following diseases affect salivary glands?mumpsWhich of the following statements is TRUE with regard to oral herpes?Lesions can be triggered by emotional stress or physiologic changes.The viruses responsible for the majority of infant deaths resulting from diarrhea in the world are therotaviruses.Chronic infection with ________ may progress to hepatic cancer.both HBV and HCVWhich of the following conditions usually results in severe acute liver damage?co-infection with hepatitis B and hepatitis delta virusesThe primary treatment for viral gastroenteritis isrehydration therapy.A man reports to his doctor that he is tired all the time and his urine has become darker in color. He has not experienced fever or vomiting recently. The physician notes that his eyes are yellowish and his abdomen is swollen and tender. The man has a history of kidney transplant. The man may be infected withhepatitis C virus.A large number of people in a community experience diarrhea with fever. Public health authorities investigate and find that the people are passing dark urine, and some have yellowish skin. Furthermore, all of the affected individuals recently ate at a new restaurant in town known for its wide variety of fresh imported vegetables. Which of the following is the most likely causative agent?hepatitis A virusWhich of these is NOT a description of one of the three types of amebiasis?Luminal amebiasis is an infection of the stomach lining.The intracellular parasite usually acquired in contaminated drinking water that causes a persistent watery diarrhea isCryptosporidium parvum.Why are humans considered a dead-end host for Anisakis?Humans typically do not shed the nematode eggs into seawater.Which of the following is NOT a precaution that can be used to prevent cysticerosis?washing fruits and vegetables before eatingEating sashimi (uncooked fish) is a risk factor for infection withAnisakis simplex.Intermediate hosts become infested with tapeworms through ingestion oftapeworm eggs.Which of the following is a common childhood parasite in the United States?Enterobius vermicularisObservation of the specimens in the figure (ova) is diagnostic forpinworms.Genital warts are caused by __________.PapillomaviridaeGenital warts are transmitted by __________.indirect contact direct contact autoinoculationWhich condition is associated with bacterial infection of the bladder?cystitisSome strains of E. coli have __________ allowing them to bind and then enter into epithelial cells of the urethra.fimbriaeWhat is the primary source of infection for UTIs?Fecal contaminationWhich demographic is most likely to develop a urinary tract infection?FemalesWhat might a clinician expect to observe in the urinalysis of a patient with a UTI?LeukocytesWhich of the following measures would be most effective in preventing a UTI?Wiping front to back after defecationWhat percent of people harbor Candida naturally in their body without showing any signs or symptoms?40-80%Which structure is characteristic of Candida?pseudohyphaeIn which population might we observe a higher incidence of thrush?the elderlyWhich of the following habits might best prevent infection with Candida?Change wet diapers often.Which of the following medications is typically used for superficial candidiasis in AIDS patients?fluconazoleWhich of the following is NOT a characteristic of the normal microbiota of the urinary and reproductive systems?The male urethra contains more normal microbiota than the female urethra.Which structure connects the kidney to the urinary bladder?ureterThe normal pH of the vagina ispH 4.5.Because the (ductus/urethra/ureter) is shorter in females than in males, it can be a portal of entry for pathogens.urethraWhen certain strains of group A Streptococcus infect an individual, sometimes antibody-antigen complexes accumulate in the kidneys. This disease is called __________.glomerulonephritisWhich of the following is NOT a characteristic of UTIs?UTIs are more common in men than in women.Which of the following would you expect to increase the likelihood of cystitis?insertion of a urinary catheterWhich of the following is commonly the source of leptospirosis?infected animal urineDuring the spring calving season, a ranch hand begins to run a fever and feel nauseous and achy. After he develops a headache and vomiting, he goes to a clinic. A microscopic exam of a urine sample reveals long thin microbes which move very rapidly in a corkscrewing pattern. The man may have contractedleptospirosis.The frequent, urgent, and painful urination that often results from urinary tract infections is called (dysuria/cystitis/glomerulonephritis).dysuriaWhich organism causes toxic shock syndrome?Staphylococcus aureusThe majority of cases of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome are diagnosed inmenstruating womenWhich of the following is a characteristic of bacterial vaginosis frequently used to confirm diagnosis?the presence of clue cellsThe presence of the specimen shown in the figure in a vaginal discharge is evidence of infection withCandida albicans.Why does taking antibacterial medications put women at risk for candidiasis?Antibacterials deplete the normal bacterial microbiota, resulting in a change of pH.Which of the following statements is CORRECT regarding the incidence of STDs?Viral STDs in the U.S. are considered epidemic.Which of the following is NOT true of syphilis?Syphilis is diagnosed by observing distinct colonies growing on blood agar plates.A college student visits his physician, complaining of painful urination and a pus-filled discharge from his penis. Examination of that discharge reveals Gram-negative diplococci. What is the likely diagnosis?gonorrheaWhat would be the effect of a mutation that inactivates Neisseria gonorrhoeae's genes for fimbriae?decreased ability to infectUntreated infection of males with Neisseria gonorrhoeae may result insterility.Neisseria gonorrhoeae of the reproductive tract in womenis usually initially asymptomatic.Neisseria gonorrhoeae most commonly infects which of the following in females?the cervixThe typical sign of primary syphilis isa chancre at the site of infection.A distinctive feature of secondary syphilis isa widespread rash that can include the palms and soles.Syphilis can be transmittedboth by sexual contact and from mother to fetus.The noninfective, obligately intracellular forms of chlamydia are calledreticulate bodies.A young adult shows up at a free clinic complaining of painful swellings in the groin. The young woman has a history of occasional casual sex, but denies noticing any genital sores or experiencing painful urination. The young woman is most likely infected withChlamydia trachomatis.Which of the following can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, characterized by fever and abdominal pain?both Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeaeWhen chlamydias spread from the genitalia to the rectum, they can cause an inflammatory process called (PID/proctitis/pyelonephritis).proctitisChlamydia life cycle.Trichomonas vaginalisneisseria gonorrhoeaetreponema pallidumcandida albicansWhich of the following is LEAST likely to be treated with an antibiotic?genital wartsA 28-year-old male who is about to be married has been diagnosed with genital herpes. To avoid complications from the disease and to avoid transmitting the disease to his spouse, his doctor should recommend all of these EXCEPT __________.taking penicillin daily for the next yearThe vaccine for the most common sexually transmitted papilloma viruses is recommended for girls because __________.it may prevent cervical cancerWhich of the following statements is TRUE regarding genital herpes?Acyclovir is effective in reducing the occurrence of lesions, but is not a cure.Some strains of the virus responsible for genital warts can cause the development ofcervical cancer.A lesion known as a whitlow is the result of infection with (chlamydia/herpes/syphilis).herpesObservation of the microbes shown in the figure from a vaginal discharge specimen is diagnostic fortrichomoniasis.A woman goes to her gynecologist and reports that she is experiencing pain during intercourse and frequently has an unusual vaginal discharge that is increased in quantity and sort of foamy. A vaginal smear shows normal appearing epithelial cells along with small leaf-shaped cells with prominent oval nuclei. What disease is the woman experiencing?trichomoniasis